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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Nov 2003
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Sep 2003
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Jul 2003
Volume 27, Issue 3 - May 2003
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Effects of Interfacial Adhesion and Chemical Crosslinking of HDPE Composite Systems on PTC Characteristics
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 275~284
The positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effects of high density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon black composite materials were investigated by enhancing adhesive characteristics of electrodes and controlling HDPE chemical crosslinking. When the silver paste was used as an electrode for the same 45 wt% HDPE/carbon composites, the resistance was over 1
, which should be compared with the resistance of 0.2
for the dendritic copper electrode. In general, the silver-paste electrode exhibited higher electrical resistance than cupper electrode due to the interfacial resistance between the electrode and PTC composites. The HDPE/carbon composite exhibited typical PTC characteristics maintaining a constant resistance up to vicat point and showing a maximum at the melting point of HDPE. The crosslinked HDPE significantly decreased the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) phenomena, and desirably showed a constant or slightly increasing feature of electrical resistance in the high temperature region.
Crystallization Behavior of Poly(lactic acid) / Poly(
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 285~292
The compatibility of poly(lactic acid)/poly(
-caprolactone) (PLA/PCL) blends as a function of blend composition was studied and triphenyl phosphite (TPP) was applied to PLA/PCL blends as a reactive compatibilizer. Especially the effect of compatibility on the crystallization behavior in both PLA/PCL blends and PLA/PCL blends with TPP was considered. PLA/PCL blends were immiscible based on thermal characteristics of PLA/PCL blends and the miscibility was depend upon the blend composition. The enhancement of compatibility was found in PLA/PCL blends with TPP depend upon its content. The rate of crystallization in PLA/PCL blend varied with blend composition. This was understood as the development of nucleation at the interface of PLA-PCL due to the immiscibility. TPP was acting as a compatibilizer as well as an agent for the acceleration of spherulite growth In PLA. As a result, the crystallization rate increased and the size of spherulite became larger than that of PLA/PCL blend without TPP.
Crystallization Behavior of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) in a Confined Geometry
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 293~298
The development of the crystalline structure of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) in a confined geometry was investigated with optical microscope, small angle light scattering, and X-ray diffraction. The rejected distance, which was represented in terms of the parameter
, played an important role in determining the morphological patterns of poly (ethylene terethphalate) (PET/PTT) blend. In case of stepwise crystallization, the crystallization of PTT commenced in the interspherulitic region between the grown PET crystals and proceeded until the interspherulitic space was filled with the PTT crystals. The spherulitic surface of the PET crtstals acted as the nucleation sites where the PTT molecules preferentially crystallized, leading to the formation of transcrystalline structure. As a result, a mixed morphological pattern was observed in the PTT-rich phase: one was a typical spherulitic texture and the other was a transcrystalline texture. Some of the molecular conformations of PTT, which could adopt in the absence of the space limitation, were probably forbidden in the interlamellar and/or interfibrillar regions of the PET spherulite. This constraint was responsible for difference in the crystallization and melting behavior of PTT between the intra and interspheulitic regions of PET.
Interfacial Morphology of Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Composite
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 299~306
It is well known that the interaction and adhesion between the glass fiber (GF) and polymer matrix has a significant effect in determining the properties of fiber-reinforced materials. Therefore, it is one of important considerations to modify the surface of glass fiber with an appropriate sizing. We investigated the treatment method of glass fiber with coupling agent to improve the interaction of the interfacial region. The correlation between interfacial property and interphase microstructure was also examined in an attempt to realize a proper morphology at the glass fiber surfaces.
