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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 37, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Fabrication and Medical Applications of Lotus-leaf-like Structured Superhydrophobic Surfaces
Lim, Jin Ik ; Kim, Seung Il ; Jung, Youngmee ; Kim, Soo Hyun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 411~419
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.411
Various biomaterials have been widely used for biomedical applications, including bio-organs, medical devices, and clinical devices like vessel, blood pumps, artificial kidneys and hearts, even in contact with blood. The issue of blood compatibility has been studied intensively to prevent negative effects such as thrombosis due to the implanted devices. The use of lotus-leaf-like structured surfaces has been extended to an increasing number of applications such as contamination prevention and anticorrosion applications. Various methods such as template, sol-gel transition, layer-by-layer, and other methods, developed for the fabrication of lotus-leaf-like surfaces have been reported for major industrial applications. Recently, the non-wettable character of these surfaces has been shown to be useful for biomedical applications ranging from blood-vessel replacement to antibacterial surface treatment. In this review, we provide a summary of current and future research efforts and opportunities in the development and medical applications of lotus-leaf-like structure surfaces.
Preparation and Characteristics of the Blends of Polyimide and Polybenzoxazole Having Imide Ring
Wee, Doo-Young ; Han, Jin-Woo ; Choi, Jae-Kon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 420~430
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.420
Polymer blends were prepared by solution blending poly(amic acid) (PAA) and poly(o-hydroxy amide) (PHA) having imide groups in the main chain. The polymers and their blends were characterized by using FTIR, FT NMR, DSC, TGA, SEM, XRD, UTM, and LOI. The solubility study revealed that the blends were readily soluble in aprotic solvents such as DMF, DMAc, DMSO, and NMP. The maximum weight loss of the blends occurred in the range of
, and the maximum weight loss temperature increased with increasing the PHA content. The PBO/PI blends showed relatively high char yields (i.e. 56-69 wt%). The LOI values of the blends were in the range of 24.5-28.1% and increased with increasing the PHA content. The initial modulus and tensile strength of the blends increased by 57 to 121% and by 67 to 107%, respectively, compared to the values of PAA. Especially the initial modulus and tensile strength of the PHA/PAA=2/8(wt/wt) showed the highest values of 4.87 GPa and 108 MPa, respectively. The PHA domains of
in their size were more or less uniformly dispersed. The interfacial adhesion between PAA and PHA was found to be good.
Surface Characteristics of Functional Polymer Film by Ion Beam Irradiation
Kim, Young Jun ; Hong, Seong Min ; Noh, Yong Oh ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 431~436
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.431
Polycarbonate (PC) films have been irradiated with various kinds of ions according to energy and dose. Change of the optical transmittance and chemical characteristics were confirmed by UV-VIS and FTIR (ATR) spectroscopy respectively. These UV-A block in 400 nm was variable from 10 to 100% according to energy and doses. Surface electrical resistance of PC film irradiated by ion beam was
, which reveal variation of conduction. Contact angle of film irradiated by ion beam was decreased than the pristine film. Polymer surface morphology was examined by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). As expected, degradation of polymer film was higher after irradiation with heavier Xe ions but the roughness in the polymer surface morphology were more pronounced for Ar ions. This observed effect can be explained by stronger compaction of polymer surface layer in the case of Xe irradiation, connected with a reduction of free volume available.
Performance of a Novel Sulfonate Flame Retardant Based on Adamantane for Polycarbonate
Guo, Jianwei ; Wang, Yueqin ; Feng, Lijuan ; Zhong, Xing ; Yang, Chufen ; Liu, Sa ; Cui, Yingde ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 437~441
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.437
A novel sulfonate flame retardant, 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(phenyl-4-sodium sulfonate)adamantane (FR-A), was successfully synthesized from 1-bromoadamantane in sequential four-step reactions involving Fiedel-Crafts phenylation, sulphonation, hydrolysis, and neutralization. The success of synthesis was confirmed by FTIR spectra,
NMR spectra, elemental analyses and mass spectra. The effect of FR-A on the flame retardacy of polycarbonate (PC) has been studied. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that this novel sulfonate flame retardant had effective flame retardancy on polycarbonate (PC). With a small amount (0.08 wt%) of FR-A, the flame retardancy of PC was improved obviously, which got to UL 94 V-0 rating. TGA and DTA curves demonstrated that the additive raised the degradation rate of PC by promoting the quick formation of an insulating carbon layer on the surface, and confirmed that the flame retardant mechanism of PC/FR-A system was similar to potassium diphenylsulfone sulfonate (KSS).
