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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 37, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Improvement of Frictional Property of BR/CIIR Composite Rubber for Shoes Outsole
Pyo, Kyungduk ; Choi, Jungsu ; Lee, Jongnyun ; Park, Chacheol ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 255~261
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.255
This paper introduced a new preparation method of a composite rubber by mixing BR (butadiene rubber) and CIIR (chloro-isobutyl rubber) for the purpose of improving frictional property of BR. Since BR has high abrasion and low frictional properties, its frictional property needs to be enhanced in order to be used as an outsole of a sport shoe. Such enhancement was difficult to achieve by simple blending of CIIR. In here, CIIR was added into BR matrix after CIIR was pre-crosslinked for a time period, and both high frictional and high abrasion resistance properties were achieved. Our experiments showed that the composite rubber blend of 60% of BR and 40% of pre-crosslinked CIIR had desired BR's frictional and abrasion resistance properties for sport shoes.
Effect of pH-Sensitive P(MAA-co-PEGMA) Hydrogels on Release and Stability of Albumin
Yang, Juseung ; Kim, Bumsang ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 262~268
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.262
pH-sensitive P(MAA-co-PEGMA) hydrogel particles were prepared and their feasibility as smart delivery carriers for cosmetic ingredients was evaluated. P(MAA-co-PEGMA) hydrogel particles having an average size of approx.
were synthesized via dispersion photopolymerization. There was a drastic change in the swelling ratio of P(MAA-co-PEGMA) particles at a pH of around 5 due to the ionization of MAA in the hydrogel and as the amount of MAA in the hydrogel increased, the swelling ratio increased at a pH above 5. The P(MAA-co-PEGMA) hydrogel particles showed a pH-sensitive release behavior. Thus, at pH 4 almost none of the albumin permeated through the skin while at pH 6 relatively high skin permeability was obtained. The albumin loaded in the P(MAA-co-PEGMA) hydrogel particles was hardly degraded in the presence of pepsin and its stability was maintained.
Effects of Accelerators on the Vulcanization Properties of Silica vs. Carbon Black Filled Natural Rubber Compounds
Kim, Sung-Min ; Kim, Kwang-Jea ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 269~275
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.269
Thiuram (DPTT, TMTD), thiazole (MBT, MBTS), sulfenamide (CBS, NOBS), and zinc containing thiuram (dithiocarbamate) (ZDBC) type accelerators were added into silica and carbon black filled natural rubber (NR) compounds. Their effects on vulcanization time and rate were compared. The vulcanization rate of thiuram type accelerator added compounds showed the fastest rate, followed by thiazole and sulfenamide types. Silica filled natural rubber (NR) compounds showed a slower vulcanization time (
) and lower cure rate index (CRI) than carbon black filled ones upon each accelerator.
Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Behavior of Aliphatic Acid Esters of N,O-Hydroxypropyl Chitosans
Kim, Hyo Gap ; Jung, Seung Yong ; Ma, Yung Dae ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 276~287
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.276
Two kinds of N,O-hydroxypropyl chitosans (HPCTOs) with degree of substitution (DS) and molar substitution (MS) ranging from 2.15 to 2.39 and 2.9 to 4.1, respectively, and five kinds of aliphatic acid esters of HPCTOs (HPCTOAms, m=0,2,4,7,9, the number of methylene units in aliphatic substituent) based on the HPCTOs were synthesized, and the thermotropic liquid crystalline properties of the derivatives were investigated. All the derivatives formed enantiotropic cholesteric phases whose optical pitches (
's) increased with increasing temperature. However, the glass and clearing temperatures, the magnitude of
of the mesophase at the same temperature, and the temperature dependence of
of the investigated derivatives highly depended on MS and m. The thermotropic mesophase properties of HPCTOAms were significantly different from those reported for the aliphatic acid esters of hydroxypropyl celluloses. The results indicate that the secondary amino group in the C-2 position plays an important role in the thermal stabilization and temperature dependence of
of the cholesteric mesophase.
Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Chiral (S)-Ibuprofen and Their Molecular Recognition Mechanism
Huangfu, Fengyun ; Wang, Bing ; Sun, Yan ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 288~293
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.288
A group of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with specific recognition for chiral (S)-ibuprofen were successfully prepared based on hydrogen bonds, utilizing
-methacrylic acid as a functional monomer. The IR analysis of MIPs showed that the blue- and red-shifted hydrogen bonds were formed between templates and functional monomers in the process of self-assembly imprinting and re-recognition, respectively. According to UV-Vis analysis, we found that the ratio of host-guest complexes between template molecule and functional monomer was 1:1. The effect of cross-linker's quantity on the polymerization was studied by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The adsorption selectivity experiments indicated that MIPs exhibited higher selectivity to (S)-ibuprofen than those to ketoprofen and (R)-ibuprofen, (S)-ibuprofen's structural analogs.
Characterization and Release Behavior of Polymersomes of PEG-Poly(fumaric-sebacic acids)-PEG Triblock Copolymer in Aqueous Solution
Pourhosseini, Pouneh S. ; Saboury, Ali A. ; Najafi, Farhood ; Divsalar, Adeleh ; Sarbolouki, Mohammad N. ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 294~301
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.294
Polymersomes made of biodegradable triblock copolymers based on poly(fumaric acid-co-sebacoyl chloride)/PEG (PEG-co-P(FA/SC)-co-PEG) were prepared and studied in aqueous solutions. TEM confirmed the formation of vesicles in aqueous media. Aggregation behavior of the copolymers was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and the critical aggregation concentration (c.a.c.) of the copolymer was found to be
indicating desirable stability of the vesicles. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the size of the vesicles was distributed within the range of 170-270 nm. Turbidity measurements confirmed the relative short-term stability of the polymersomes. Carboxyfluorescein, a hydrophilic compound, was simply encapsulated in the vesicles during polymersome preparation. The release of encapsulant from the polymersomes at 25 and
lasted about 3 weeks, and the rate of release followed a first-order kinetics. The release is speculated to be primarily carried out through diffusion. These results confirm that these polymersomes are promising as controlled-release carriers of various drugs.
Curing Behaviors of Transparent Aliphatic Epoxy Acrylate by Electron Beam Irradiation
Park, Sang-Yul ; Son, Hyemi ; Myung, Dongshin ; Kim, Myung-Hwa ; Seo, Young-Soo ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 302~307
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.302
We synthesized aliphatic epoxy acrylate monomer by the reaction of glycerol diglycidyl ether and acrylic acid. The reaction was monitored by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and
NMR. Electron-beam (E-beam) curing behaviors of the synthesized monomer were studied by spectroscopic analysis, glass transition temperature, and tensile properties. We found that curing reaction was complete in a low dosage of ca. 30 kGy. The viscosity of monomer was a low enough for coating without using diluents and the cured sample was highly transparent, indicating that the monomer can be used for an E-beam curable coating material on transparent optical films.
Modification of Silica Nanoparticles with Bis[3-(triethoxysilylpropyl)]tetrasulfide and Their Application for SBR Nanocomposite
Ryu, Hyun Soo ; Lee, Young Seok ; Lee, Jong Cheol ; Ha, KiRyong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 308~315
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.308
In this study, we performed surface modification of silica nanoparticles with bis[3-(triethoxysilylpropyl)]tetrasulfide (TESPT) silane coupling agent to study the effects of treatment temperature, treatment time, and amount of TESPT used on the silanization degree with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis (EA) and solid state
cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). We found peak area of isolated silanol groups at
decreased, but peak area of
asymmetric stretching of TESPT at
increased with the amount of TESPT from FTIR measurements. We also used universal testing machine (UTM) to study mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites with 20 phr (parts per hundred of rubber) of pristine and TESPT modified silicas, respectively. The tensile strength and 100% modulus of modified silica/SBR nanocomposite were enhanced from 5.65 to 9.38MPa, from 1.62 to 2.73 MPa, respectively, compared to those of pristine silica/SBR nanocomposite.
Effect of Fluorination and Ultrasonic Washing Treatment on Surface Characteristic of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
Kim, Do Young ; In, Se Jin ; Lee, Young-Seak ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 316~322
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.316
In this study, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was treated with fluorination and ultrasonic washing treatment for hydrophilic modification of PET film. We measured the change of surface modified PET film surface characteristics using contact angle, surface free energy, FE-SEM, AFM and XPS. After direct fluorination and ultrasonic washing treatment, the water contact angle was measured to be
, 85% reduction compared to the untreated PET film. Total surface free energy has been measured to be
, 650% increase compared to the untreated PET film. Also RMS roughness has been measured to be 1.965 nm, 348% increase compared to the untreated PET film. Hydrophilic functional group C-OH bond concentration has increased approximately 3 times. These results are attributed to the hydrophilic functional group and cavitation due to chemical etching. From this result, it was suggested that the fluorination-ultrasonic washing treatment method could be useful to make PET film surface hydrophilic.
Effect of Inflammatory Responses to PLGA Films Incorporated Hesperidin: In vitro and In vivo Results
Song, Jeong Eun ; Shim, Cho Rok ; Lee, Yujung ; Ko, Hyun Ah ; Yoon, Hyeon ; Lee, Dongwon ; Khang, Gilson ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 323~331
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.323
Hesperidin (Hes) has known to having some functions like protection of blood circulatory system, anti-tumor effect, antioxidant effect and anti-inflammatory effect. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the relationship between Hes and inflammatory through in vitro and in vivo studies using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film including Hes as a tissue engineered scaffold. To confirm the proliferation of cells on fabricated scaffold, cells (RAW 264.7 and NIH/3T3) were seeded on PLGA/Hes film then analyzed with MTT and SEM at 1 and 3 days after seeding. The results from ELISA, RT-PCR, and FACS for anti-oxident and anti-inflammatory effect showed that inflammatory response of PLGA/Hes film decreased more than that of PLGA film. Also, in vivo result confirmed that inflammatory response by implanted PLGA/Hes film decreased more comparing with PLGA film. This is because of anti-inflammatory effect of Hes reducing induced inflammatory cell and accumulation of fibrous capsule. The results showed that PLGA/Hes film's capacity on reducing inflammatory is better than PLGA film because of Hes.
Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of H-shaped Amphiphilic Pentablock Copolymer and Its Self-assembly Behavior
Chen, Peng ; Li, Ya-Peng ; Li, Cai-Jin ; Meng, Xin-Lei ; Zhang, Bao ; Zhu, Ming ; Liu, Yan-Jing ; Wang, Jing-Yuan ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 332~341
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.332
H-shaped amphiphilic pentablock copolymers
was synthesized via chemoenzymatic method by combining enzyme-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization (eROP) of
-CL) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene. By this process, we obtained copolymers with controlled molecular weight and low polydispersity. The structure and composition of the obtained copolymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and infrared spectroscopy analysis (IR). The crystallization behavior of the copolymers was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallization behavior of the H-shaped block copolymers demonstrated a PCL dominate crystallization. The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers was investigated in aqueous media. The hydrodynamic diameters of the copolymer micelles in aqueous solution were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The morphology of the copolymer micelles was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrodynamic diameters of spherical micelles declined gradually with the increase of the hydrophobic chain lengths of the copolymers. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values were determined from fluorescence emission, and it was found that the CMCs decreased with an increase of PSt hydrophobic block lengths.
Effect of Fillers on Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes in a Twin-Screw Extruder
Hong, Seung Soo ; Shin, Ji Hee ; Song, Kwon Bin ; Lee, Kwang Hee ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 342~346
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.342
In this study, it was attempted to disperse carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a polymer matrix using a twin-screw extruder which was good for dispersing fillers of micron sizes but not suitable for dispersing nanometer-sized materials. Improved dispersion of CNTs could be achieved by the addition of inorganic fillers with different geometrical shapes. An increase in the matrix viscosity provided a high shear stress on aggregated CNTs, leading to a good dispersion of CNTs. The presence of the inorganic fillers was supposed to suppress the re-aggregation of CNTs in the regions where a lower shear stress was applied. As a result, the CNTs dispersion was well stabilized.
Development of Porous Cellulose-Hydrogel System for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Quercetin and Rutin
Lee, Min Hye ; Kim, Su Ji ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 347~355
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.347
In this study, the porous cellulose hydrogel as a carrier to enhance the skin delivery of quercetin and its glycoside, rutin known as flavonoid antioxidants was prepared and its properties were investigated. The optimum cellulose hydrogel for quercetin and rutin was made by the reaction of 2 wt% cellulose with 12% ECH. In the release test of the hydrogel containing the flavonoids, the release of quercetin was diffusion-controlled at
, but rutin was released by the erosion of hydrogel system at
. Both the encapsulation efficiency and release amount of rutin in hydrogel were higher than quercetin. However, in skin permeation experiment using Franz diffusion cell, quercetin showed higher skin permeation capacity than rutin. The hydrogel containing flavonoids showed remarkable transdermal permeation than the control group. These results suggest that porous cellulose hydrogel is potential drug delivery system to enhance transdermal permeation of water-insoluble flavonoid antioxidants.
Microcapsules Containing Self-Healing Agent with Red Dye
Guang, Yang ; Lee, Jong Keun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 356~361
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.356
Microcapsules of two different self-healing agents, 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) and ENB with a crosslinker, surrounded by a melamine-urea-formaldehyde shell were manufactured. In this work, a red dye was incorporated into the self-healing agents as a tracer for better visual observations. It revealed that the incorporation of a red dye into self-healing agents did not disturb the formation of microcapsules from the examination of thermal resistance, particle size/size distribution and morphology of the resulting microcapsules. Releasing of self-healing liquid into the induced crack from ruptured microcapsules and filling between crack planes were observed using an optical microscope. Also observed was the reaction of filled healing agent with embedded Grubbs' catalyst in an epoxy coating layer.
Study on the Changes of Cellulose Molecular Weight and α-Cellulose Content by the Extrusion Conditions of Cellulose-NMMO Hydrate Solution
Kim, Dong-Bok ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 362~372
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.362
During extruder processing to manufacture cellulose fiber and film using cellulose-NMMO pre-dope produced by a new method, it seems to occur the changes of molecular weight and
-cellulose content of cellulose upon thermal and mechanical degradation. In an extruder making cellulose solutions from the pre-dope obtained by high-speed mixer, the changes of cellulose molecular weight and
-cellulose content resulted with the variations of processing temperature, concentration of cellulose, and residence time. The molecular weight and
-cellulose content of cellulose decreased with decreasing cellulose concentration and increasing processing temperature. At 15% concentration and short residence time region, the change of
-cellulose content was so high due to high-shear with an increase in temperature. From these processing conditions, the variations of
-cellulose content and molecular weight showed different behaviors, and these processing conditions for making cellulose solution were found to be important factors.
Effect of Surface Treatment of Polycarbonate Film on the Adhesion Characteristic of Deposited SiO
Kim, Gwan Hoon ; Hwang, Hee Nam ; Kim, Yang Kook ; Kang, Ho-Jong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 373~378
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.373
The interfacial adhesion strength is very important in
deposited PC film for the barrier enhanced polycarbonate (PC) flexible substrate. In this study, PC films were treated by undercoating, UV/
and low temperature plasma and then the effect of physical and chemical surface modifications on the interfacial adhesion strength between PC film and
barrier layer were studied. It was found that untreated PC film shows significantly low interfacial adhesion strength due to the smooth surface and low surface free energy of PC. Low temperature plasma treatments resulted in the increase of both surface roughness and surface free energy due to etching and the appearance of polar molecules on the PC surface. However, UV/
treatment only shows the increase of surface free energy by developed polar molecules on the surface. These surface modifications caused the enhancement of surface interfacial strength between PC film and
barrier. In the case of undercoating, it was found that the increase of surface interfacial strength was achieved by adhesion between various acrylic acid on acrylate coated surface and
without increase of polar surface energy. In addition, the barrier property is also improved by organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer structure.
Catalytic Pyrolysis of Miscanthus and Random Polypropylene over SAPO-11
Kang, Hyeon Koo ; Yu, Mi Jin ; Park, Sung Hoon ; Jeon, Jong-Ki ; Kim, Sang-Chai ; Park, Young-Kwon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 379~386
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.379
SAPO-11 was applied for the first time to the catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus and random polypropylene (random PP). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that SAPO-11 promoted the dehydration of miscanthus while suppressing the formation of char. In the pyrolysis of random PP, the decomposition temperature and activation energy were reduced by using a catalyst. A large fraction of levoglucosan, which was the main oxygenate product from the non-catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus, was converted to high value-added products, such as furans, phenolics and aromatics using SAPO-34. The catalytic pyrolysis of random PP produced gasoline- and diesel-range hydrocarbons.
Wound Healing Effect of Curcumin Gel for Transdermal Delivery
Kim, Jin ; Kim, Man Jong ; Lee, Ki-Young ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 387~392
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.387
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trasdermal delivery of the curcumin gel on healing of the rats' dorsum wounds. Carbopol 934 and propylene glycol were used to prepare gels containing 1% curcumin. Curcumin gel was evaluated for various properties such as antioxidant, cell viability, anti-inflammatory, in vivo wound healing. The free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was 50% at 12.5 ppm concentration. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by curcumin gel. In the curcumin gel-treated group, the re-epithelialization in wounds was significantly increased compared to the control group throughout the experimental period. These results suggested that curcumin may be helpful for the promotion of wound healing.
Characteristics and Hair Growth Efficacy of Water Dissolving Micro-needles Containing Minoxidil Regarding Length of Micro-needles
Han, Mee-Ree ; Kim, Eun-Young ; Jung, Yong-Hyun ; Kim, Myoung-Seok ; Park, Jung-Hwan ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 393~398
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.393
Two types of polymeric micro-needles with 250 and
lengths were prepared by a micromolding process. The geometry of dissolving micro-needles with minoxidil was investigated and the mechanical property of polymer micro-needles was also evaluated. Water dissolving micro-needles containing minoxidil were successfully inserted into skin and delivered minoxidil to the skin layer after 30 min of insertion. The observed hair growth was less when the minoxidil treatment was not applied or used without the micro-needles than that the minoxidil was applied by micro-needles. Histologically, these hair follicles became bigger, and the hair papillae were totally encircled by the hair bulbs. In this feasibility test, we show the successful delivery of minoxidil, and effective treatment of hair loss can be possible by using dissolving micro-needles with minoxidil.
Modification of Linear Polyphenylene Sulfide with Functional Elastomers and Its Properties
Kim, Sungki ; Hong, In-Kwon ; Lee, Sangmook ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 399~404
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.399
In order to develop the blends with good long-term thermal stability and tensile elongation, the blends of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and 7 kinds of elastomer were tested. PPS/elastomer (90/10, 80/20, 70/30) blend samples were prepared by compression molding after twin screw extrusion or punching after sheet extrusion. Rheological, mechanical property and morphology of the blends were analyzed by capillary rheometer, UTM, impact tester, and SEM. For long-term thermal stability tests, the mechanical properties were measured again after the samples were stored in a convection oven for a week. The tensile strengths were almost same regardless of kinds of elastomer and the tensile elongation was the maximum for the PPS/m-EVA blend. As the content of elastomer increased, the elongation increased but delamination occurred at 30 wt% of elastomer content. The tensile strength increased but the elongation decreased seriously after thermal aging. Many problems related with PPS processing could be solved by adding a small amount of the elastomers partially compatibile with PPS and it would be applicable to develop various PPS grades.
Compatibilization of Linear PPS/PET Blends with SEBS Copolymers
Kim, Sungki ; Hong, In-Kwon ; Lee, Sangmook ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 3, 2013, Pages 405~410
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.3.405
The effect of styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) on the blend of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was investigated. The blends were extruded by a single screw extruder equipped with a Maddock mixing screw, and their molded properties were examined. After the binary blends were prepared on the whole compositions of PPS/PET (80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80), the thermal, rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the blends were analyzed. The results showed the significant decline in the properties of the blends owing to the incompatibility between PPS and PET phases. As a basic blend composition, the PPS/PET (40/60) blend was selected by considering cost efficiency. To this basic blend, SEBS was added as a compatibilizer. With increasing SEBS addition, the mechanical properties were improved. From the domain size reduction observed in morphology, it might be due to the enhancement of compatibility between linear PPS and PET phases by addition of SEBS.