Microporous Bellow Fiber Membrane Prepared from High Density Polyethylene/Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Blend
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 307~312
Hollow fiber was prepared from the blend of a high density polyethylene (HDPE)/ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The changes in the morphology and mechanical property of the hollow fiber were investigated. The commercial product (Sterapore), having a high water permeability, was analyzed with viscosity measurement and FT-IR. The molecular weight of Sterapore was very high and its surface was coated with a vinyl alcohol/vinyl acetate copolymer. The content of UHMWPE in the HDPE/UHMWPE blend was limited below 10 wt%. In order to improve the dispersion of UHMWPE, a mineral oil should be introduced in the blend. The morphology and mechanical property of the hollow fiber of HDPE/UHMWPE blend were similar to those of the commercial product.
Morphology of Styetched Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/ Poly(m-xylene adipamide) Blends
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 313~322
The morphology of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/poly(m-xylene adipamide) (MXD-6) blends, which was prepared by adding compatibilizer and interchange reaction agent, was investigated. The morphological change in the stretched blend films was also studied. The stretched film showed a dispersed MXD-6 fibril. This fibril became finer with increasing draw ratio (DR). The addition of compatibilizer and interchange reaction agent had no effect on the improvement of interfacial adhesion but caused a defect between the continuous phase and the dispersed phase, leading to the formation of irregular fibril. The change in the superstructure of blends with composition and draw ratio was examined with light scattering (LS). The H
v/ LS patterns showed a double-cross type pattern consisting of a broad rod-like pattern and a sharp cross streak. On the basis of the model calculation of the H
v/ pattern, it was found that the appearance of the double-cross type pattern was attributed to the stacking of crystals oriented along the draw direction. The crystals were gradually oriented to the stretching direction with draw ratio. As a result, the high level of orientation was obtained fur the sample of draw ratio is 6.0.
Characterization of Stretchable Polypyrrole Films Prepared by Chemical and Electrochemical Method
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 323~329
Stretchable Polypyrrole films using functionalized doping agent, di(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (NaDEHS), were synthesized by chemical and electrochemical method. Chemically and electrochemically Prepared Polypyrrole films were stretch-oriented (L/L
0/＝ 1.0 ∼ 2.5) by zone drawing method and the electrical conductivities were measured. As the draw ratio was increased, the electrical conductivities were increased. This result was confirmed by the increase in crystallinity through the increase in draw ratio. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity showed that 3D-variable range hopping model (L/L
0/ ＝ 1.0∼2.0) and ID-VRH model (L/L
0/ ＝ 2.5) gave the best fit to the data for stretched Ppy-DEHS films.
Synthesis and Characterization of Chelating Resins Containing Thiol Croups
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 330~339
Three kinds of macro-reticular bead-typed chelating resins having thiol groups were obtained from basic resins like poly(strene-co-divinylbenzene) (PSD) and poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) (PSMD): the chelating resin (I) was prepared by chloromethylation of phenyl rings of PSD followed by thiolation using thiourea. The chelating resin (ll) was designed to provide enough space to chelate heavy metal ions; one chloromethyl group was obtained by chlorination of hydroxymethyl group provided by reduction of carboxylic ester group of PSMD and another chloromethyl group was obtained by direct chloromethylation of pendent phenyl group using chloromethyl methyl ether. Both of chloromethyl groups were thiolated by using thiourea. The chelating resin (III) was prepared by chlorosulfonation of phenyl rings of PSD followed by thiolation using sodium hydrosulfide. The adsorbtivity toward heavy metal ions was evaluated. The hydrophobic chelating resin (I) with thiol groups showed highly selective adsorption capacity f3r mercury ions. However, the chelating resin (II) with thiol groups showed mere effective adsorption capacity toward mercury ions than chelating resin (I) with thiol groups, and showed some adsorption capacity for other heavy metal ions like Cu
2＋/ and Cr
3＋/. On the other hand, the chelating resin (III) which have hydrophilic thiosulfonic acid groups was found to be effective adsorbents for some heavy metal ions such as Hg
3＋/ and especially Cd
2＋/ and Pb
Measurement of Adhesion Strength of Polyurethane Foam to Surface-Treated Carbon Steel and Effect of Water Vapor Absorption
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 340~348
A previous stud-pull test was modified to measure the bond strength of polyurethane foam to carbon steel substrate. This test was appropriate in that the specimen foamed on Zn phosphated steel (0.95 kN) was broken at higher load than that of smooth galvanizing treated steel (0.38 kN). Among the samples foamed on the substrate atvarious preheating temperatures, the polyurethane foam to the steel held over 60
exhibited very high bond strength. The samples were exposed at water vapor absorption, and, then, their bond strengths were measured. The adhesion was significantly reduced in the samples foamed on the steel at temperatures below 40
and above 70
. For the polyurethane foams formulated with two blowing gases, the adhesion was higher by 0.03 kN in the samples with HCFC-l4lb than that with HFC-245fa. When the these samples were exposed at water vapor soaking, the reduction of the bond strength for the HFC-245fa blown sample was negligible due to smaller area fraction of void area filled with gas at interfacial area. Consequently, it was found that adhesion of polyurethane foam to metal substrate was determined by variation of microstructural features with substrate preheating, surface treatment type of blowing agent.