Preparation and Characterization of Solid Dispersions of Eprosartan Using Spray Drying Method
Hwang, Jun Seok ; Kim, So Hee ; Cho, Sun Hang ; Huh, Kang Moo ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 442~448
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.442
In this study, we developed and optimized hydrophilic polymer-based solid dispersion formulations (SDs) using a spray drying method for improving the aqueous solubility of eprosartan, one of poorly soluble drugs that has been broadly used for the treatment of high blood pressure. Hydroxylpropylcellulose (HPC) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used as hydrophilic polymer matrices and poloxamer 407 (P407) added as a polymeric surfactant. Various kinds of solid dispersions with different drug/polymer compositions were prepared and their physico-chemical properties were compared. As the polymer content increased, the drug crystallinity in the SDs significantly decreased and the dissolution properties were enhanced. The PVP based SDs were observed to have relatively reduced crystallinity and an enhanced dissolution rate than HPC-based SDs, due to better miscibility between drug and polymer matrix. For PVP based SDs, the drug crystallinity almost disappeared and the dissolution properties significantly increased by more than 3~7 times.
Influence of Electroless Ni-plated MWCNTs on Thermal Conductivity and Fracture Toughness of MWCNTs/Al
Choi, Jeong-Ran ; Lee, Young-Sil ; Park, Soo-Jin ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 449~454
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.449
In this work, the effect of electroless Ni-plating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on thermal conductivity and fracture toughness properties of MWCNTs/
/epoxy composites was investigated. The surface properties of the Ni-plated MWCNTs were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Thermal conductivity was tested using a thermal conductivity measuring system. The fracture toughness of the composites was carried out through the critical stress intensity factor (
) measurement. As a result, the electroless Ni-plated MWCNTs led to a significant change of surface characteristics of the MWCNTs. Thermal conductivity and fracture toughness of the MWCNTs/
/epoxy composites were greater than those of non-treated ones. These results were probably due to the improvement of intermolecular interaction between the Ni-MWCNTs and the matrix resins.
Mar Behavior and Quantitative Evaluation of Urethane-Acrylate Coatings with a Different Gloss
Jung, Won-Young ; Weon, Jong-Il ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 455~461
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.455
Mar behavior and visibility were investigated by applying a constant load to various gloss-coated urethane-acrylate surfaces. Using a area-contact scratch tip which can apply a relatively low stress level to the coated surfaces, the mar damages were generated on the surfaces. When evaluating the mar-induced damage by means of delta-gloss (
) and delta-luminance (
) with existing test methodologies, an increase in constant load on the same gloss-coated surface leads to an increase in
. However, these are not suitable for evaluating and comparing the surface damages of different gloss-coated samples because of a disagreement between the measured values and the mar visibility. It is shown that new mar test assessment proposed in this work not only can be used to quantitatively evaluate the mar damage, but also accounts for the correlation that the increases of the normalized gloss and luminance on coated surfaces correspond with an increase in the mar visibility.
Development of Hydrogel Containing Catechin for Wound Dressing
Kim, Jin ; Cho, Eun Bi ; Lee, Ki-Young ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 462~469
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.462
Catechin (CTEC) is well-known as a very powerful antioxidant, containing the effects of anti-inflammation and skin wound healing. In this study, CTEC/
-CD) nanoparticles were incorporated into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/pectin (PT) hydrogel. The composite was designed for the induction of re-epithelializaton in skin wound. CTEC/
-CD nanoparticles were prepared by a molecular complex method. The size of the CTEC nanoparticles formed in the hydrogel was in the range of
nm. The incorporation efficiency of CTEC in the nanoparticles was 74%. The cumulative amounts of CTEC released from the hydrogel containing CTEC nanoparticles in the buffers of pH7.4 and 5.5 were
of total CTEC loaded in the hydrogel within 72 h, respectively. Also, in the wound healing test, the CTEC nanoparticles-loaded PVA/PT hydrogel showed faster healing of the wound made in rat dorsum than the CTEC gel.
