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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Nov 2002
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Sep 2002
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Jul 2002
Volume 26, Issue 3 - May 2002
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Mar 2002
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
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Studies on the Synthesis of Aminated PP-g-GMA Fibrous ion Exchanger by E-beam Pre-irradiation and Their Properties of Selective Adsorption for
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 153~159
In order to remove
ion from ground-water, fibrous ion -exchangers, APP-g-GMA, were synthesized by GMA grafting onto PP trunk polymer with E-beam accelerator for pre-irradiation. Their degrees of grafting and amination yield increased up to
and showed maximum values as 133%, 88%, respectively. And their swelling ratio and ion exchange capacity at the maximum values are 86%, 2.5 meq/g, respectively which was higher than commercial ion-exchangers such as IMAC HP555 and Amberlite IRA 400. Optimum adsorption condition of
ion was measured at pH 5~6 and -Cl form of APP-g-GMA containing trimethylammonium group showed the highest adsorption capacity.
Synthesis of Aminated Hollow PP-g-GMA Fibrous Ion-Exchanger for Separation of Urokinase
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 160~167
We synthesized HPP-g-GMA copolymer using pre-irradiation method by E-beam and aminated HPP-g-GMA using amination reaction. Degree of grafting increased with increasing GMA monomer concentration and showed the maximum value of 130% at 1.46 M of GMA. The degree of amination increased with increasing the degree of grafting. When the degree of grafting was 100%, degree of amination showed the maximum value of 37.4%. The ion exchange capacity of aminated HPP-g-GMA was about 3.78 meq/g, and it showed remarkable adsorption ability of hollow fiber ion exchanger. Through the BET analysis, the surface area of aminated HPP-g-GMA was 54.83
and the mean pore size was
. These showed the decrease of surface area and the slight increase of the mean pore size. SEM results show that the thickness of fiber increased after the step of reaction and there pore blocking phenomena was not observed. The aminated HPP-g-GMA was synthesized successfully and found to be suitable for the adsorption and separation of anion.
Preparation of Poly(vinyl butyral) by Precipitation Method and Its Characterization
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 168~173
Poly (vinyl butyral) (PVB) was synthesized by acetalization of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) PVB was prepared in particulate forms in water, and chemical and physical properties of the products were characterized using various techniques. The prepared PVB had size distribution from 100 to 700
with mean diameter of about 380
. The chemical structure of PVB was characterized using FT/IR and NMR, and the average degree of acetalization was determined to be 77% from the titration measurement. DSC data showed that the crystalline structure of PVA vanished as acetalization reaction proceeded to produce PVB, and the glass transition temperature emerged at about
. TGA data showed that PVB was much more thermally stable than PVA, and showed no degradation up to
. Solubility test showed that PVB was soluble in alcohols but Insoluble in water, being totally different from PVA.
Characterization and Biocompatibility with Dispersed Solutfon of PLA-POE-PLA Block Copolymer
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 174~178
PLLA-POE-PLLA block copolymers were prepared using PLLA and POE with different compositions. Copolymers were obtained in high yield and the polydispersity of the copolymers was very narrow. A dispersed solution of 0.1 g/mL of PLLA-POE-PLLA copolymer was mixed with a dispersed solution of 0.1 g/mL of PDLA-POE-PDLA copolymer. Gel formation was observed from the mixed product obtained at the human body temperature of
. The mixed product comprising PDLA-POE-PDLA and PLLA-POE-PLLA was found to have higher cloud points than that of PLLA-POE-PLLA copolymer. The cloud points decreased with increasing the concentration of the mixed copolymer dispersed solution.
Thermal and Electrical Properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylener)-Based Proton Conducting Gel-Electrolytes
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 179~184
Polymer electrolyte films consisting of poly (vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoro-propylene) (PVdF-HFP)
and a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC),
-butyrolactone(BL) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC) were examined in order to obtain the best compromise between high protonic conductivity, homogeniety and dimensional stability. Measurements of differential scanning calorimetry and ionic conductivity have been carried out for various compositions. The highest proton conductivity of 7.3
were obtained for a film of 30(PVdF-HFP) + 50EC/DMC + 20H
. From the thermal study, it has been found that the PVdF-HFP gels are stable up to
, and the
enhances the miscibility of the polymer and the solvent by interacting sensitively with polymer segments.
Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams Synthesized from 4,4
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 185~192
Rigid polyurethane foams (PUFs) were prepared from polymeric 4.4'-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (PMDI), polyether polyol, 1,4-butane diol, silicone surfactant, and distilled water. The density of the PUF was decreased from 173.7 to 41.7 kg/㎥ with an increase in distilled water from 0.5 to 3.0 php (parts per hundred polyol by weight), respectively, at the 0 php butane diol. The cell size of the PUF increased from 115 to 258
with an increase in the amount of distilled water from 0.5 to 3.0 php, respectively, at the 10 php butane diol. It was found that the compressive strength of the PUF increased with the content of distilled water, at the same density. Out of the study for the surfactant effect on the properties of the PUF, it was observed that the cell site of the PUF decreased from 360 to 146
with an increase in the amount of the surfactant from 0 to 0.33 php, respectively, but the tell size did not change significantly when the amount of the surfactant exceeded 0.33 php.
Physical Properties and Flame Retardancy of PU Coatings Polymerized with Two Different Types of Isocyanates and Dichloro-Polyester Polyol
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 193~199
The dichloro-polyester polyol (DCBAO) which was synthesized in our earlier work was cured at room temperature with two different type of curing agents including Desmodur N-3300 and Desmodur L-75 to get a polyurethane flame-retardant coatings (DCBAO/N-3300=DEBAN and DCBAO/L-75=DCBAL). We could not observe any deterioration of physical properties of the flame-retardant PU coatings (UCBAN and DCBAL) in comparison with the conventional PU coatings. Thermal resistance of DCBAL-type flame-retardant coatings, which was measured by yellowness index difference, was inferior to that of DCBAL-type PU coatings. We believe that this phenomena is attributed to the poor thermal resistance of Desmodur L-75 isocyanate. It was observed that the LOI values were 25∼26% for the PU coatings containing 20∼30 wt% of 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid.
Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethane Flame-Retardant Coatings Containing Trichloro Lactone Modified Polyesters
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 200~208
Two-component polyurethane flame-retardant coatings were prepared by blending trichloro lactone modified polyesters (TAPTS) and isocyanate, Desmodur IL. Polycondensation reaction of trichlorobenzoic acid (TBA) as a flame-retardant component, and adipic acid with trimethylolpropane, polycaprolactone 0201, and 1,4-butanediol gave the corresponding TAPTs. The content of TBA was adjusted from 10 to 30 wt% in our experiment. It was found that various properties of these new flame-retardant coatings were comparable to other non-flame-retardant coatings. We also carried out three different tests for the measurement of flammability of flame -retardant coatings. The results of vertical burning test for the coatings containing more than 20 wt% of TBA were determined as 'no burn'. The results of flammability test for the coatings with 20 and 30 wt% of TBA contents indicated the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values of 25% and 27% respectively, which implied relatively good flame retardancy. They also showed the char length of 3.6-5.2 cm according to
Meckel burner test, which can be classified as the first grade flame-retardant coatings.
Mechanism of Orientation of Liquid Crystal Molecules for Polarized UV-exposed Polyimide Alignment Layers
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 209~217
We studied the mechanism of orientation of polyimide molecules which were irradiated by polarized UU (PUV) using polarized Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, According to the measured UV spectra, we found PI films mainly absorb UV light less than 350 nm wavelength, therefore, UV light less than 360 nm induces photochemical reaction of PI. PUV irradiation of PI films caused decrease of all peak intensities in the FT-IR spectra. except the newly formed broad peak at
, due to degradation of the PI molecules. The remaining PI molecules after photo-degradation showed predominantly perpendicular molecular orientation to the irradiated PUV polarization direction, due to the preferential degradation of PI molecules parallel to irradiated PUV polarization direction. However the rubbing of PI films induced reorientation of the PI molecules parallel to the rubbing direction. We also investigated the alignment of the liquid crystal by rubbing or PUV irradiation. Liquid crystals align perpendicular to the PUV polarization direction and parallel to the rubbing direction.
