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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 25, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Mar 2001
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
Selecting the target year
The Synthesis of Crystalline-Size Controlled Organic Pigment by Microwave Energy
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 609~616
The application of microwave technology to synthesis of polymer in solvent media has been shown by the synthesis of copper phthalocyanine (CUPc). The increase of synthetic yield-was demonstrated successfully in this study. A power variable microwave synthetic system has been developed with modifying cavity of domestic microwave oven and attaching microwave power controller. The properties of the specimen synthesized at various condition under the conventional thermal processing and microwave processing has been characterized by the means of chemical analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and particle size analysis (PSA).
h Study on the Preparation of PMMA/PSt Composite Particles by Sequential Emulsion Polymerization
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 617~624
The core-shell composite latexes were synthesized by stage emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (St) with ammonium persulfate after preparing monomer pre-emulsion in the presence of anionic surfactant. However, in preparation of core-shell composite latex, several unexpected results are observed, such as, particle coagulation, low degree of polymerization, and formation of new particles during shell polymerization. To solve the disadvantages, We study the effect of initiator concentrations, surfactant concentrations, and reaction temperature on the core-shell structure of polymethyl methacrylate/polystyrene and polystyrene/polymethyl methacrylate. Particle size and particle size distribution were measured using particle size analyzer, and the morphology of the core-shell composite latex was determined using transmission electron microscope. Glass temperature was also measured using differential scanning calorimeter. To identify the core-shell structure, pH of the two composite latex solutions were measured.
Synthesis and Properties of New Polymeric Photostabilizers Containing HALS Groups
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 625~634
New polymeric photostabilizers containing hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) were prepared by the reaction of liquid polyisoprene rubber grafted maleic anhydride (MAH) and 2,2,5,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol (TMPO). Their chemical composition and physical properties were characterized by titration, GPC and TGA analysis. The effects of polymeric HALS on the photooxidation of the styrene-butadiene rubber were studied from the UV, IR spectral changes, and photo-crosslinking was examined by the measurement of the insoluble fraction. The photooxidation of SBR upon irradiation was inhibited by addition of the new polymeric HALS. The extraction resistance of new polymeric photostabilizer was much better than that of the low molecular weight compound which is prepared by the reaction of MAH and TMPO. The new polymeric HALS ate fairly compatible with the SBR.
-Cyclodextrinized Cellulosic Fiber and Deodouring Property
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 635~641
f-Cyclodextrine/benzoic acid complex was prepared and reacted with cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine). Identification of complex formation and reaction was checked by FT-IR, UV-Vis, and EDX. By reacting this material with cotton fiber, the deodourant fiber was prepared. The deodourizing property was evaluated by the concentration changes of aqueous ammonia solution after flowing ammonia gas through the column titled with deodourant fiber prepared. The deodourizing property was increased with an increase of concentration of
-cyclodextrine unit in the fiber. In the case of
-cyclodextrine/benzoic acid complex, the deodourzing property was much increased, comparing with the
-cyclodextrine only. It was considered to be the binding of aamonia gas caused by benzoic acid in the complex.
Multi-functional Finish of Polypropylene Nonwoven by Photo-induced Graft Polymerization (II) - Grafting of Styrene and Its Ammonia Adsorption Behavior -
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 642~648
An attempt was made to synthesize an ammonia adsorbent by the photo-induced grafting of styrene (St) onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven using benzoin ethyl ether (BEE) as a photosensitizer with urea and trimethylol propane triacrylate in methanol medium. As styrene concentration was increased, the graft yield was increased. It was also found that the graft yield increased with reaction time. The polypropylene grafted with styrene (PP-g-St) was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid in dichloroethane and complexed with several metal ion, such as
. The amount of ammonia gas adsorbed by these sample was dependent on the degree of sulfonation, adsorption time, and ammonia gas pressure. The adsorption capacity of ammonia gas by the sulfonated PP-g-St(SPP-g-St) nonwoven with 4. 25 mmol
/g was 6.61 mmol/g. Metal ion complexed SPP-g-St nonwovens had higher adsorption capacity than SPP-g-St nonwoven and the
complexed SPP-g-St showed 9.90 mmol
/g, which was much higher than that of active carbon or silica gel.