Preparation and Characterization of PVAL/PVP/Hexylene Glycol/Chitosan Hydrogels by
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 349~357
Hydrogels for wound dressing from a mixture of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL), poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), hexylene glycol (HG) and chitosan were made. The hydrogels were obtained by physical crosslinking of freezing and thawing, chemical crosslinking of irradiation, and irradiation after freezing and thawing of mixture solutions. The solid concentration of PVAL/PVP/HG/chitosan was 15 wt%. The concentration of chitosan was 0.3 wt%, and the ratio of PVAL/PVP was 6:4. The concentration of HG was in the range of 1∼5 wt%. The number of repeated freezing and thawing was in the range of 1∼3 times, and gamma irradiation doses were 25, 35 and 50 kGy. The physical properties such as gelation, water absorption and gel strength of hydrogels were examined. Gel content and gel strength decreased as HG concentration increased, whereas degree of swelling increased. Gel content and gel strength increased as irradiation dose and the number of freezing and thawing increased, whereas degree of swelling decreased. The hydrogels were evaluated for the healing effect for animals and for the antibacterial effect.
Dispersion Polymerization of Acrylamide in Ethanol/water Media
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 358~363
Dispersion polymerization of acrylamide was carried out in the media of ethyl alcohol/water mixtures using hydroxypropyl cellulose and ammonium persulfate as steric stabilizer and initiator, respectively. The effects of concentrations of initiator and steric stabilizer, amount of monomer, polymerization temperature, ethyl alcohol/water ratio, and purification of monomer and nitrogen purge on the particle size of the latices and molecular weight of the polymers were investigated. The average particle diameter increased with increasing concentration of initiator, water content in ethyl alcohol/water media, and polymerization temperature, but decreased with monomer and stabilizer concentrations. The viscosity average molecular weight increased with increasing concentrations of monomer, steric stabilizer, and water content in dispersion media, but decreased with initiator concentration and polymerization temperature. The PAM polymers prepared with the purified monomer and the nitrogen purging before the reaction showed the highest molecular weight. In this study, PAM latices of 0.5∼2.4
with 20000∼335000 in M
v/ were prepared and the resulting PAM latices were all dissolved in water instantly.
