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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 25, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Mar 2001
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
Selecting the target year
Effect of Coagulating Conditions on the Morphology of Membrane and Drug Being Impregnated
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 151~160
Polymeric membranes consisting of poly(d,1-lactide) as a polymer matrix and crystallizable progesterone as a drug were prepared by coagulating polymeric solutions. The homogeneous casting solutions in dimethyformamide were solidified by using three different coagulating processes : solvent evaporation under vacuum, solvent extraction via immersion into the nonsolvent bath, or vapor exposure at high humidity condition. With solvent removal via evaporation under vacuum, the cast solution film was vitrified to form a homogeneous film containing progesterone of spherical shape distributed evenly in the film. Being prepared by solvent extraction via immersion into a water bath, the resulting membrane showed an asymmetric structure, with progesterone of big crystallites distributed unevenly in the structure. On the other hand, the coagulation under high humidity transformed the cast film into a sponge-like structure, where progesterone took a shape like flake.
Morphology and Tensile Properties of Polyimide/Polyamideimide Composites from Different Polyimide Precursors
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 160~167
The various compositions of polyimide (PI)/polyamideimide (PAI) composites were prepared by heat treatment of the solvent cast PI precursors/PAI blends. The optical micrographs showed that a good compatibility was observed between poly(amic acid) (PAA) and PAI, but in the case of PAME/PAI mixtures, a phase separation apparently occurred due to the absence of ionic and/or H-bonding forces. Regardless of PI precursors, the similar tensile properties were observed. The tensile modulus of the composites were higher than that of the neat polyimide. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites showed that the chain rearrangement of PI was increased due to the plasticizing effect of PAI, which has lower glass transition temperature than that of PI, during thermal imidization process.
Cure Behaviors of Epoxy Resin Initiated by Methylanilinium Salts as Latent Cationic Curing Agent
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 168~176
The effect of novel N-crotyl-N,N-dimethyl-4-methylanilinium hexafluoroantimonate (CMH) curing agent as a thermal latent initiator on thermal behaviors, rheological properties, and thermal stability of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy cationic system was investigated. From DSC measurements of DGEBA/CMH system, it was shown that this system exhibits an excellent thermal latent characteristic at a given temperature. The conversion and conversion rate of DGEBA/CMH system increased with increasing the concentration of initiator, due to high activity of CMH. Rheological properties of the system were investigated under isothermal condition using a rheometer The gelation time was obtained from the analysis of storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G"), and damping factor (tan
). As a result, the reduction of gelation time was affected by high curing temperature and concentration of CMH, resulting in high degree of network formation in cationic polymerization, due to difference of activity. The thermal stability of the cured epoxy resin was discussed in terms of the activation energy for decomposition and thermal factors determined from TGA measurements.ents.
Studies on Cure Kinetics and Rheological Properties of Difunctional Epoxy/Polysulfone Blend System
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 177~185
In this work, the cure kinetics and rheological properties of difunctional epoxy(diglycidylether of bisphenol A, DGEBA)/polysulfone (PSF) blends were investigated using differential scanning calorimeter and rheometer. From the DSC results of the blends, the temperature of the exothermic peak and cure activation energy (E) using a half-width method were increased with increasing the PSF content to neat epoxy resin up to 30 wt%. However, a marginal decrease in the blend system was shown in E. The conversion (
) and conversion rate (d
/dt) were decreased as the content of PSF increases. Rheological properties of the blend system were investigated under isothermal condition using a rheometer. Cross-linking activation energy (E
) was determined from the Arrhenius equation based on gel time and curing temperature. As a result, the E
showed a similar behavior with E which could be resulted from high viscosity of PSF and the phase separation between DGEBA and PSF.PSF.f PSF and the phase separation between DGEBA and PSF.PSF.