Poly(4-vinylpyridine)/Vinyl Acetate-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Blends : 9. Phase. Behavior
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 649~656
Miscibility of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) blends with poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) (VAc-VAL copolymers) was investigated as a function of comonomer composition of VAc-VAL copolymers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-optical microscopic (TOM) analysis confirmed that P4VP is miscible with VAc-VAL copolymers containing more than 30 mole% VAL. Fourier transform inflated (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the strong intermolecular hydrongen bonding interaction between the vinylpyridine and VAL hydroxyl group was formed. Theoretical phase diagram was constructed by the calculation using the Association model, a thermodynamic model for hydrogen-bonded polymer blend systems developed by Coleman et al. The calculated theoretical binodal phase diagrams were in good agreement with the experimentally determined cloud point curves.
Study on the Crosslinking Characteristics of LDPE and LLDPE by
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 657~664
In this study. the effects of
-irradiation on the crosslinking of low density poly ethylene (LLDPE) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) containing crosslinking agents were investigated to find the degree of crosslinking in the polymer. The LDPE and LLDPE specimens were prepared by blending crosslinking agents with each polymers, and by hot-press-molding into a sheet at 13
-irradiation was conducted at 50 to 150 kGy in nitrogen. The crosslinking percentage in these specimens was measured in relation to the irradiation dose and the type of crosslinking agents. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and crystallinity of specimens were examined as a function of irradiation dose as well. It was found that the degree of crosslinking of the irradiated specimens was increased with increasing irradiation dose and by the addition of crosslinking agents. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of specimens were improved in proportion to an increase in the degree of crosslinking. The crystallinity of original resin was decreased with increasing crosslinking density
Solvent Extraction of Polyethylene Glycol by Ethanol in Powder Injection Molded Compacts
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 665~670
The solvent extraction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) by ethanol has been studied for the powder injection molded compacts of Sr-ferrite/PEG/carnauba wax/HDPE. The extraction rate of PEG is sensitively proportional to the solvent temperature whereas it is inversely proportional to the contents of PEG, the molecular weight of PEG. and the specimen thickness. The high extraction rate of PEG is achieved under the following conditions: solvent temperature of
, PEG contents of 30%, and PEG molecular weight of 400 g/mol. In the early stage of solvent extraction, the non-linear relationship between the extraction rate and the square root of the extraction time indicates that the extraction of PEG does not follow the Fickian behavior. At extraction times longer than 180 min. however, the extraction of PEG follows the Fickian behavior. The extraction fate of PEG by ethanol is about
enough for common applications.
Molecular Interactions of Soaked Nonionic Dye in Ionomer Films
;;;;;;Forrest A. Landis;Robert B. Moore;
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 671~678
Sodium and zinc salts of poly(ethyaene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomers consist of three phases, i.e. ionic aggregates, amorphous, and crystalline phases. Dye molecules after soaked from the methanol solution are located near the amorphous phase or ionic aggregates within ionomer films. Depending on the location of the molecules in the ionomer film, they are under influence of dispersion forces (ethylene parts), polar forces (acid parts). and ionic dipole (ionic aggregates) interactions. The UV/Vis absorption peak of Nile Red under the dispersion force is found at near 500 nm, for the dye under the polar force effect 525 nm, and 550 and 610 nm for the dyes under
ionization effects, respectively. Since the divalent
ion has larger ionic dipole than the monovalent
ion, the larger red-shift of the absorption band due to the ionic dipole interaction is observed for
Cell Opening of High Resilience Polyurethane Foam I. Concentration Effect of Polyether Type Cell Opener
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 679~690
High resilience PU foams were prepared with polyether type cell opener. The influences of cell opener concentration on the kinetics, rheology, structural stability morphology and open cell content of the obtained foam were investigated and the role of cell opener during cell opening was determined. And mechanical properties as a function of cell opener concentration were studied. It was observed that urea formation reaction was delayed due to high hydrophilicity of cell opener The decrease of viscosity and the increase of tan
were confirmed with increasing cell opener concentration so that the resulted foam had low structural stability and high open cell content. The deterioration of matrix and uniform dispersion of hydrogen-bonded urea in matrix with cell opener concentration was revealed by SEM analysis. As a result, elastic properties of the foam matrix were decreased due to high hydrophilicity of cell opener during the preparation of high resilience polyurethane foam and foam with high open cell content resulted. Hardness, tensile strength, tear strength, elongation of foam were decreased with increasing cell opener concentration.
