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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 36, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Effects of Oxyfluorinated Graphene Oxide Flake on Mechanical Properties of PMMA Artificial Marbles
Kim, Hyo-Chul ; Jeon, Son-Yeo ; Kim, Hyung-Il ; Lee, Young-Seak ; Hong, Min-Hyuk ; Choi, Ki-Seop ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 251~261
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.251
The nanocomposites containing graphene oxide flakes were prepared in order to improve the mechanical properties of artificial marbles based on poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) matrix. Graphene oxide flakes were prepared from graphite by oxidation with Hummers method followed by exfoliation with thermal treatment. Surface of graphene oxide flakes were modified with oxyfluorination in various oxygene:fluorine compositions to improve the interfacial compatibility. The nanocomposites containing graphenes modified with oxyfluorination in the oxygen content of 50% and higher showed the significant increase in flexural strength, flexural modulus, Rockwell hardness, Barcol hardness, and Izod impact strength. The morphology of fractured surface showed the improved interfacial adhesion between PMMA matrix and the graphenes which were properly treated with oxyfluorination. The mechanical properties of nanocomposite were deteriorated by increasing the content of graphene above 0.07 phr due to the nonuniform dispersion of graphenes.
Characteristics and Ring-Opening Isomerization Polymerization of 2-(1,3,3-Trimethyl-6-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-6-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazoline (TAO)
Lee, Chan-Woo ; Chung, Jin-Do ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 262~267
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.262
2-(1,3,3-Trimethyl-6-azabicyclo [3,2,1]-oct-6-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazoline (TAO) was polymerized at several conditions to clarify the influence of initiators, alkyl halide (
, MeI) and sulfonate (MeOTf). The reactions were conducted at
for 24 h. The resultant polymer forms several kinds of structures with different combination of initiators. The sole MeOTf initiator caused chain transfer reaction to form the one-order structure for which the resultant polymer exclusively formed pendant structure, while alkyl halide and MeOTf formed two kinds of structures, pendant and main chain, which is caused by partly-proceeded double isomerization polymerization by highly reactive nucleophilic counter anion of halogen. Merrifield polymer was also utilized as an intiator and copolymerized with TAO, which produced a graft structure.
Design of Hard Coating Resin for In-mold Decoration (IMD) Foil and Effects of EB Irradiation on IMD Foil Layers
Sim, Hyun-Seog ; Kim, Geon-Seok ; Shin, Ji-Hee ; Lee, Kwang-Hee ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 268~274
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.268
The silane coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (
-MPTS), was grafted on the surface of alumina nanoparticles. We used the surface modified nanoparticles in the hard coating layer for in-mold decoration (IMD) foils and evaluated the coating properties such as hardness and anti-abrasion property. The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on color layer and anchor layer of IMD foils were observed through the difference in color and the cross-cut tape test, respectively. Also, cure kinetics as studied quantitatively under various reaction temperatures by analysis of surface properties and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. From these results, we constructed database for the commercial exploitation of EB curing system.
Effect of Diamine Composition on Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Moisture Absorption of Polyimide Films
Park, Yun-Jun ; Yu, Duk-Man ; Choi, Jong-Ho ; Ahn, Jeong-Ho ; Hong, Young-Taik ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 275~280
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.275
Poly(amic acid)s were successfully synthesized from 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene (1,4-APB) or 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane (HFBAPP) with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 3,3'-4,4'-benzopenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and
-PDA) and then they were effectively converted into polyimide films by thermal imidization. The chemical structure and thermo-mechanical properties of polyimide films were examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA), thermo-mechanical analyzer, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and universal tensile machine (UTM). The moisture absorption, thermal and mechanical properties of polyimide films decreased with increasing the amount of 1,4-APB and HFBAPP. The polyimide films using HFBAPP showed lower properties than that of 1,4-APB at the same ratio, but it displayed better thermal properties and lower moisture absorption at the similar coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with a copper. On the basis of our finding, it is concluded that 4-component polyimide films could be utilized for base films for flexible copper clad laminates (FCCL) of flexible printed circuit boards.