Effect of Dispersion Control of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube in High Filler Content Nano-composite Paste for the Fabrication of Counter Electrode in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell
Park, So Hyun ; Hong, Sung Chul ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 470~477
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.470
Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) based nano-composite pastes having a high filler content are prepared for the facile fabrication of a counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A polystyrene-based functional block copolymer is prepared through a controlled "living" radical polymerization technique, affording a surface modifier for the dispersion control of MWCNT in the paste. Physical dispersion through a ball-milling method additionally confirms the importance of the dispersion control, providing DSSC with enhanced processibility and improved solar-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency (
) values. The performances of the DSSCs are further improved through the incorporation of minor amount of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles into the MWCNT pastes. The DSSC with the Pt/MWCNT hybrid CE exhibits very high
values, which is superior to that of DSSC with the standard Pt CE.
Swelling Behavior of Low Toxic Absorbent Based on Biopolymer
Jung, Jin Hee ; Kim, Jin ; Lee, Ki-Young ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 478~485
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.478
In this study, hydrogels with fast swelling and high absorbent properties were prepared using biopolymers approved as a food additive and their swelling properties were characterized. To improve the swelling properties of conventional hydrogels, we formed gas bubbles using a foaming agent in the process of preparing hydrogels and characterized in terms of equilibrium swelling ratio, swelling kinetics and cytotoxicity. In particular, alginate hydrogels observed by a digital microscope have an open-pore channels structure with the sizes of hundreds micrometers. Also, the cell viability of all hydrogels were found to be much higher than that of poly(acrylic acid).
Preparation of Coil-Embolic Material Using Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol) Gel Spun Fibers
Seo, Young Ho ; Oh, Tae Hwan ; Han, Sung Soo ; Joo, Sang Woo ; Khil, Myeong Seob ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 486~493
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.486
The structure, morphology, and physical properties of syndiotatic poly(vinyl alcohol) (s-PVA) gel spun fibers were investigated to prepare polymeric embolization coils. S-PVA was prepared by saponification of the poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl pivalate)(PVAc/PVPi) copolymer. The viscosity of s-PVA solutions showed shear thinning behavior and the solution formed a homogeneous phase. Based on shear viscosity change with concentration, the optimum dope concentration was selected as 13 wt%, after which s-PVA fibers were spun and the solvent was removed. The fibers were then drawn with a maximum draw ratio of 15. A polymeric embolization coil was made of the s-PVA gel-spun fibers. The fibers were wound densely onto rigid rod and then annealed at different annealing temperatures. The polymeric embolization coil annealed at
was similar to metallic coils and its shape was maintained well after extension. Overall, gel-spun PVA fibers performed well for the preparation of primary and secondary coils to replace metallic coils.
Rheological Properties and Foaming Behaviors of Modified PP/Nano-filler Composites
Yoon, Kyung Hwa ; Lee, Jong Won ; Kim, Youn Cheol ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 494~499
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.494
Modified polypropylene (m-PP) was fabricated by furfuryl sulphide (FS) as branching agent and m-PP/nano-filler composites were prepared with silicate and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), using a twin screw extruder. The chemical structures and thermal properties of the m-PP were investigated by FTIR and DSC. The chemical structure of the m-PP was confirmed by the existence of =C-H stretching peak of the branching agent at 3100
. There was no district change in melting temperature in case of m-PP, but a certain increase in crystallization temperature was notified and the increase was in the range of
. The rheological properties, filler dispersion and foaming behaviors of the m-PP/nano-filler composites were investigated by dynamic rheometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning/transmission electron microscope (SEM/TEM). m-PP/nano-filler composites showed a high complex viscosity at a low frequency, an increase in melt elasticity, and a high shear thinning effect. Compared to pure PP, m-PP and m-PP/nano-filler composites were sufficient to enhance the foaming behavior.
Effect of Compatibilizer Types on the Properties of Linear PPS/PET Blends
Kim, Sungki ; Hong, In-Kwon ; Lee, Sangmook ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 500~506
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.500
The effect of compatibilizer types on the properties of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blends was investigated. The blends were extruded by a single screw extruder attached with a Maddock mixing zone and their molded properties were examined. As a basic blend composition, a linear PPS/PET (40/60) blend was selected based on cost efficiency. Three types of compatibilizer, SEBS, modified SEBS, and modified PS were added to the basic blend to improve the properties. The thermal, rheological, mechanical properties and the morphology of the ternary blends were analyzed. The maximum mechanical properties of blends was found at 1 phr of m-SEBS or m-PS content, whose values were almost the same as the theoretical values of miscible blend system. It seemed to by the case that the partial reaction between compatibilizer and the basic blend caused the enhancement of compatibility between linear PPS and PET phases. These ternary blends would be applicable as economic linear PPS alloys.
Preparation of Graphene/Waterborne Polyurethane Nanocomposite through in-situ Polymerization
Cha, Ji-Jung ; Yim, Jin-Heong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 507~512
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.507
A graphene/waterborne polyurethane (WPU) nano composite was prepared by in-situ polymerization of PU and graphene having isocyanate (iGO) group in order to improve physicochemical/electrical characteristics. The properties of the graphene/WPU nanocomposite can effectively be enhanced as compared pristine WPU; up to 57% of tensile strength and
fold of electrical conductivity with introduction of 2 wt% graphene. In addition, mechanical/electrical properties of the graphene/WPU nanocompsite were higher than those of graphene/WPU composite prepared by a simple physical blend method. It might attribute to homogeneous dispersion of iGO in the WPU matrix via covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds between WPU and iGO from the results of morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Preparation of Graphene/Polybenzoxazine Conductive Composite Thin Film through Thermal Treatment
Ko, Young Soo ; Cha, Ji-Jung ; Yim, Jin-Heong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 513~517
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.513
A novel conductive composite thin film was prepared for the first time by hybridization between polybenzoxazine (PBZ) having high heat resistance property and conductive graphene. Mechanically robust conductive graphene/PBZ composite thin films could effectively be prepared by a simple thermal treatment, which simultaneously induces reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and crosslinking reaction of benzoxazine monomer. Graphene sheets seem to be uniformly dispersed up to 3 wt% graphene content in the composite thin film as shown in the results of chemical/crystal structural and morphological analyses. This efficient route for making graphene/PBZ composite thin film would provide simultaneous improvement of mechanical property as well as electrical conductivity.
Effect on Graphene Addition on Characteristics of Polypropylene Biocomposites Reinforced with Sulfuric Acid Treated Green Algae
Jang, Young Hun ; Han, Seong Ok ; Kim, Hyung-Il ; Sim, I Na ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 518~525
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.518
To improve the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) biocomposites reinforced with sulfuric acidtreated green algae (SGA), SGA/graphite nanoplatelets (GNP)/PP biocomposites were prepared and their properties were evaluated depending on the particle size and content of GNP. The flexural and impact strength of SGA/GNP/PP biocomposites decreased with the addition of GNP, whereas the flexrual and storage moduli were greatly improved with increasing GNP loading. SGA/GNP/PP biocomposites reinforced with GNP5 showed generally better mechanical properties compared to that reinforced with GNP15 mainly due to the improved dispersion of the smaller GNP. SGA/GNP/PP biocomposites reinforced with GNP5 showed a lower resistance to the thermal expansion because the relatively uniform dispersion of smaller GNP was responsible for the effective heat transfer to the polymer matrix. As a result, SGA/GNP/PP biocomposite was acceptable for the general purpose application due to the improved flexural resistance, storage moduli, and damping characteristics.
Comparative Study of Physical Dispersion Method on Properties of Polystyrene/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites
Kang, Myung Hwan ; Yeom, Hyo Yeol ; Na, Hyo Yeol ; Lee, Seong Jae ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 526~532
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.526
The effect of CNT dispersion method on rheological and electrical properties of polystyrene/carbon nanotube (PS/CNT) nanocomposites via latex technology was compared. The nanocomposites were prepared through freeze-drying the dispersed suspension comprised of CNTs and PS particles. In this study, physical dispersion method, either sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) addition or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) wrapping, was employed to prevent the deterioration of intrinsic properties of CNT caused by chemical modification. The physical method applied to latex technology was very effective in CNT dispersion. With SDS addition, the enhancement of rheological properties was low compared to PVP wrapping because the properties of matrix were deteriorated due to the incorporation of low molecular weight SDS. The electrical percolation threshold of PS/SDS-stabilized CNT and PS/PVP-wrapped CNT nanocomposites was 0.23 and 0.90 wt%, respectively. The enhancement of electrical conductivity was low in the case of PVP wrapping because the non-conducting PVPs wrapped around CNT restricted the electrical connection between CNTs.
Effect of Ionic Polymers on Sodium Intake Reduction
Park, Sehyun ; Lee, YoungJoo ; Lee, Jonghwi ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 533~538
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.533
Sodium chloride is present in our body fluids, and the blood contains approximately 0.9 wt% salt, which plays an important role in maintaining the osmotic pressure. However, the amount of salt intake has consistently increased, and an excessive intake can be the cause of high blood pressure, etc. In this study, it was investigated in vivo and in vitro whether biocompatible ionic polymers with K or Ca ions can be replaced by Na ions through an ion exchange process to be excreted. Among the polymers, Ca-polystyrene sulfonate, K-polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-carrageenan, and Ca-tamarind had an excellent Na exchange ability in the body temperature, simulated gastric fluid and also simulated intestinal fluid. The mechanism of Na removal by absorption and excretion without changing food taste in the mouth through the insolubility properties of these polymers is expected to be a solution for the current problems related with excess sodium intake.
Synthesis and Thermo-responsive Properties of Amino Group Terminated Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Sodium Alginate-g-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)
Lee, Eun Ju ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 539~546
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.539
Amino group-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm-
) was synthesized via a radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) using 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride (AESH) as a chain transfer agent. The molecular weight of the PNIPAAm-
was controlled by changing the concentration of AESH. The LCST of the aqueous solution of PNIPAAm-
increased slightly with increasing the AESH concentration. Alginate-g-PNIPAAm copolymer was synthesized by grafting PNIPAAm-
onto sodium alginate using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The formation of the grafted copolymers was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, solubility in water, and SEM-EDS. Alginate-g-PNIPAAm also exhibited swelling-deswelling behavior. However, it showed a LCST at a slightly increased temperature compared to PNIPAAm. The swelling ratio of the alginate-g-PNIPAAm hydrogel increased with the increase of the grafted PNIPAAm content.
Preparation of Aminosiloxane-grafted Poly(imidesiloxane) Copolymer and its Morphology and Adhesive Properties in Film
Lee, Ji Mok ; Kwon, Eunjin ; Lee, Sunyoung ; Jung, Hyun Min ;
Polymer Korea, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 547~552
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2013.37.4.547
Polyimide (PI) containing carboxyl functional group was prepared and reacted with diaminosiloxane during high temperature film casting. The morphology of resulting film was observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which revealed that globular 100 nm-sized PI domains and continuous polysiloxane phase were formed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study indicated that air-film interface mainly consisted of polysiloxane blocks. Poly(imidesiloxane) thin layer was thermostable until
and its pressure- sensitive adhesive property was retained up to
. The comparative experiments revealed that grafting between carboxyl groups of polyimide and aminosiloxane was crucial for formation of microdomain structure and pressure-sensitive adhesive property.