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy/Organically Modified Mica Type Silicate (OMTS) Nanocomposites
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 691~698
Nanocomposites based on epoxy acid nanoclay were prepared employing organically modified mica type silicate (OMTS), diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) type epoxy. curing agent (dicyandiamide; DICY), and catalyst (benzyl dimethyl amine; BDMA). Both melt mixing and solution mixing were und for the sample preparation and structural developments with curing reaction were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Because of the different curing rate between extra-gallery and intra-gallery reactions of epoxy mixtures, only intercalated structure was observed for the sample prepared by melt mixing while fully exfoliated structure was observed for the sample prepared by solution mixing. Mechanical properties of exfoliated epoxy nanocomposite were investigated using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The dynamic storage modulus of the nanocomposite in both glass and rubbery plateau regions were increased with increasing OMTS contents, but glass transition temperatures (
) remained unchanged. Thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite were investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) and limit oxygen index (LOI) methods. Thermal decomposition onset points and LOI values were increased with increasing OMTS contents due to barrier effects of OMTS sheets.
Effect of Uniaxial Drawing Conditions on the Orientation of Poly (ethylene 2,6- naphthalate)
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 699~706
The effects of uniaxial drawing conditions on the molecular orientation of poly (ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PEN) are investigated. Birefringence measurements show that the orientation is significantly enhanced at high draw ratio, low drawing temperature, and fast drawing speed. The characteristics of orientation examined by FTIR- ATR dichroism method represent almost same results. Amorphous orientation function increases with drawing rate at
, but it decreases with drawing rate at
. These behaviors can be explained with the relation between crystallization and chain relaxation rates. It is observed that the orientation of PEN film is accompanied by significant alignment of the naphthalene rings of PEN parallel to the film surface.
Phase Morphology and Foaming of Polypropylene/Ethylene-octene Copolymer Blends
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 707~718
Polypropylene (PP) exhibits many beneficial properties such as low density high thermal stability, chemical resistance, good processability and recyclability. However, only limited research has been done on expanded polypropylene (EPP). In this study, we were trying to prepare EPP with chemical blowing agent. Ethylene-octene copolymer (mPE) was melt blended with PP to enhance melt fluidity of PP at processing temperature and to make more flexible foamed material. Prior to foaming, phase morphology of PP/mPE blends were investigated to examine the effect of phase morphology on the foaming ratio and cell structure of foams. Phase morphology of PP/mPE blends were affected by the content of mPE and mixing torque ratio. At the same composition, it was affected by mixing rpm. High blowing ratio and stable cell structure were obtained in the blend which has the continuous PP matrix with dispersed droplets of mPE.
