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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Nov 2000
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Sep 2000
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Jul 2000
Volume 24, Issue 3 - May 2000
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Mar 2000
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2000
Selecting the target year
Effect of Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) Mono Thiol on the Stability Properties of Poly(vinyl acetate) Latex
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 579~588
The effects of protective colloids on the colloid stability of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) latex was investigated. The stability of PVAc latex in reactive poly(vinyl alcohol) mono thiol (PVALT) (DP=1080) having 78.4% saponification value was better than poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) (DP=1100) having 81.6% saponification value. The colloidal stability of PVAc latex particles improved drastically with increase of the reactive PVALT. The particle surface morphology of PVAc latex was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was shown that particle size of 1ha latexes decreased with increasing reactive PVALT concentration. Therefore, the stabilities of latex for reactive PVALT protective colloid was superior to that of PVA ones. This result is due to the introduction of many thiol groups that induce chemical bonds at PVAc latexes surface, so that the formation of PVALT-b-PVAc block copolymer via the reaction of PVAc with reactive PVALT. In addition, zeta potential of the PVAc latexes decreased with increasing sodium carbonate concentration.
A Study on the Preparation of UPE Resins with Different Glycol Molar Ratios and Their Physical Properties : 3. Estimation of Viscoelastic and Critical Surface Tension of UPE Liquid Resins
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 589~598
In this study, various unsaturated polyester (UPE) resins were prepared from the condensation polymerization of mixtures of saturated (isophthalic acid : IPA) and unsaturated (maleic anhydride : MA) dibasic acids with propylene glycol (PG), neopentyl glycol (NPG). The critical surface tension (Υ
) for the surface characteristics of a solid were estimated by Zisman plot, and the structure-property relationship was investigated by measuring the rheology of resins. The values of Υ
for glass of solid were 30.5 mNㆍm
for UPE resin liquids. As the content of NPG in a PG/NPG glycol mixture increased, both the contact angle and the surface tension of the UPE resin liquids were found to decrease. The dynamic viscoelasticities of UPE resins with different glycol molar ratios were also measured. Shear rate dependence of viscosity and angular frequency dependence of storage, and loss modulus tended to decrease with increasing NPG content.
Curing Behaviors and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Hosing with Different Glycol Molar Ratios
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 599~609
In order to improve the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester (UPE) resins, the UPE resins with different glycol molar ratios were prepared. The effects of molar ratios of the UPE resins on the curing behaviors and mechanical properties were investigated. The microgel reaction mechanism was employed to characterize the system. It was found that the final conversion increased with increasing NPG molar ratios, and the conversion at the peak of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram appeared to decrease with increasing NPG molar ratios. The flexural strength, tensile modulus, water resistance, and infiltration increased with increasing NPG content, but the tensile strength, tensile elongation, and flexural modulus decreased. Among the UPE resins prepared from the glycols with the molar ratios (PG/NPG) of 0.5/0.5, 0.25/0.75, those of laminated composites plates showed better mechanical properties.
Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Poly(vinyl alcohol) by Low Temperature Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate in Tertiary Butyl Alcohol and the Following Saponification
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 610~620
Vinyl acetate (VAc) was polymerized at 30, 40, and 5
using 2,2'-azobis (2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (ADMVN) and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) as the initiator and the solvent, respectively. High molecular weight (HMW) atactic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared by saponifying the poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) synthesized. The effect of polymerization conditions were investigated in terms of conversion, degree of branching for acetyl group of PVAc, and molecular weight of both PVAc and PVA. The polymerization rate of VAc in TBA was proportional to the 0.49th power of ADMVN concentration in good accordance with the theoretical value of 0.5. HMW-PVA with high yield could be obtained successfully, probably due to lower polymerization temperature and decreased chain transfer reaction rate which was achieved by adopting ADMVN and TBA. PYAc having average degree of polymerization (P
) of 10000~13000 was obtained at the conversion of 35~70%. Saponification of so prepared PVAc yielded PVA having P
of 2400~6100. The syndiotactic diad content increased with decreasing polymerization temperature and increasing VAc concentration due to a steric hindrance effect of TBA during polymerization.