Empirical Study on Effects of Disk Shape Filler Content and Orientation on Thermal Expansion Coefficient of PP Composites
Lee, Yong-Hyun ; Jeoung, Sun-Kyoung ; Hwang, Hyo-Yeon ; Lee, Seung-Goo ; Lee, Kee-Yoon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 281~286
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.281
Experimental study was performed regarding the effects of disc-like filler orientation and contents on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of polypropylene composites using the three dimensional ellipsoids (
) analyzed by two aspect ratios(
). Measured data were compared with the theoretical approaches proposed by Lee et al. Mica and talc were useed as disk-like fillers in the composites. As experimental results,
decreased down to ca. 0.56 with mica content of 20 wt% and the aspect ratios,
increased to more than 1. In the case of talc,
decreased to ca. 0.63 with 20 wt% and
. Finally, the longitudinal CTEs (
) of polypropylene composites decreased as filler contents increased, but normal CTE (
) increased in the low filler contents like the theory.
Morphology, Transparency, and Thermal Resistance of SAN Nanocomposites Containing Organically Modified Layered Double Hydroxides
Kim, Seog-Jun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 287~294
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.287
ZnAl-LDH(layered double hydroxide) (Zn:Al=2:1 mole ratio) modified with stearic acid (SA) or oleic acid (OA) was synthesized by a coprecipitation method and compounded to SAN polymer at various contents. All the SAN composites were manufactured by a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded into several specimen. Morphology, transparency, and thermal resistance of these composites were evaluated by TEM, XRD(X-ray diffractometry), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. SAN nanocomposites containing OA-
LDH showed better optical transmittance than SAN nanocomposites containing SA-
LDH. All the SAN nanocomposites containing OA-
LDH or SA-
LDH exhibited improvement of thermal resistance at second stage of thermal oxidation. These results were explained by the fact that the interaction between organic modifier and polymer performed an important role in the property improvement of polymer nanocomposites.
Synthesis of Dendrimer with PEG Core by Click Chemistry
Han, Seung-Choul ; Jin, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Jae-Wook ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 295~301
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.295
Efficient stitching methods for the synthesis of Fr
chet-type dendrimers with linear PEG units at a core were elaborated. The synthetic strategy involved an inexpensive 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between an alkyne and an azide in the presence of Cu(I) species which is known as the best example of click chemistry. The linear core building blocks, two diazido-PEG units, were chosen to serve as the azide functionalities for dendrimer growth via click reactions with the alkyne-dendrons. These two building blocks were employed together with the alkyne-functionalized Fr
chet-type dendrons in a convergent strategy to synthesize two kinds of Fr
chet-type dendrimers with different linear core units.
Plasma-Induced Grafting of Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) onto Polypropylene Surface
Ji, Han-Sol ; Jung, Si-In ; Hur, Ho ; Choi, Ho-Suk ; Kim, Jae-Ha ; Park, Han-Oh ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 302~308
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.302
The objective of this study is to investigate optimum reaction conditions for the grafting of poly(
-vinyl- 2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) onto the surface of plasma-treated polypropylene film. The plasma treatment conditions were fixed as 200 W rf power, 6 LPM Ar flow rate, 30 sec treatment time, and 5 min exposure time after treatment. For graft copolymerization, we investigated the change of grafting degree with respect to reaction time, reaction temperature and
-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone concentration. Maximum grafting degree was obtained at the conditions of 6 h reaction time,
reaction temperature, and 40%
-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone concentration. The introduction of PVP was confirmed by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and SEM analysis.
Control of Hydrolytic Degradation of Polylactide Mixtures Using Optical Isomers
Lee, Won-Ki ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 309~314
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.309
To control degradation rate of biodegradable poly(lactide)s (PLA), the stereochemical PLAs with different ratios of
-lactide units were synthesized by the ring open polymerization and a degradation behavior was measured by a Langmuir film balance. Degradation rates of mixture monolayers on alkaline subphase were investigated as a function of optical purity of mixture component, 100, 99, 97 and 95%. As increasing their optical purity, melting temperatures of mixtures from stereocomplexation increased. The degradation rate of mixture monolayer with 100% optical purity was much slower than that of each homopolymer one and the others showed 2 step degradation behaviors. In the first step, the degradation which is faster than that of each homopolymer occurs in the uncomplexed region, and secondly, the degradation occurred in the complexed region which showed similar degradation rate to that of 100% optical purity. These results indicate that the alkaline degradation of stereochemical PLAs could be controlled by stereochemistry and stereocomplexation between enantiomer PLAs.
Variation of Adhesion Characteristics of Acryl Copolymer/Multi-functional Monomer Based PSA by UV Curing
Ryu, Chong-Min ; Pang, Bei-Li ; Kim, Hyung-Il ; Park, Ji-Won ; Lee, Seung-Woo ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Kyung-Man ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.315
Ultra violet (UV) curable pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) were prepared by controlling both the structure of acryl copolymer and the functionality and content of multi-functional monomers. Acryl copolymer worked as the base polymer for giving the tackiness. Multi-functional monomers were used to vary the crosslinked structure and the degree of crosslink. Acryl copolymer showed the reduced peel strength after UV curing by decreasing the content of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate in the monomer composition. Both the peel strength of PSA and the content of residue found on silicon wafer decreased after UV curing by increasing the functionality of multi-functional monomers. UV curable PSA containing 20 phr six-functional monomer showed the higher peel strength before UV curing and the lower peel strength and the least residue on silicon wafer after UV curing.
Effect of KOH Activation on Electrochemical Behaviors of Graphite Nanofibers
Yoo, Hye-Min ; Min, Byung-Gak ; Lee, Kyu-Hwan ; Byun, Joon-Hyung ; Park, Soo-Jin ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 321~325
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.321
In this work, we prepared the activated graphite nanofibers (A-GNFs) via chemical activation with KOH/GNFs ratios in a range of 0 to 5. The effect of KOH activation was studied in the surface and pore properties of the samples for electrochemical performance. The surface properties of A-GNFs were characterized by XRD and SEM measurements. The textural properties of the A-GNFs were investigated by
/77 K adsorption isotherms using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. Their electrochemical behaviors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge performance. From the results, electrochemical performances of the A-GNFs were improved with increasing the ratio of KOH reagent. It was found that specific surface area and total pore volume of the A-GNFs were increased by KOH activation.
Paclitaxel Coating on ePTFE Artificial Graft and the Release Behavior
Lim, Soon-Yong ; Kim, Cheol-Joo ; Kim, Eun-Jin ; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung ; Kwon, Oh-Hyeong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 326~331
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.326
In this study, expanded poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (ePTFE) graft was modified to be used as a hemodialysis vascular access. Biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-
-glycolide) (PLGA) was coated onto the inner surface of ePTFE graft with paclitaxel, which is often used as an anti-cancer agent and for reducing neointimal hyperplasia. Surface characterization before and after PLGA coating was carried out by SEM and ATR-FTIR. Porous sturcture of ePTFE was maintained after coating of PLGA solution. The amounts of coated PLGA and paclitaxel determined by ATR-FTIR and HPLC were 1.96 and 0.263 mg/
, respectively. Young's modulus was decreased and tensile strength was increased by PLGA coating. Released paclitaxel as a function of incubation time was monitored by HPLC. Approximately 35% of coated paclitaxel was released steadily for 4 weeks with the biodegradation of PLGA. From these results, it is expected that the effect of paclitaxel on reducing neointimal hyperplasia and stenosis is maintained for a long time.
Effect of Particle Size of HPMC on Dissolution Rate of Venlafaxine HCl and Carbamazepine Sustained Release Tablet
Cha, Jae-Uk ; Cha, Ja-Hyun ; Hong, Jun-Kee ; Lee, Sung-Wan ; Ko, Won-Hwa ; Beak, Hyun-Ho ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 332~337
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.332
The primary objective of this work is to find the properties of sustained release dissolution pattern depending on solubility of drugs, so venlafaxine HCl and carbamazepine tablets were made by using polymer wich various particle size. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) has been utilized in this study as an excipient that is one of the most widely used polymers for an oral sustained release formulation, and drug release pattern was strongly influenced by swelling rate depending on particle size of HPMC. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to investigate the surface of tablets with various HPMC particle size, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was employed to investigate the crystallization of drugs in tablets. The release model equation was applied to analyze the main mechanism of drug release pattern. The results demonstrate that drug release pattern is controlled by the drug solubility and HPMC particle size.
Understanding of Protein Adsorption to Contact Lens Hydrogels with Varying Surface Energy
Jeon, So-Ha ; Noh, Hye-Ran ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 338~343
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.338
Interfacial properties of commercially available soft contact lens hydrogels were studied to understand thermodynamic phenomena of protein adsorption. Hydrogel particles (
) with varying water wettability were exposed to bovine serum albumin solutions for an hour. The remained albumin solutions were analyzed with Bradford assay method. The amount of protein adsorbed to hydrogels increased with protein solution concentrations following Langmuir isotherm. The partition coefficient (
) and Gibbs free energy cost of dehydrating the surface region by protein displacement upon adsorption increased with increasing hydrophilicity of contact lens. Understanding of physical chemistry in protein adsorption to contact lens materials enabled elucidating relationships between surface energy and albumin adsorption capacity.
A Study on the Electron Beam Crosslinking of Acrylic Pressure Sensitive Adhesives for Polarizer Film
Park, Jung-Jin ; Choi, Hong-June ; Ko, Hwan-Soon ; Jeong, Eun-Hwan ; Youk, Ji-Ho ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 344~350
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.344
New pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) for polarizer film were prepared by electron beam (e-beam) radiation to acrylic copolymers, and their adhesive properties were investigated. The acrylic copolymers were synthesized by free radical polymerization of
-butylacrylate (BA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and acrylic acid (AA). The acrylic copolymers were coated on PET release films to a thickness of 25
, laminated to polarizer films, and then radiated with e-beam at room temperature. Gel fractions of all the acrylic copolymers after e-beam radiation at 50 kGy were higher than 93%, and their crosslinking densities were increased with increasing the content of HEMA units. PSA prepared by e-beam radiation of acrylic copolymer synthesized with a feed ratio of BA/HEMA/AA = 89.5/10/0.5 (w/w/w) at a dose of 50 kGy exhibited the best adhesion performances in terms of peel strength, creep resistance, durability and reliability, and light leakage. It is expected that the preparation method of PSAs via e-beam irradiation will improve the producibility and workability of polarizer film for liquid crystal display.
Preparation of Acryl Binder with Silane Type Chain Transfer Agent
Kim, Jin-Gon ; Shin, Min-Jae ; Shin, Jae-Sup ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 351~356
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.351
Acryl binder is a representative organic additive for the manufacture of the display electronic equipment. Acryl binder is usually synthesized by radical copolymerization. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) were used in this copolymerization of acryl binder. In this study the silane type mercaptane compound was used as a chain transfer agent (CTA) to enhance the adhesion property of the acrylic binder. The CTA used in this experiment was (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). Molecular weight of the copolymer, thickness of the coating, transmittance, and adhesion property were measured. The molecular weight was controlled and the adhesion property was improved by using this silane type chain transfer agent.
Adhesion Behavior of Chondrocyte and Osteoblast on Surface-Modified Biodegradable PLLA Films and Scaffolds
Choi, Ji-Yeon ; Jung, Hyun-Jung ; Park, Bang-Ju ; Joung, Yoon-Ki ; Park, Kwi-Deok ; Han, Dong-Keun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 357~363
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.357
Surface-modified poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) films and scaffolds were treated with plasma discharge in oxygen gas and subsequently subjected to
grafting of acrylic acid (AA) in order to increase the cell compatibility. The surface of AA-grafted PLLA was converted to hydroxyapatite (HA)-deposited PLLA in stimulated body fluid (SBF). After the samples were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), fetal bovine serum (FBS), normal saline, or cell medium, the water contact angles were significantly reduced on the surface of HA-deposited PLLA. Chondrocyte and osteoblast showed a higher attachment and cell proliferation on HA-deposited surfaces and in particular, it was confirmed that chondrocyte was considerably influenced by HA. However, osteoblast showed better cell proliferation on the surfaces immersed in FBS, cell medium or HA-deposited surface. In addition, the cell proliferation in 3D scaffolds was much higher than that on film type, irrespective of chondrocyte and osteoblast. Therefore, such surface-modified PLLAs are expected to be useful as organic-inorganic hybrid scaffolds in the regeneration of cartilage and bone.