Charge-Carrier Transport Properties and Fluorescence Behaviors Depending on Charge Transport Complex of Organic Photoconductor Containing Liquid Crystal
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 719~727
Recently it was found that the charge carrier transport properties are significantly enhanced due to effective intermolecular
-orbital overlapping and low disorder of hopping sites caused by self-organization of liquid crystal molecules. In this study, the xerographic properties of a double-layer photoconductor doped with nematic liquid crystal, 4-pentyl-4'-cyanoterphenyl (5CT), as a charge-carrier transport material to enhance the charge-tarrier mobility were investigated. From the results of measured surface voltage properties for the photoconductor doped with various concentrations of liquid crystal, 5CT, the initial voltage was found to increase with the concentration of 5CT and the dark decay decreased with the concentration of 5CT. The highest sensitivity was obtained at a specific concentration, 40wt% 5CT. The fluorescence behavior of the carrier transport layer (CTL) was also investigated. It was found that the charge-carrier transport properties of the organic photoconductor depend on the charge-carrier transport properties of the complex. The TNF : 5CT (40 wt%) and OXD : 5CT (40 wt%)samples showed the highest sensitivity because the greatest charge transport complex was termed between the charge-carrier transport materials in these samples.
Preparation and Characterization of Hydrogels of PVA and PVP Containing Chitosan by Radiation
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 728~735
In this study, hydrogels from mixtures of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan/poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) were prepared by
-ray irradiation, and the mechanical properties such as gelation, water absorptivity and gel strength were examined to evaluate the applicability of these for wound dressing. The PVA : chitosan and PVP : chitosan ratio were in the range of 97:3 ~ 90:10, and the solid concentration of PVA/chitosan and PVP/chitosan solution were 15 wt%. Gamma irradiation with doses of 25, 35, 50, 60 and 70 kGy, was exposed to mixtures of PVA/chitosan and PVP/chitosan to evaluate the effect of irradiation dose. Gel content and gel strength increased as chitosan concentrations in PVA/chitosan and PVP/chitosan decreased, and as irradiation dose increased. Swelling degree increased as chitosan concentrations in PVP/chitosan and PVA/chitosan increased, and as irradiation dose decreased.
Synthesis and Characterization of Electro-Active Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) Polymer Gel Actuator
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 736~743
An electro- active polymer (EAP) (poly(2-acrylamido-2- methyl propane sulfonic acid), PAMPS) gel crosslinked with N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) has been prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution with potassium persulfate as initiator PAMPS gel was swollen in surfactant solution to substitute surfactant for using as actuator. PAMPS gel showed a large movement in the surfactant solution by electric field. PAMPS gel showed the reversible binding and fast response rate. Bending mechanism of gel is related to the cooperative process of hydrophobic interaction, swelling-deswelling of gel and the electrostatic attraction between anode (+) and the anions of PAMPS gel. The response rate of PAMPS gel was increased as the applied potential and the degree of cross-linkage were increased. The response rate was increased as the bending cycle was repeated, but it was decreased with increasing the gel thickness.
Interpretation of Morphology and Rubber-Phase Particle Size Distribution of High Impact Polystyrene
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 744~753
One of the most important factors which affect the impact strength of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) is the rubber-phase particle size and size distribution. In this study, HIPS was prepared from a batch reactor to observe the influence of reaction conditions such as rubber content, agitation speed and prepolymerization time on the particle size and size distribution. Measurements concerning the particle size distribution were conducted using a particle size analyzer. Due to swelling, the particle suspended in toluene increases in size with lower heat-treatment temperature and shorter heat-treatment time, while the particle in methyl ethyl ketone shows quite reasonable size without any effort of heat-treatment. As rubber content increases, the average particle size increases substantially, but the increase in agitation speed at lower rubber contents does not have much influence on the size. However, the polystyrene-phase particles occluded in rubber-phase become more uniform as agitation speed increases. Longer prepolymerization time produces rubber-phase particles with narrower particle size distribution.
Synthesis of Inner Vacant Polymer Spheres
Polymer Korea, volume 25, issue 5, 2001, Pages 754~758
In order to use vesicle as a space of polymerization, monomer and cross-linking agent were put into hydrophobic part of vesicle. The vesicle solution of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide was formed by ultrasonication. Styrene and divinylbenzene were put into this solution and polymerization was conducted by adding AIBN. The polymer with sphere-shaped structure was obtained by removing all of the surfactant by extraction of ethanol And using methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, this sphere-shaped polymer structure was also formed.