A Study on the Preparation and Hydrophilization of Polypropylene Microfiltration Membrane by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 621~628
Microporous polypropylene (PP) membranes have the high chemical and corrosion resistance, the good mechanical properties and the thermal stability under high temperatures, but its application is restricted within narrow limits due to hydrophobicity of membranes. In order to impart permanent hydrophilicity to the PP microfiltration membrane, the radiation-induced graft of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid (AAc) containing hydrophilic functional group onto the membrane has been studied. The effect of graft conditions such as reaction time, total radiation dose, reaction temperatures, acid compositions on graft yield was investigated. Modified PP membranes were shown to cause an increase in the gas flux. Oil emulsion permeation flux of both original PP membrane and modified PP membrane was examined.
Dispersion Polymerization of Acrylamide in the Media of t-Butyl Alcohol/
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 629~637
Dispersion polymerization of acrylamide in the media of t-butyl alcoho1/
mixtures at 30~5
in the presence of hydroxypropyl cellulose and ammonium persulfate as steric stabilizer and initiator, respectively, was carried out. It was studied the effects of concentrations of initiator and steric stabilizer, amount of monomer, polymerization temperature, t-butyl alcohol/
ratio, concentration of crosslinker, purification of monomer and nitrogen purge on the particle size of the resulting acrylamide latices and molecular weight of the latex-poly(acrylamide). In this study, poly(acrylamide) latices of 0.1~0.5
with 470000~2080000 in (equation omitted) were prepared and the resulting PAM latices were all dissolved in water in stantly.
Synthesis and Characterization of Linear and Star-shaped Poly(lactic acid) Stereo-block Copolymers
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 638~645
Linear and star-shaped, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stereo-block copolymers were synthesized by sequential polymerization of DL-lactic acid and L-lactide in the presence of diol or polyol compounds. The molecular weight of block copolymers could be controlled to some extent by the variation of alcohol content. These block copolymers had relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. The glass transition temperature and melting temperature of block copolymers appeared at around 5
, respectively. The block copolymers were found to crystallize even at the high D-stereoisomer concentration of 35 mol%, in contrast to the amorphous nature of the random copolymer with similar composition. Also we could observe the crystallinity of PLA stereo-block copolymers varying with annealing temperature and time.
-Olefin Catalyzed by rac-(EBI) M(
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 646~655
Polymerizations of higher
-olefins were carried out in toluene by using highly isospecific catalyst, rac-(EBI)M(NMe
(EBI=1,2-ethylenebis-(1-indenyl); M=Zr(rac-1); M=Hf(rac-2)) In the presence of Al(i-Bu)
]. The polymerization of high
-olefin showed high activity and similar polymerization behavior. The polymerization activity was affected by both monomer size and lateral size of polymer chain. The conversion of monomer to polymer decreases with the increased lateral size in the order of 1-pentene>1-hexene>1-octene>1-decene. The same dependences of melting behavior and intrinsic viscosity of polyolefin on lateral size were observed according to the results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and intrinsic viscosity. All poly(
-olefin)s showed very high isotacticity (triad) and the isotacticity increases in the order of poly(1-pentene)
NMR and Raman spectra analysis showed that chain transfer to cocatalyst, which generates saturated methyl groups, Is a main chain termination. The
-hydride eliminations, which generate unsaturated vinylidene, tri-substituted, and vinylene end group. are found to be minor chain terminations.
The Effect of Thermal History Induced by Melt Spinning on the Mechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid Fibers
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 656~663
The Effects of thermal history during the melt spinning process on the mechanical properties and crystallinity of polylactic acid (PLLA) fibers have been studied. Thermal history applied on PLLA during the melt process caused the decrease of number-average molecular weights and this resulted in the lowering of orientation and crystallinity in PLLA fibers. As a result, the longer applied thermal history, the less tensile strength and modulus, and the higher elongation at break. It was also found that primary factor for controlling crystallinity of PLLA fiber was the stress induced crystallization while the thermal induced crystallization had a little effect on the crystallinity of PLLA fibers. However, the thermal induced crystallization turn out to be important in the crystallinity developed by annealing of PLLA fibers.