Cell Opening of High Resilience Polyurethane foam II. Structure Effect of Polyether Type Cell Opener
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 218~226
For the preparation of high resilience polyurethane (PU) foams with polyether type cell openers which have different ethylene oxide (EO) content, molecular weight and chain structure, the influences of tell opener structure on the kinetics, rheology, structural stability, open cell content and mechanical properties of the obtained foam were investigated. It was observed that urea formation reaction was delayed with the increase of EO content and incorporation of ester linkage in cell opener molecule and was relatively independent on the molecular weight. With the rheological studies, the decreases of viscosity and storage modulus were confirmed for the increase of EO content and molecular weight, so that the resulted foam had low structural stability and high open cell content. The cell opener having ester linkage in molecule exhibited the lowest values of viscosity and storage modulus and the obtained foam has high open cell content. However, the structural stability increased due to the larger intermolecular interaction of ester linkage. The hardness, tensile strength, tear strength and elongation of foam were deteriorated with increase of EO content and molecular weight of tell opener. On the other hand, the cell opener having ester linkage in molecule improved the values of tensile strength, tear strength and elongation.
Preset State of Thermoreversible Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/propylene Carbonate Gel System: 1. Core-Shell Model
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 227~236
The structure of pregel state in thermoreversible poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF) /propylene carbonate(PC) system was investigated by laser light scattering. It was found that the PVDF chain did not exist as a separate chain even in a very dilute concentration(i.e. 100 times more dilute than the gel formation concentration) but as a large spherical aggregate with the radius of gyration
, of 232 nm and the effective hydrodynamic radius
= of 407 nm at
. Based upon experimental results such as
=ratio of 1.75 and the pattern of scattering intensity with a minimum, a core-shell type sphere model was suggested as a structure of the aggregate. According to this model, the radius of core part was estimated as 215 nm, the shell thickness as 192 nm, and the ratio of monomer density of the shell part to that of the core part as about 0.075.
Flow Characteristics, Mechanical Properties and Chemical Resistance of Polycarbonate/Polybutylene Terephthalate/Impact Modifier Blends
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 237~244
Mechanical properties, flow characteristics and chemical resistance of polycarbonate (PC)/polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) /impact modifier (IM) blends were investigated over the various composition ranges of PC and PBT. Mechanical properties of the PC/PBT/IM blends for different IMs, butadiene based IM and butyl acrylate based IM, were studied for various compositions of the IMs. Impact strength at low temperature was also observed. For the study of chemical resistance of the PC/PBT/IM blends, the blonds were dipped in organic solvent, thinner, and then variations of mechanical properties were analyzed. Tensile and flexural strengths were increased linearly and heat distortion temperature (HDT) also increased as PC content in the blends increased. Impact strength increased drastically as PC content increased up to 50 wt% and stayed stable value. Flowability decreased as PC content increased. Impact strengths of the blend were various for different IMs. Butyl acrylate based IM showed slightly higher impact strength than butadiene based IM for the temperature above
. However, butadiene based IM showed remarkably higher impact strength than butyl acrylate based IM for the temperature below
. Through the experiment of chemical resistance it was observed that tensile and flexural strengths decreased, and impact strength increased as PC content in the blends increased. PC in the blend would become mild and ductile when it contacted with organic solvent. Thus the impact strength increased while tensile and flexural strength decreased.
Thermodynamic Characteristics of PMMA/PVME Blends Containing Compatibilizer and Their Gas Transport Properties
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 245~252
Thermodynamics and gas transport properties of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blends with polyvinylmethylether (PVME) containing various amount of poly (styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) copolymer (P(S-b-MMA)) as a compatibilizer were studied. To extract interaction energies of binary pairs involved in the blends from the phase separation temperatures using an equation-of-state theory, PVME blends with methylmethacrylate copolymers containing various amount of styrene (SMMA) were prepared. PVME formed miscible blends with methylmethacrylate copolymers containing more than 70 wt% styrene and these miscible blonds showed a LCST-type phase separation behavior. Based on the interaction information obtained here, P(S-b-MMA) copolymer was added to the PMMA/PVME blends to enhance their compatibility. The average diameter of the dispersed rubber particles was gradually decreased for the blends of containing P(S-b-MMA) from 0 to 5 phr and then leveled off at a fixed size. At a fixed bland composition, the gas permeation was also increased as the P(S-b-MMA) content increased from 0 to 5 phr and then leveled off when the P(S-b-MMA) content was higher than 5 phr.
Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorinated Poly (maleimide-co-methacrylate)s for Optical Waveguiding Materials
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 253~259
The objective of this study is to obtain thermally stable and low optical loss polymers for optical waveguiding materials. The crosslinkable poly (maleimide-co-methacrylate)s were synthesized using a pentafluorophenylmaleimide (an optical loss reducer), two methacrylate derivatives (refractive index controllers), and a glycidylmethacrylate (a crosslinker). These copolymers exhibited good thermal stability and could be thermally crosslinked by heat treatment. The refractive indexes of the copolymers could be precisely controlled by the variation of comonomer feed ratio, which was in the range of 1.45 ~ 1.49. These copolymers had very low birefringence of
. These copolymers were crosslinked by contact printing and then developed by wet etching to obtain high quality waveguide pattern.
Fire Resistance Study of PP Thermoplastic Composites with Particulate Reinforcements and Br Flame Retardants
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 260~269
The fire resistance of particulate polypropylene composite systems were investigated by using various reinforced particles such as zeolite, talc,
particles. In this study, The effect of particle size on the thermal properties of composite and the effect of reinforced particles on the fire resistance were studied. The inorganic reinforced particles used in this study were recycled zeolite(average particle diameter=85.34
), and talc (18.51
). The fire resistance of composite systems was thoroughly examined by measuring limited oxygen index (LOI, ASTM D2863) and cone calorimetry (ASTM E1354, ISO 5660). Thermal stability of composite systems was thoroughly examined by measuring TGA. The flame retardants (DBDPO) and reinforced particles reduce the maximum heat release rate (M-HRR) in the order of Talc >
> recycled Zeolite. Comparing the cone calorimetry experimental results of the particle reinforced polymer composite system exhibited twice higher efficiency than DBDPO in polypropylene systems, and the LOI also showed similar trends to the cone calorimetry experiments. The optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate the composites ash layer and the core fracture surfaces in the burning process. The reinforcing inorganic particles seemed to accumulate at the surface of ash layer, and subsequently intercept the oxygen transport and heat transfer into the core area.
The Impact fracture Behaviors of Low Density LD Carbon/Carbon Composites by Drop Weight Impact Test
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 270~278
In this study, the fracture behavior by low velocity impact damage and the tendencies of impact energy absorption were investigated. Low velocity impact tests were performed using a mini tower drop weight impact tester, and graphite powder, carbon black and milled carton fiber were chosen as additives. Addition of graphite powder increased the maximum load and maintained the stress long until the total penetration happened. At the content of 9 vol%, they showed the maximum of 42% improvement in impact strength compared composites containing no additives. At the test with low impact energy of 0.4 J, impact energy was consumed by delamination in the composite containing no additives, however, as graphite contents increased, the tendency of failure changed to the penetration of the specimen.
Immobilization and Grafting of Acrylic Acid on Polyethylene Surface by Ar-plasma Treatment
Polymer Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2002, Pages 279~286
For surface modification of polymers with hydrophilic functional groups, acrylic acid was grafted and immobilized on the surface of polyethylene(PE) by cold-plasma treatment using Ar gas. The modifications were identified by analysis of ATR-IR spectrum and by the measurement of contact angles. Compared to virgin PE significant decreases in contact angle were observed for both the grafted PE and the immobilized PE. The decreases of contact angle were in the range of 47~
for grafted PE and 23~
for immobilized PE. The degree of hydrophilicity depended strongly on the plasma-treating time and discharge power. For the case of grafting it has show that the longer plasma-treating time, the higher hydrophilic character. For the case of immobilization, whereas, higher discharge power and longer exposure to plasma have shown the detrimental effect for the preparation of hydrophilic PE surface due to the decrease of carboxyl group by ablation effect. The decrease in adhesion strength of immobilized PE. compared to grafted PE, was also attributed to the ablation of carboxyl group.