Effect of Surfactant on Rheological and Electrical Properties of Latex-Blended Polystyrene/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites
Kang, Myung-Hwan ; Noh, Won-Jin ; Woo, Dong-Kyun ; Lee, Seong-Jae ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 364~371
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.364
Polystyrene/single-walled carbon nanotube (PS/SWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by latex technology and the effect of surfactant (SDS) on nanotube dispersion, rheological and electrical properties was investigated. The nanocomposites were prepared through freeze-drying after mixing PS particles and aqueous SWCNT/SDS suspension. As the SDS content increased, the storage modulus and complex viscosity of the nanocomposites were increased due to enhanced dispersion of nanotubes, but if the content excessively increased, the modulus and viscosity began to decrease due to low molecular weight of SDS. The electrical conductivity sharply increased with the addition of SDS, and then did not show significant changes. This result is speculated to be the competition between the increased dispersion of nanotubes and the deterioration of electrical conductivity by SDS adsorption. An optimal ratio of SDS to SWCNT for improving electrical conductivity and end-use properties was 2. With this ratio, the electrical percolation threshold of SWCNT was less than 1 wt%.
Quantitative Analysis of Silanization Degree of Silica Nanoparticles Modified with Bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine Coupling Agent
Jeon, Ha-Na ; Kim, Jung-Hye ; Ha, Ki-Ryong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 372~379
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.372
In this study, we treated silica nanoparticles with bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine (BTMA) silane coupling agent to modify their surfaces. We investigated the effects of BTMA hydrolysis time, BTMA concentration and BTMA treatment time on the degree of silanization reaction of silica nanoparticles. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA) and solid state cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to obtain quantitative data. We found the decrease of isolated Si-OH peak intensity at 3747
and the increase of
stretching and bending peaks with increasing hydrolysis time, concentration and treatment time of BTMA. EA analysis results also supported this trend. We found a strong effect of BTMA concentration on the degree of silanization of the silica particles, but weak effects of the hydrolysis time and the treatment time.
Thermotropic and Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Behavior of N,O-Hydroxypropyl Chitosans
Kim, Hyo-Gap ; Jung, Seung-Yong ; Ma, Yung-Dae ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 380~392
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.380
Four kinds of N,O-hydroxypropyl chitosans (HPCTOs) with degree of substitution(DS) and molar substitution (MS) ranging from 2.47 to 2.52 and 4.9 to 7.8, respectively were synthesized, and their molecular chracteristics and thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline properties were investigated. MS was exceedingly larger than DS, showing that in the later stages of reaction, propylene oxide was preferentially added to the side chains rather than the main chain. All the derivatives formed thermotropic cholesteric phases. The glass and clearing temperatures were decreased with increasing MS. The optical pitches (
's) of the thermotropic cholesteric phases increased with temperature. However, the
's of the derivatives at the same temperature increased with increasing MS. Solutions of HPCTOs in water, methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and formic acid containing more than 30 wt% polymer also formed cholesteic phases whose
's decreased exponentially with increasing polymer concentration. The concentration dependence of
of HPCTO solutions, however, highly depended on the nature of the solvent and MS. The thermotropic and lyotropic mesophase properties of HPCTOs were significantly different from those reported for hydroxypropyl celluloses. The results indicate that the secondary amino group in the C-2 position plays an important role on the formation, stabilization, and temperature and concentration dependencies of
of the cholesteric mesophase.
A Study on Characteristics of Tin-doped Indium Oxide Film for Polyethersulfone Flexible Substrate by Low Temperature E Beam Deposition Process
Rhew, Ju-Min ; Kang, Ho-Jong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 393~400
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2012.36.3.393
The characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) film by low temperature E beam has been studied for the flexible photovoltaic devices. It was found that the substrate temperature in the deposition process affected the crystallization behavior of ITO during the post low temperature annealing process. Higher substrate temperature resulted in the increase of crystallinity of annealed ITO. Consequently, the lowering of sheet resistivity and better transmittance were obtained. Crystallization of ITO during the annealing process was facilitated by using oxygen gas in the deposition process and resulted in the enhancement on sheet resistivity and transmittance of ITO. The surface roughness of PES film prohibited the crystallization of ITO during the annealing process and it caused the increase of sheet resistivity and the decrease of transmittance of ITO.