Study on the Randomness of Poly(ethylene naphthalate)/poly(
-caprolactone) Copolymer by Melt Blending
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 664~672
It is generally agreed that transesterification provides the, copolymer in the melt blending of poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) and poly(
-caprolactone) (PCL). Effects of the conditions of transesterification reaction and catalyst on the degree of randomness and average sequence length of PEN/PCL blends were investigated and results were used to interpret the biodegradability of PEN/PCL blends. It was found that degree of randomness values of obtained copolymer lied between 0 and 1, and it indicated that this blend consisted with physical blends of PEN/PCL and PEN/PCL block copolymers. The degree of randomness reached almost 1 which is the theoretical value of random copolymers and the average sequence length became shorter by the further transesterification reaction. In additions, it was found that the increase of copolymers, especially random copolymers reduced the biodegradability in PEN/PCL blends.
Conductivity Improvement of Polyaniline/Nylon 6 Fabrics
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 673~681
Electrically conductive composites have been prepared by treating fabrics with oxidizing agent and exposing them to aniline, which deposited a substantial amount of conductive polymer within the interstices of the material. However the conductivity of the composite fabrics was limited by the irregular deposition of the conductive polymer layer. To improve the conductivity of polyaniline/nylon 6 composite fabrics, we modified the surface characteristics of nylon 6 fabrics by various plasma treatments and increased diffusion and adsorption of aniline by ultrasonic treatments. By the oxygen plasma treatment, attachment of functional groups such as C-O and C-OH increased on the surface of nylon 6 fiber, which promoted adhesion to polyaniline resulting in the higher add-on and electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivities of polyaniline/nylon 6 composite fabrics were highly increased by ultrasonic treatment, which assisted the diffusion of aniline into the inside of nylon fabrics by cavitation and vibration. Also, the effects of monomer concentration and the number of deposition cycles on the nylon 6 fabric conductivity Were investigated. As a result, the fabric conductivity increased with the monomer concentration and the number of polymerization deposition cycles.
Thermodynamic Characteristics of Blends Involving Polycarbonates and Various Polymethacrylates
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 682~689
The information related to the interaction energy between repeat units is essential for the production of useful polymer blends via molecular structure design. Based on the interaction energies obtained here, a method for the fabrication of miscible blend was suggested. An investigation related to the equilibrium phase behavior of polymer blends of various polycarbonates with various polymethacrylates was performed and then based on the obtained interaction information miscible polymer blends were produced by controling molecular structure of polymer. Binary interaction energies between repeat units were calculated from the lower critical solution temperature-type phase boundary using an equation of state combined with binary interaction model.
Thermally-Expandable Molding Process for Thermoset Composite Materials
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 690~700
In this study, an elastomer-assistered compression molding process was investigated by experiments as well as modeling for the long-fiber reinforced thermoset composites. The consolidation pressure generated by fixed-volume and variable-volume conditions was thermodynamically derived for both elastomer and curing prepregs, and was compared with the pressure measured during curing of epoxy matrix. Exhibiting non-linear viscoelastic characteristics in the compressive stress-strain tests, the measured stress was well compared with a modifed KWW (Kohlrausch-Williame-Watts) equation, which is based on the Maxwell viscoelastic model. Using the developed model equations, the consolidation pressure generated by the elastomer was successfully predicted for the compression molding process of thermoset composite materials in tile closed mold system.