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyacrylate Derivatives Baying Protected Isocyanate Groups and fluorinated Alkyl Groups
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 364~369
The copolymerizations of 2-fluorohexylethyl acrylate (FA) with 2-(o-(1'-methylpropylidenamino)carboxyl amino)ethyl methacrylate(MEM) with different molar ratios of the two monomers were carried out in methyl ethyl ketone using
'-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator to synthesize water repellent polyacrylate derivatives with protected isocyanate groups. The contents of FA and MEM in the copolymers were analyzed by NMR. The monomer reactivity ratios of MEM (1) and FA (2) were determined by Kelen-Tudos plot as follows : r
1/＝1.59 and r
2/＝0.50. The number-average molecular weights of the copolymers were in the range of 39400 to 72400 and the polydispersity indexes were about 1.5. The protected isocyanate groups in the copolymers were converted into isocyanate groups above 150
. The contact angle of the copolymer with 65 ㏖% of FA fur water was about 95
Preparation of Poly(Dt-lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticles by PEG-PPG Diblock Copolymer
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 370~376
Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared by the modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. Polymer solution was prepared by two water-soluble organic solvents, such as ethanol and acetone. Because of its biocompatible nature, PEG-PPG diblock copolymer was used as surfactant and stabilizer. The influence of several preparative variables on the nanoparticle formation, such as type and concentration of stabilizing agent, stirring methods, water/oil phase ratio and polymer concentration were investigated in order to control and optimize the process. After preparation of nanoparticles, particle size and distribution were evaluated by the light scattering particle analyzer. As results, the particle size was 50-200 nm and dispersibility was monodisperse. It was found that the appropriate selections of binary solvent mixtures and polymeric concentrations in both organic and aqueous phases could provide a good yield and favorable physical properties of PLGA nanoparticles.
Synthesis and Characterization of High Impact Polystyrene/Organically Modified Layered Silicate Nanocomposites
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 377~384
High impact polystyrene/organically modified layered silicate (HIPS/OLS) nanocomposites by in situ polymerization were synthesized to investigate the effect of clay on the particle size and properties of rubber. In the OLS, the montmorillonite having benzyl group showed best dispersion in polystyrene phase. With the addition of clay, the intercalated peak from XRB was confirmed, but the peak gradually shifted to lower angle as rubber concentration increased. Thus, it is speculated that the organoclay disperses better in rubber phase than in polystyrene phase. The average rubber particle size increased and the particle size distribution widened as the amount of clay increased, which may be caused by the increase of the viscosity ratio of rubber to polystyrene phases and the unstable dispersion. The materials having clay showed improved thermal properties from thermogravimetric analysis. Rheological properties such as complex viscosity and storage modulus increased as the amount of clay increased.
Lithium ion Transport Characteristics of Gel-Type Polymer Electrolytes Containing Lithium p-［Methoxyoligo(ethyleneoxy)］ benzenesulfonates
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 385~391
Lithium p-［Methoxyoligo(ethyleneoxy)］ benzenesulfonates (LiEOnBS) with different repeating unit of ethylene oxide were synthesized and were used for preparing gel-polymer electrolytes. The conductivities and lithium ion transference number were measured as a function of Li-salt concentration and repeating unit of ethylene oxide of the LiEOnBS. The maximum conductivity of the resulting gel-polymer electrolyte was found to be 4.89
－4/ S/cm (LiEO7.3BS, 0.5 M) at 30
. The lithium ion transference number (t
＋//) measurement were performed by means of the combination do polarization and ac impedance methods in gel-polymer electrolytes. Lithium ion transference number was measured to be in the range of 0.75∼0.92 for the LiEOnBS containing gel-polymer electrolytes. The maximum t
＋// was obtained to be 0.92 for the 0.1 M LiEOnBS containing polymer electrolytes. The synthesized LiEOnBS showed single ion transport like characteristics when n was large than 3.
Synthesis and Properties of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites
Polymer Korea, volume 27, issue 4, 2003, Pages 392~395
Phosrhonium salt exchanged montmorillonites were prepared from a reaction between alkyl triphenyl phosponium bromide and Na
-montmorillonite. Epoxy-clay nanocomposites were also prepared by using cycloaliphtic epoxy, methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride as a hardener, and triphenyl butyl phosphonium bromide as an accelerator. TEM and XRD results suggested that clay minerals in the epoxy-montmorillonites composite were intercalated. Mechanical properties such as tensile modulus and strength were measured and the effect of nanocomposite formation was also discussed.