The Structural Effects of Acidic Comonomers in pH/Thermal Sensitive Copolymer Based on N-Isopropylacrylamide on Their LCST Behavior
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 186~198
pH/Thermal sensitive copolymers with the various acidic comonomer compositions composed of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) with acrylic acid (AAc), 2-acrylamido glycolic acid (AAmGAc), and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) were synthesized by free radial polymerization. In this study, to characterize the effect of different acidic comonomer composition and pH on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviors of their copolymers. phase transition experiments were performed with a thermo-optical analyzer (TOA). The phase transition temperature (T
) of aqueous poly(NIPAAm-co-AAc) solution was lowered with increasing the ionization of the acid group in AAc, that is, the ionized state induced the electrostatic repulsion of ionized groups. In contrast, when AAmGAc was introduced into PNIPAAm, T
was little changed at pH 1-3, whereas climbed up significantly from pH 1 to pH 3. In the range of pH 6-10, Tp was lower than that of pH 3-5. This result was considered to be \"Ionic Screen Effect\" and this effect had been also observed in the case of poly(NIPAAm-co-AMPS).-co-AMPS).
Cure Monitoring of Am Epoxy-Anhydride System by Means of Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 199~207
In the present study the cure behavior of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A(DGEBA) using an anhydride-based hardener in the presence of N,N-dimethyl benzyl amine (BDMA) or 1-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole (2E4MZ-CN) as an accelerator has been monitored and interpreted from the viewpoint of photophysical properties by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. To do this, 1,3-bis-(1-pyrene)propane (BPP) was well incorporated in the epoxy resin system by mechanical blending. The BPP probe, which is very sensitive to conformational change of the molecule influenced by the surrounding medium, successfully formed intramolecular excimer fluorescence. It is susceptible to the micro-viscosity or local viscosity and molecular mobility according to the epoxy cure. The cure behavior was explained with monomer fluorescence intensity (
), excimer fluorescence intensity (
ratio as a function of cure time, cure temperature and accelerator. The present work agreed with the previous report on the cure behavior of an epoxy-anhydride system studied using DSC or torsion pendulum method. This study also suggests that the use of fluorescence technique may provide information on cure behavior of a thermosetting resin in a low temperature region, which has not been well interpreted by other analytical methods.
A Study on Fabrication of Polyester Copolymers (IV) - Physical Properties of PET/BPA Copolymer -
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 208~217
PET/BPA copolymer of terephthalic acid, bisphenol-A and ethylene glycol was melt-pressed and quenched in ice water. This copolymer film was drawn by capillary rheometer. Shrinkage, crystallinity, morphology, thermal, dynamic mechanical, and mechanical properties of these copolymer films were investigated. The PET/BPA copolymer film exhibited T
lower than that of PET film. The crystallinity and density of these drawn copolymer films increased with draw ratio and draw rate but decreased with draw temperature. The tensile strength and tensile modulus of the copolymer films increased with draw ratio but decreased with draw temperature. Shrinkage of the drawn copolymer film decreased with draw ratio and draw rate.e.
Studies of Electroless Ni-plating on Surface Properties of Carbon Fibers and Mechanical Interfacial Properties of Composites
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 218~225
The electroless plating of a metallic nickel on PAN-based carbon fiber surfaces was carried out to improve mechanical interfacial properties of the carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites which were unidirectionally fabricated by a prepregging method. In this work, the influence of Ni-P alloy concentration showing brittle-to-ductile transition was investigated on interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and impact strength of the composites. The surface properties of carbon fibers were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the result, the
ratio or Ni and P amounts were increased with increasing electroless nickel plating time but the ILSS were not significantly improved. However, the impact properties was significantly improved in the presence of Ni-P alloy in the carbon fiber surface, resulting in an increase of the ductility of the composites.
Maleic Anhydride Effect on the Properties of Poly(ethrlene terephthalate)/Maleic Anhydride-Grafted PP/Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) Ternary Blends
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 226~232
The properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAgPP)/poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)(PScMA) ternary blend were investigated. The ternary blend was immiscible based on the glass transition temperatures measured by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The degradation of MAgPP during melt mixing for 30 min at 280
did not affect the properties of the ternary blend. The interaction among the components was confirmed from the rheological properties, which was increased with the PSCMA contents. In terms of the mechanical properties, it was observed to satisfy the mixture rule for a multiple system.
Cure Behavior, Compression Set and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of EPDM/NBR Blend Vulcanizates
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 233~239
The ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) blends with acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were prepared by mechanical mixing method. Mooney viscosity, cure behaviors, compression set and dynamic mechanical properties were subsequently examined. Dynamic characteristics of the entire blends determined from a Rheovibron generally showed two glass transitions (T'
for NBR and EPDM, respectively. The tan
peak monotonically shifted toward the higher temperature with increasing NBR content. It was also found that the optimum cure time was significantly decreased with loading of NBR.
Effect of Additives on the Orientation of Magnetic Sr-Ferrite Powders in Powder Injection Molded Compacts
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 240~245
The effect of additives on the orientation of magnetic Sr-ferrite powders has been studied during powder injection molding under applied magnetic field for fabricating multi-pole anisotropic sintered Sr-ferrite magnets. The orientation of the Sr-ferrite powders depends sensitively on the fluidity of powder-binder mixture, related to the binder additives and the injection molding temperature, and the magnetic field intensity. The orientation of Sr-ferrite powders is good for the compacts with stearic acid added in the binder system of paraffin wax/carnauba wax/HDPE, but it is poor for the compacts with silane coupling agent added. The orientation of Sr-ferrites higher than 80% is achieved at the following useful conditions; apparent viscosity lower than 2500 poise in 1000 sec
shear rate and applied magnetic field higher than 4 kOe.
Toughening of Epoxy Resin with PES-CTBN-PES Triblock Copolymers
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 246~253
Amino terminated PES-CTBN-PES triblock copolymer was synthesized from PES oligomer and commercial CTBN rubber (CTBN1300
13), and molecular weight of the copolymer was controlled to be 15000 g/mole. The copolymer was utilized to toughen diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin which was cured with 4,4'-diaminodi-phenylsulfone (DDS) and subjected to the measurement of thermal properties, fracture toughness (
), flexural properties and solvent resistance. The properties were compared with those from the samples modified by CTBN/PES blends. The maximum loading of copolymer into the epoxy resin was 40 wt% without utilizing solvent, at which
fracture toughness of 2.21 MPa
was obtained without sacrificing flexural properties and chemical resistance. However, the epoxy resin modified with PES/CTBN blend exhibited much lower
and flexural properties compared to the epoxy resins toughened by PES-CTBN-PES copolymers.
Preparation and Properties Enhancement of Epoxy Resin Employing Poly(amic acid) (PAA)
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 254~262
Epoxy resin based upon the N,N'-diglycidylaniline which is widely used in optic, electronic and composite material. We modified this epoxy resin with poly(amic acid) (PAA) that is a precursor of polyimide. To improve the mechanical property we controlled PAA content and imidization ratio. PI-modified epoxy blends were prepared for the formation of IPN structure. The possible reaction in the epoxy resin/PAA blends were investigated by FT-IR and inherent viscosity techniques. Thermal properties are measured by TGA, DSC, and TMA. Mechanical properties are measured by UTM and impact test machine. Morphology is investigated by SEM. Thermal stability improved with increasing the content of PAA in blends. As the content of PAA increases in blend, the glass transition temperature and thermal expansion coefficient decreases. Increasing impact strengths in J/m in the range of 920∼2412 were observed in blends. The PAA segment may act as a toughening agent in the epoxy networks, thus contributing the impact strength improvement of the blends.
Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/Clay Nanocomposites
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 263~269
MAPTAC-MMT was prepared by exchanging the mineral cation (sodium montmorillonite) with 3-(methacryloyl amino) propyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, thus rendering the mineral organophilic and forming polymerizable moieties directly bonded to the surface of montmorillonite (MMT). Thermoresponsive nanocomposites (PNIPAM-MMT) were synthesized by polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide in an aqueous suspension of MAPTAC-MMT at room temperature. Thermoresponsive nanocomposites exhibited a low critical solution temperature (LCST) similar to unmodified poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). The LCST of thermoresponsive nanocomposites decreased in proportion to the amount of MAPTAC-MMT. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of thermoresponsive nanocomposites was improved compared to PNIPAM itself the thermoresponsive polymer.
Synthesis of PVA/PVP Hydrogel by Irradiation Crosslinking
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 270~278
Hydrogels for wound dressing were manufactured using poly(vinylalcohol)(PVA) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)(PVP). The hydrogels were obtained by exposing to
-rays after freezing and thawing of aqueous solutions of PVA and PVP to improve mechanical strength. Mechanical properties such as gelation, water absorptivity and gel strength were examined after repeating the \"freezing and thawing\" of PVA/PVP hydrogels, and then irradiating them at 40 kGy. The PVA/PVP ratio was in the range of 30:70 ~ 100:0, and the solid concentration of PVA/PVP was 20 wt%. The gelation and strength of hydrogels were much higher when \"freezing and thawing\" and the irradiation process were used than when only the irradiation process was utilized. In addition, the mechanical properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels after repetition of \"freezing and thawing\" are discussed. thawing\" are discussed.ssed.
Synthesis and Cholesteric Mesophase Properties of (Hydroxypropyl)celluloses, Their Ester and Ether Derivatives
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 279~292
Two kinds of (hydroxypropyl)cellulose(HPCs) with different molar substitution (MS) and three types of derivatives based on the HPCs: (acetoxypropyl)celluloses, (ethoxypropyl)celluloses, and (cyanoethoxyprofyl)celluloses were synthesized, and their thermal and mesomorphic properties were investigated. All samples, which exhibit cholesteric reflection colours at room temperature, formed right-handed helicoidal structures whose optical pitches (λ
) increase with temperature. However, the isotropization (
) and glass temperatures, the magnitude of λ
of the mesophase at the same temperature, and the temperature dependence of λ
of the investigated derivatives highly depended on MS and the length and structure of the side chain introduced in HPC. The results were discussed in terms of the difference in the polarity and flexibility of the substituents and the distance between the main chains. For all derivatives, Am values approached infinity at temperatures above the
, of the mesophase, and no reversal in the sense of the pitch with temperature was detected.
Properties of Conductive Polymer Composite Films Fabricated under High Intensity Electric Fields : Effect of CF Sizing Treatment
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 293~301
Electrically conductive carbon fiber/high density polyethylene (CF/HDPE) composite films were fabricated by new method, so called electron-ion technology (EIT) and the effects of CF epoxy sizing on the volumetric resistivity. tensile strength and interphase properties of the films were investigated. While epoxy sizing increased conductivity of composite films resulting from enhanced tunneling effect it reduced interphase adhesion between CF and HDPE because polar epoxy sizing and nonpolar HDPE are incompatible. Consequently epoxy sized CF(CF(S)) caused significant reduction in the volumetric resisitivity and tensile strength of composite films when compared with unsized CF(CF(U)). Epoxy sizing reduced nucleating efficiency of CF(S), therefore CF(S)/HDPE composite films showed nonuniform transcrystalline layer when compared with CF(U)/HDPE composite films.
Adhesion Improvement of Electroless Copper Plated Layer on PET Film - Effect of Pretreatment Conditions -
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 2, 2001, Pages 302~310
Cu/PET film composites were prepared by electroless copper plating method. In order to improve adhesion between electroless Cu plated layer and polyester (PET) film, the effect of pretreatment conditions such as etching method and mixed catalyst composition, and accelerator was investigated. Compared to NaOH etching medium, PET film was more finely etched by HCl solution, resulting in an improvement in adhesion between Cu layer and PET film. However, there were no significant differences in electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness as a function of etching medium. The surface morphology of Cu plated PET film revealed that Pd/Sn colloidal particles became more evenly distributed in the smaller size by increasing the molar ratio of PdCl
from 1 : 4 to 1 : 16. With increasing the molar ratio of mixed catalyst, the adhesion and the shielding effectiveness of Cu plated PET film were increased. Furthermore, HCl was turned out to be a better accelerator than NaOH in order to enhance the activity of the mixed PdCl
catalyst, which facilitated the formation of more uniform copper deposit on the PET film.