A Study on the Ternary GF/PA/PP Composites Manufactured by Using Pre-impregnated Glass Fiber
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 701~712
The continuous fiber reinforced composites of GF/PA were fabricated using a pultrusion resin impregnation apparatus and cut into pellets of 6 mm length. GF/PA pellets were then melt-mixed with PP resin to prepare new types of ternary composites, GF/PA/PP. Mechanical and rheological properties of such composites revealed to be better than conventional ternary composites due to the longer average glass fibers. Measurements also showed that the mechanical properties of the composites prepared by direct injection molding were higher than those of the composites prepared by injection molding followed by extrusion. To improve adhesions of fiber surfaces and polymer matrix, PP-MAH (maleic anhydride) has been introduced in the GF/PA/PP composites as a compatibilizer. It was found that PP-MAH did indeed improve surface adhesion between fibers and polymer matrix and that, as a result, various mechanical properties were markedly enhanced. Visualization of the phase structure in the samples was done by means of SEM. The surfaces of glass fibers in GF/PA/PP composites revealed that the fibers remained to be encapsulated by PA resin. However, pre-encapsulation did not persist in GF/PA/PP/PP-MAH composites due to the improvement of surface adhesion between fibers and polymer matrix, although resin sticking to the fiber was observed.
Studies on the Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol) Polarizing Film -Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Iodine Complex Film and Its Characterization-
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 713~720
A polymer/iodine complex film was prepared using syndiotactic poly(vinyl alcohol) (s-PVA) with number-average degree of polymerization of 900 and syndiotactic diad content of 63.1%. In comparison with atactic-PVA/iodine films, degree of polarization of the s-PVA/iodine film was improved up to over 99% although a lower transmittance was obtained. By soaking in iodine/potassium iodide aqueous solution of a lower iodine concentration and subsequent drawing by 4 times, s-PVA/iodine film of a higher transmittance and degree of polarization was produced. The degree of iodine desorption of the s-PVA/iodine film in water were very low. The crystallinity and the d-spacing and crystal size of (100) plane increased at the early stage of soaking time, however, remained constant or decreased slightly with increasing soaking time. In consequence, s-PVA/iodine complex formation took place mainly inside crystal region at the initial stage of soaking time, whereas it occurred outside crystal region or physical adsorption of iodine dominated after sufficient soaking.
Fiber Surfaces and Interlaminar Shear Strengths of Electrolytic Ni-plated Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composites
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 721~727
The electrolytic plating of a metallic nickel on carbon fiber surfaces was carried out to improve mechanical interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers and the mechanical interfacial properties of final composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), respectively. It was found that the electrolytic Ni-plating conditions significantly affected the degree of adhesion at interfaces between carbon fibers and epoxy resin matrix in a composite system. Especially, the increase of O,
ratio, production of NiO groups, and formation of metallic nickel on the nickel-plated carbon fiber surfaces led to an increase of the ILSS of the composites. Also, the ILSS of the composites was greatly correlated with the
ratio of the carbon fibers treated in this work.is work.
Preparation of Biodegradable PLGA Microspheres for Sustained Local Anesthesia and Their in vitro Release Behavior
Polymer Korea, volume 24, issue 5, 2000, Pages 728~735
Fentanyl-loaded biodegradable poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (75 : 25 by mole ratio of lactide to glycolide, PLGA) microspheres (MSs) were prepared to study the possibility for long-acting local anesthesia. We developed the fentanyl base (FB, slightly water-soluble)-loaded PLGA MSs by means of conventional O/W solvent evaporation method. The size of MSs was in the range of 10~150
. The morphology of MSs was characterized by SEM, and the in vitro release amounts of FB were analyzed by HPLC. The lowest porous cross-sectional morphology and the highest encapsulation efficiency were obtained by using gelatin as an emulsifier. The influences of several preparation parameters, such as emulsifier types, molecular weights and concentrations of PLGA, and initial drug loading amount, etc., have been observed in the release patterns of FB. The release of FB in vitro was more prolonged over 25 days, with close to zero-order pattern by controlling the preparation parameters. We also investigated the physicochemical properties of FB-loaded PLGA MSs by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter.