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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Nov 2003
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Sep 2003
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Jul 2003
Volume 27, Issue 3 - May 2003
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Physical Properties and Flame-Retardant Effects of Polyurethane Coatings Containing Pyrophosphoric Lactone Modified Polyesters
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 169~175
Pyrophosphoric lactone modified polyester (PATT) containing two phosphorous functional groups in one unit structure was synthesized to prepare a non-toxic reactive flame-retardant coatings. Then the PATT was cured at room temperature with isocyanate, toluene diisocyanate-isocyanurate , to get a two-component polyurethane flame-retardant coatings (PIPUC). Comparing physical properties of the films of PIPUC with those of film of non-flame-retardant coatings, there was no deterioration observed in physical properties by the introduction of a flame-retarding component into the resin. We found that the char lengths measured by 45
Meckel burner method were 3.1∼4.4 cm and LOI values recorded 27∼30%. These results indicate that the coating prepared in this study is a good flame-retardant. The surface structure of coatings investigated with SEM does not show any defects and phase separation.
Synthesis, Cure Behavior, and Rheological Properties of Fluorine-Containing Epoxy Resins
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 176~182
The fluorine-containing epoxy resin, 2-trifluorotoluene diglycidylether (FER) was prepared by reaction of 2-chloro-
-trifluorotoluene with glycerol diglycidylether in the presence of pyridine catalyst. Curing behavior of FER/DDM system was investigated using dynamic and isothermal DSC. Cure activation energy (Ea) was determined by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa's equation. The rheological properties of FER/DDM system were studied under isothermal condition using a rheometer. Cross-linking activation energy (Ec) was determined from the Arrhenius equation based on gel time and curing temperature. As a result, the chemical structure of FER was confirmed by FT-IR,
13/C NMR, and
19/F NMR spectroscopy. The cure activation energy of FER/DDM system was 55.4 kJ/mol and conversion and conversion rate were increased with the curing temperature. The cross-linking activation energy of FER/DDM system was 41.6 kJ/mol and gel time was decreased with the curing temperature.
Thermal, Mechanical, and Electrical Properties of Fluorine-Containing Epoxy Resins
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 183~188
The dielectric constants of fluorine-containing epoxy resins, 2-diglycidylether of benzotrifluoride(FER)/4,4'-diamino-diphenyl methane (DDM) and diglycidylether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA)/DDM systems were evaluated by dielectric spectrometer. Glass transition temperature and thermal stability factors, including initial decomposed temperature, temperatures of maximum rate of degradation, and decomposition activation energy of the cured specimens were investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. For the mechanical properties of the casting specimens, the fracture toughness, flexural, and impact tests were performed, and their fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope. The dielectric constant of FER/DDM system was lower than that of commercial DGEBA/DDM system, and the mechanical properties of the cured specimens showed higher values than those of DGEBA/DDM system. This was probably due to the introduction of trifluoromethyl (CF
) group into the side chain of the epoxy resins, resulting in improving the electric and mechanical properties of the epoxy cure system studied.
Nondestructive Interfacial Evaluation and Cure Monitoring of Carbon Fiber/Epoxyacrylate Composite with UV and Thermal Curing Using Electro-Micromechanical Technique
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 189~194
Interfacial evaluation, damage sensing and cure monitoring of single carbon fiber/thermo setting composite with different curing processes were investigated using electro-micromechanical test. After curing, the residual stress was monitored by measurement of electrical resistance and then compared to various curing processes. In thermal curing case, matrix tensile strength, modulus and interfacial shear strength were higher than those of ultraviolet curing case. The shrinkage measured during thermal curing occurred significantly by matrix shrinkage and residual stress due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient. The apparent modulus measured in the thermal curing indicated that mechanical and interfacial properties were highly improved. The reaching time to the same stress of thermal curing was faster than that of UV curing case.
The Electroresponse Properties of Alginate Films under the Electric Field
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 195~200
Alginate is a natural ionic polymer including numerous anionic groups and can be actuated by the ionic group under the electric field. The crosslinked alginate films were fabricated with CaCl
. The thermal, mechanical and electroresponse properties of the films were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, tensile and bending tests. The initial degradation and tensile strength increased according to the degree of crosslinking. Also, the swelling ratio of the films increased with decreasing degree of crosslinking and increasing pH due to free volume and electrostatic repulsion. The films actuated by an electric stimulus exhibited gentle and flexible action like a pendulum. In the electric field, the electric stimuli such as the applied voltage, ionic strength and kind of electrolyte solution had an effect on the electroresponse of the films. Alginate films with 5 wt% crosslinking agent showed the highest bending angle and reversible bending behavior. When the ionic strength of NaCl and KCl electrolyte solution was 0.1 M, the films showed the highest electroresponse. The bending behavior of the films increased with the applied voltage.
Electrical Properties and Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Milled Carbon Fiber/Nylon Composites
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 201~209
DC and AC electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of milled carbon fiber/nylon composites were investigated with the kind of nylon matrix. Percolation transition at which the conductivity is sharply increased was observed at about 7 vol% of milled carbon fiber. Nylon 46 as a matrix was more effective to obtain high electrical conductivity than nylon 6, and the difference in conductivity was occurred by the treatment of coupling agent. Frequency dependence of AC conductivity could be explained by relaxation phenomenon at just below percolation and resonance phenomenon at 40 vol% of carbon fiber, respectively. Negative temperature coefficient phenomenon was found in all composites. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness was increased with the concentration of carbon fiber. At a high conductivity region the return loss was more dominant to the total shielding effectiveness than the absorption loss.
Cure and Mechanical Behaviors of Cycloaliphatic/DGEBA Epoxy Blend System using Electron-Beam Technique
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 210~216
4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide (VCE)/diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy blends with benzylquinoxalinium hexafluoroanti-monate were cured using an electron-beam technique. The effect of DGEBA content to VCE on cure behavior, thermal stabilities, and mechanical properties was investigated. The composition of VCE/DGEBA blend system vaned within 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100 wt%. The cure behavior and thermal stability of the cured specimens was monited by near-infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Also, the critical stress intensity factor (
) test of the cured specimens was performed to study the mechanical interfacial properties. As a result, the decreases of short side-chain structure and chain scission were observed in NIR measurements as the DGEBA content increases, resulting in varying the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. And, the initial decomposition temperature (IDT), temperature of maximum weight loss (T
max/), and decomposition activation energy (E
d/) as thermal stability factors were increased with increasing the DGEBA content. These results could be explained by mean of decreasing viscosity, stable aromatic ring structure, and grafted interpenetrating polymer network with increasing of DGEBA content. Also, the maximum
value showed at mixing ratio of 40:60 wt% in this blend system. in this blend system.
In Vitro Antitumor Activity of BCNU-Loaded PLGA Wafer Containing Additives
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 217~225
We fabricated the 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, carmustine)-loaded PLGA wafers containing poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or tedium chloride (NaCl) in order to control the release profile of drug in special shape (3 in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) by direct compression method. In vitro release profiles of BCNU could be controlled by additives contained in the wafers. Initial release amount, release rate and duration of BCNU could be controlled with presence of PVP or NaCl. In vitro antitumor activity accessed using 9L gliosarcoma cell line has been evaluated by assaying the viability of cells treated with BCNU released from the wafers containing additives resulting in continuous growth inhibition of 9L gliosarcoma tumor cells. Specially, the continuous growth inhibition of BCNU-loaded PLGA wafers containing additives was more effective than that of non-additive BCNU-loaded PLGA wafers. The cytotoxic effect of the drug from the wafers containing NaCl as compared to wafers containing PVP was more enhanced.
Preparation and Characterization of Ipriflavone-Loaded Poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) Scaffold for Tissue Engineered Bone
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 226~234
Ipriflavone (IP), a non-hormonal isoflavone derivative, has been shown to interfere with bone remodeling by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. IP consistently increased the amount of Ca incorporated into the cell layer by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we developed the novel IP loaded poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds for the possibility of the application of the tissue engineered bone. IP/PLGA scaffo1ds were prepared by solvent casting/salt leaching method and were characterized by porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy, determination of residual salt amount, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometer, respectively. IP/PLGA scaffolds were implanted into the back of athymic nude mouse to observe the effect of IP on the osteoinduction compared with control PLGA scaffo1ds. Thin sections were cut from paraffin embedded tissues and histological sections were stained H&E, von Kossa, and immunohistochemical staining for Type I collagen and osteocalcin. It can be observed that the porosity was above 91.7% and the pore size was above 101
. Control scaffo1d and IP/PLGA scaffo1ds of 50% IP were implanted on the back of athymic nude mouse to observe the effect of IP on the induction of cells proliferation for 9 weeks. The evidence of calcification, osteoblast, and osteoid from the undifferentiated stem cells in the subcutaneous sites and other soft connective tissue sites having a preponderance of stem cells has been observed. From these results, it seems that IP plays an important role for bone induction in IP/PLCA scaffo1ds
Antibacterial Activity of Activated Carbon Fibers Containing Copper Metal
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 235~241
The polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) containing copper metal were electrolytically prepared in introducing the antibacterial activity into ACFs. The antibacterial activity was investigated by dilution test against Staphylococous aureus (S. aureus; gram positive and virulence) and Klebsiella pnemoniae (K. pnumoniae: gram negative and avirulence). The micropore and textural properties of the ACFs containing copper metal were characterized by BET, t-plot, and H-K methods. The ACFs showed slight decreases in BET's specific surface area, micropore volume, and total pore volume as copper metal increased. However, the antibacterial activities of the ACFs were strongly increased against S. aureus as well as K. pnumoniae, which could be attributed to the presence of copper metal in CU/ACFs systems.
Synthesis of ion Exchange Fiber Containing Amidoxime and Phosphoric Acid Groups and Its Uranium Adsorption Properties
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 242~248
PP-g-(AN/Sty) was synthesized by grafting with acrylonitrile (AN) and styrene (Sty) onto PP staple fiber using an electron beam accelerator and followed by amidoximination and phosphorylation. Mole fraction of AN in the graft chain increased with the increase of the AN content in the monomer mixture. The highest AN grafting yield of 45% was obtained at a monomer ratio of 40 vol% AN/60 vol% Sty. Mole fraction of AN in the graft chain decreased with the increase of methanol amount used its solvent. As reaction temperature increased, the grafting yield of copolymer increased and reached equilibrium at 50
. Amount of amidoxime group in fibrous ion exchanger was increased as increasing amount of hydroxylamine, and the maximum content of amidoxime group was observed at 5.8 mmol/g with the 9 wt% hydroxylamine concentration. Content of phosphorous group in fibrous ion exchanger increased up to 0.5 N phosphoric acid concentration, and then leveled off. The adsorption ability of the copolymer for uranyl ion by the chelating adsorbents was in the following order : bifunctional PP-g-(AN/sty) > amidoximated PP-g-(AN/Sty) > phosphorylated PP-g-(AN/Sty).
The Variation of Structure and Physical Properties of XLPE during Thermal Aging Process
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 249~254
The variation of chemical structure and physical properties of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) during thermal aging process was investigated. The formation of carbonyl functional group resulting from thermal oxidation reaction of XLPE was monitored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. It was observed that the intensity of carbonyl peak observed at 1715 nm linearly increased with aging time in NIR spectroscopy. The linear relationship between NIR peak absorbance and aging time confirmed that NIR spectroscopy might be used as a proper tool for monitoring the aging process of polymeric materials. Also the formation of crosslinks during the aging process was monitored using thermal mechanical analysis, stress-strain test, and Shore hardness test. The change in the physical properties, such as the increase in the glass transition temperature from 110 to 132
, the decrease in the strain from 265 to 110%, as well as the increase in the shore D hardness from 32 to 50, was observed during the aging process.
Application of Universal Scaled Reduced Temperature Parameter to the Three-Arm Star Polystyrene
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 255~264
Various chain sizes 3-arm star polystyrenes (PS,
g/mol) in t-decalin solution were measured at the temperature range of 20~7
by means of viscometry and laser light scattering. In order to show universality in the expansion factor of 3-arm star polymer, it was expected that (N/
would be used as an universal parameter, where
was the unperturbed radius of gyration of star PS. However, much better universality had been observed when (N/
parameter of the linear PS was used even for the 3-arm star PS. It could be explained if branching effect had been already taken into account in the part of
]). Here N and Θ
stand for the number of monomer unit in a single polymer chain and a kind of theta temperature as the critical solution temperature
of the infinite molecular weight, respectively.ely.y.ely.
Properties of Polymer Electrolytes based on PEO-LiClO
Matrix Fabricated by Sol-Gel Process
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 265~270
In spite of high ionic conductivity, the polymer gels have poor mechanical properties and high reactivity with lithium metal anode. To solve these problems, the dry solid systems and polymer composites have been intensively studied, due to their good mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrochemical stability. The objectives of this experiment were to improve ionic conductivity and mechanical properties of the solid polymer electrolytes based on PEO-LiClO
. To obtain higher ionic conductivity and better mechanical properties, ceramic or rubber phase was added in the PEO-LiClO
(8:1) matrix. The results showed that ionic conductivity and mechanical properties were improved. The ionic conductivity of the samples was as high as 10
-5/ S cm
-1/. This value is similar to the best ionic conductivity ever reported in the solid drying system. To obtain better results, we used PEO with various molecular weights (600∼8000) and changed the salt contents. By using DSC, we found that the addition of salt reduced the crystallinity of PEO. The mobility of polymer dependence on salt contents was examined by FT-IR.
Analysis of Cotton/Polyester Fabrics using Pyrolysis Gas Chromatograpy
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 3, 2003, Pages 271~274
A pyrolysis gas-chromatographic method (Py-GC) was utilized for the identification as well as the content measurement of textile materials. Py-GC was applied to natural cotton fiber, synthetic polyester fiber, and their blended fabrics. The characteristic peaks originated from thermally decomposed products were observed, and the area of peak increased with the content of polyester. The products of pyrolized polyester were identified as benzoic acid terephthalic acid, and vinyl benzoic acid, which were characterized by mass spectrometry. This analytic method of offered a quantitative means to identify the content of cotton and polyester.