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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 38, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Effects of Surface Color and Morphology on the Mar Behaviors of Urethane-Acrylate Coatings
Jung, Won-Young ; Weon, Jong-Il ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.1
The effects of surface color and morphology on the mar behaviors of urethane-acrylate coated surfaces were examined. The superiority of mar resistance was observed in the order of white, red and black-colored samples. This can be explained by a contrast effect. In other words, in case of black colored sample, it takes place the defuse reflection of the incident light on the damaged region where mar damage exerts, leading to whitening phenomenon. Therefore, the damaged region is easily recognized by contrasting the black background. On the other hand, it is difficult for the white-colored sample to perceive the mar-damaged area by the white background acting as protecting coloration. As the gloss of urethane-acrylate coated surface increases, it is observed that there is an increase in the number of carbonyl (-C=O) function group, amount of ethylene and silica. The enhancements of surface rigidity by adding the silica particles and formation of carbonyl function groups by the surface oxidation lead to the increase in mar resistance, while the increase of polyethylene wax is responsible for the improved gloss and smooth-faced surface. Based on the above findings, technical approaches leading the improvement of mar resistance of the urethane-acrylate coated surface are discussed.
Preparation and Characterization of Polyamide4(PA4)-Polyurethane(PU)-PA4 Triblock Copolymers
Park, Ki Wan ; Kim, Dong Hyun ; Kim, Hyung Joong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.9
Polyamide4 (PA4)-polyurethane (PU)-PA4 triblock copolymers were synthesized by isocynated (NCO)-terminated PU prepared from 4,4'-diphenyl methane diisocyante (MDI) and polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) as an initiator and potassium pyrrolidonate (P-py) as a catalyst for anionic ring opening polymerization of 2-pyrrolidone. Subsequently copolymer was controlled to contain different or same molecular weight of PA4 hard block with same or different molecular weight of PU soft block in order to investigate the effects of those differences on various properties of triblock copolymers as a thermoplastic elastomer. As the results shown in typical properties of block copolymeric elastomers, the mechanical strength and melting point (
) of the copolymers increased with an increase in molecular weight of PA4 block while the elongation at break increased with an increase in that of PU block.
Optimization of Preparing Poly(AM-DMDAAC)/MMT Superabsorbent Nanocomposite by Orthogonal Experiment
Zhou, Ming ; Yang, Shuangqiao ; Zhou, Yongguo ; Qin, Nan ; He, Songtao ; Lai, Dong ; Xie, Zhongqiang ; Yuan, Jundong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 16~23
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.16
A novel poly(AM-DMDAAC)/MMT superabsorbent nanocomposites are prepared by radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) and anhydrous sodium sulfite as a free radical initiator and N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. In this paper, an optimization study on the synthesis of superabsorbent nanocomposites is carried out. Orthogonal array experiment indicates that the optimized conditions is acrylamide (AM) content 23 wt%, diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAAC) content 6 wt%, montmorillonite (MMT) content 4 wt%, initiator content 0.2 wt% and crosslinker content 0.02 wt%. Under the optimization syntheses conditions concluded, the maximum water absorbency in distilled water is
and in 2 wt% sodium chloride solution is
. Compared with the range values of different factors (
), the order of significance factors in distilled water is C (MMT) > B (DMDAAC) > A (AM) > D (crosslinker) > E (initiator). MMT is intercalated during polymerization reaction and a nanocomposite structure is formed as shown by TEM analysis and XRD analysis.
Adhesion and Proliferation Behavior of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells on Hesperidin/PLGA Films
Lee, So Jin ; Kang, Su Ji ; Kim, Hye Yun ; Lee, Jung Hwan ; Kim, Eun Young ; Kwon, Soon Yong ; Chung, Jin Wha ; Joo, Choun-Ki ; Khang, Gilson ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 24~30
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.24
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in maintaining the visual function and the degeneration of the RPE causes several retinal degeneration disease. In order to fabricate the suitable carrier for RPE transplantation, the hybrid poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) film with hesperidin was prepared. Hesperidin has an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. ARPE-19 was seeded on hesperidin/PLGA film and then, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay, and cell adhesion and cell morphology were confirmed by SEM. Also, RT-PCR was performed to confirm the expression of the specific genes, and AEC immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the expression of RPE65. As a result, we confirmed that attachment, proliferation and phenotype maintenance of RPE cells were more excellent on hesperidin/PLGA film than PLGA film, thereby we were able to confirm the potential applications of hesperidin/PLGA film as tissue engineering carrier for regeneration of retina.
Preparation and Characterization of Nylon 6,5 Copolymers from ε-Caprolactam and 2-Piperidone
Kim, Hye Young ; Goh, Jin-Seon ; Ryu, Mi Hee ; Kim, Dae Su ; Song, Bong-Keun ; Lee, Seung Hwan ; Park, Si-Jae ; Jegal, Jonggeon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.31
To prepare biomass based nylon 6,5 copolymers,
-caprolactam and 2-piperidone, the monomers of nylon 6,5 copolymers, were synthesized respectively from lysine and 5-aminovaleric acid which were produced from glucose by the fermentation process. The copolymers were then polymerized by the anionic ring opening polymerization of them at
, using potassium tert-butoxide as a catalyst and acetyl-2-caprolactam and carbon dioxide as initiators. The prepared copolymers were characterized with various analytical methods: their viscosity molecular weight (
) was as high as 30000 g/mol and polymerization yield was over 50%, and it was found that they were semi-crystalline polymers having melting point at
which was much lower than its thermal degradation point,
. These polymers were expected to have good thermal processability and application fields.
Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymer and Graphene Oxide Composite Used as an Efficient Hole-Transporting Layer for Organic Solar Cells
Kim, Kyu-Ri ; Oh, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Hyun Bin ; Jeun, Joon-Pyo ; Kang, Phil-Huyn ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 38~42
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.38
The poly[(9,9-bis((6'-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-(9,9-bis(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)-9-fluorene)) dibromide (WPF-6-oxy-F)] and graphene oxide (GO) was blended and irradiated with gamma ray under ambient condition. This WPF-6-oxy-F-GO composite was investigated as a hole-transporting layer (HTL) in organic solar cells (OSCs). Compared with the pristine GO, the sheet resistance (
) of irradiated WPF-6-oxy-F-GO was decreased about 2 orders of magnitude. The reason for the decrease of
is the effect of efficient
packing resulted from the formation of C-N bond between WPF6-oxy-F and GO. As a result, the efficiency of OSCs was dramatically enhanced ~ 6.10% by introducing irradiated WPF-6-oxy-F-GO as a HTL. WPF-6-oxy-F-GO is a sufficient candidate for HTL to facilitate the low-cost and high efficiency OSCs.
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyethylenimine-conjugated Polydiacetylene Liposome as a Gene Delivery Carrier
Lee, Young Hwa ; Yim, Kang Hyuck ; Heo, Jungseok ; Choi, Joon Sig ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.43
In this paper, we made a new polycationic polymeric liposome composed of low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) and 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA). PCDA liposome was prepared by ultraviolet irradiation. PEI was further conjugated on the surface of the polymerized PCDA liposome using coupling reagents to make PCDA-PEI. The blue-to-red transition of PCDA liposome was observed during the coupling reaction. The size distribution of liposome and complexes with plasmid DNA was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The complex formation was also identified by agarose gel electrophoresis and PicoGreen reagent assay. We confirmed the complex formation of the polymeric liposome with DNA and then performed transfection and cytotoxicity assay in HEK 293 and HeLa cells. As a result, PCDA-PEI showed significant gene transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. This study shows that PEI-conjugated PCDA liposome could be an efficient gene or drug delivery carrier.
Thermal Melt Grafting of Maleimides Having UV-absorber onto Polypropylene
Kim, Taek Hyeon ; Na, Hye-Sun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 49~53
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.49
A novel monomeric UV-absorber was prepared by the reaction of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone with N-4-chlorocarbonylphenylmaleimide in the presence of triethylamine. This reactive maleimide was grafted onto polypropylene (PP) by the thermal melt-processing in a mini-max-moulder. IR spectroscopic method was used for the quantitative determination of the extent of grafting of monomeric maleimide. To find the optimal reaction conditions, the dependence of reaction temperature and time and the concentration of monomeric UV-absorber was investigated on the grafting yields. The photooxidative effect of the grafted PP was evaluated in the weatherometer comparing to the PP mixed with UV-absorbers using the carbonyl index of IR spectrum. The grafted PP showed an excellent anti-photooxidative effect.
Preparation of Sulfobetaine Chitosan, Silk Blended Films, and Their Properties
Koo, Ja-Sung ; Cha, Jae-Ryung ; Oh, Se-Heang ; Gong, Myoung-Seon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 54~61
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.54
Water-soluble sulfobetaine chitosan (SCs) was prepared for a blending film with Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) by reacting chitosan with 1,3-propanesultone. A series of SF/SCs blended films were successfully prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of B. mori SF and SCs. The SF/SCs blended films were examined through spectroscopic and thermal analysis to determine the morphological changes of SF in the SCs. The effects of the SF/SCs blend ratios on physical and mechanical properties were investigated to discover the feasibility of using these films as biomedical materials such as artificial skin and wound dressing. X-ray analysis showed good compatibility between the two biopolymers. The in vitro degradation behavior of the SF/SCs blended films was systematically investigated for up to 8 weeks in phosphate buffered saline solution at
and showed a mass loss of 46.4% after 8 weeks. All films showed no cytotoxicity by MC3T3-E1 assay. After 3 days of culture, the relative cell number on all the SF/SCs films was slightly lower than that of an optimized tissue culture plastic.
Fabrication of EPDM Rubber/Organo-bentonite Composites: Influence of Hydrochloric Acid on the Characteristics of Modified Bentonite and Final Products
Ge, Xin ; Li, Mei-Chun ; Cho, Ur Ryong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 62~68
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.62
To improve the compatibility of bentonite with rubber matrix, organo-modified bentonite was synthesized with a silane coupling agent, [3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS) in the suspension of bentonite. The structure and characteristics of organo-modified bentonite were investigated using FTIR-spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber/organo-bentonite composites were compounded by a two-roll mill. The vulcanization and mechanical properties were studied. Results showed that the concentration of hydrochloric acid and
in the synthesis had significant influence on the modification of bentonite, which further contributed to the properties of the composites. Filled with 20 phr modified bentonite, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the rubber increased from 1.95 to 4.8 MPa and 300% to 500%, respectively.
Radiation Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Evaluation of Polysaccharide Hydrogels from Ulmus Davidiana Var. Japonica
Gwon, Hui-Jeong ; Park, Eun Ji ; Choi, Jong-Bae ; Lim, Jong-Young ; Jeong, Jin-Oh ; Shin, Young-Min ; Jeong, Sung In ; Park, Jong-Seok ; Lim, Youn-Mook ; Choi, Young-Hun ; Kim, Sang-Suk ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 69~73
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.69
In this study, polysaccharide-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels were prepared by using
-ray and evaluated for potential application as an anti-inflammation patch. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (UD), one of polysaccharides has been particularly used as an oriental remedy for the treatment of inflammation and ulcers. PVA as a biocompatible polymer and glycerin as a moisturizer were blended with the UD, and its hydrogels were prepared by radiation crosslinking. Characterizations for UD hydrogels were performed by using cytotoxicity assay, antioxidant activity test, and physicochemical test such as gel fraction ratio, and swelling behavior. The results showed that these UD hydrogels had excellent physical properties, anti-inflammation activity, and non-cytotoxicity on the cells. Therefore, these polysaccharide based-UD hydrogels can be effectively used as an inflammation patch.
Synthesis and Characterization of Composite Paper Using Polyamide Fiber and Surface Modified Microfibrillated Cellulose
Lee, Jong-Hee ; Lim, Jung-Hyurk ; Kim, Ki-Young ; Kim, Kyung-Min ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 74~79
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.74
Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was chemically modified with two different silane coupling agents (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane) and lauroyl chloride. The surface modification of MFC was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and contact angle measurements. Composite paper was successfully prepared with surface modified MFC and polyamide (PA) fiber. The surface modification of MFC not only prevented aggregation of MFC but also improved adhesive property between PA fiber and surface modified MFC. It was impossible to prepare papers of only PA fiber because there is no binder to connect PA fibers. That is, surface modified MFC as a binder in PA fiber played a crucial role in making composite paper. Composite paper with silane modified MFC showed higher tensile strength and modulus than composite paper with lauroyl moiety modified MFC. The structure, morphology, and mechanical properties of composite paper were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and universal testing machine (UTM).
Baroplastic Properties of Core-double Shell Type Nanoparticles Consisting of Crosslinked PS as a Core and PBA and PS as Shells
Park, Ji-Young ; Ryu, Sang-Woog ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 80~84
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.80
Polymer nanoparticles with cross-linked core and PBA/PS double-shell were synthesized and their baroplastic properties were characterized. PBA/PS, the inner and outer shell with cross-linked core consisting of St and DVB were synthesized by three-stage emulsion polymerization. The obtained materials exhibited pressure-induced mixing of their components and could be processed at
by compression molding which means there was no effect of the presence of cross-linked core. Interestingly, the Young's modulus of molded objects has found to be affected strongly by the size of double-shell nanoparticles. Furthermore, the molded object of higher PBA content was successfully recycled 5 times at
and showed 0.55 MPa of modulus and 1.81 MPa of strength at break.
Preparation and Characterization of Highly Pured Water-soluble Chitosan Oligosaccharides as Biomaterials
Park, Jun-Kyu ; Choi, Changyong ; Nam, Joung-Pyo ; Park, Seong-Cheol ; Park, YungHoon ; Jang, Mi-Kyeong ; Nah, Jae-Woon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.85
To develop water-soluble chitosan as an effient gene delivery carrier, chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) with various molecular weights (MW) were studied for gene transfection agents. MWs of COSs fractionated by ultrafiltration techniques were identified as narrow MW distributions with the average MW ranging from 1 to 10 kDa through gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement depending on the applied ultrafiltration membranes. Their structural characterizations were analyzed by FTIR spectrophotometer and
NMR. The degree of deacetylation was determined by UV spectroscopy showing the degree of deacetylation above 90%. The relative cell viabilities were maintained over 100% (10 mg/mL), independent of the MW of the fractionated COSs. The fractionated COSs of 10 mg/mL concentration with narrow MW distributions showed non-cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells.
Effect of Drug Eluting Uniformity for Biodegradable Stent by Solid Freeform Fabrication
Cheong, Sin Young ; Kim, Yang Eun ; Koh, Young Joo ; Shin, Wang Soo ; Lee, Jun Hee ; Kim, Wan Doo ; Yoo, Young Eun ; Park, Su A ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 93~97
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.93
Biodegradable drug-eluting stent has dual functions of supporting the lumen and treating internal tumor preventing the restenosis by releasing drug. In this study, the polycaprolactone (PCL) based three dimensional (3D) mesh loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) was presented by rapid prototyping (RP) technique of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for biodegradable drug-eluting stent application. PCL has many advantageous properties such as good biocompatibility, good mechanical properties, and good drug permeability. PTX is widely used in the cancer treatment by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. Analytical methods of HPLC and NMR were used for simultaneous quantification of PTX. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the architecture and morphologies of 3D mesh. The cytotoxicity assay results indicated released PTX's biological activity. This study provided that PCL based 3D mesh loaded with PTX by RP technique has great potential for biodegradable drug-eluting stent application.
Fabrication of Porous Silk Fibroin Microparticles by Electrohydrodynamic Spraying
Kim, Moo Kon ; Lee, Ki Hoon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 98~102
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.98
Nowadays, silk fibroin receives a lot of attention as novel natural biomaterials due to its excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Electrohydrodynamic spraying (EHDS) is one of the method for the preparation of micro or nanoparticles by applying high voltage to the polymer solution. In this research, we fabricated silk fibroin porous microparticles by electrohydrodynamic spraying. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was added to the fibroin solution to give pores to silk fibroin microparticles. By the addition of PEG, the microparticle size was decreased despite of the decrease in conductivity and the increase of viscosity of the spraying solution. It seems that the immiscibility of silk fibroin and PEG affected much more to the microparticle size than the conductivity and viscosity. Immersing the as-sprayed microparticles into the water removed the phase-separated PEG, and finally, porous silk fibroin microparticles were prepared. The porous silk fibroin microparticles are expected to be applied as drug carriers in drug delivery or cell carriers in tissue engineering.
Reflectance and Flexural Modulus of ABS/TiO
Kim, Jun Hong ; Yoon, Kwan Han ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 103~107
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.103
Poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) composite sheets containing titanium dioxide (
), barium sulfate (
), calcium carbonate (
) were prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder, and the reflectance and flexural modulus of the composite sheets were measured. The fillers were well dispersed in ABS matrix. The reflectance of composite sheet was increased with increasing
content. Sheet having
20 wt% composition, with 5~20 wt%
resulted in more than 95% of reflectance. The flexural modulus of composite sheet was increased from 1864 MPa for
85/10/5 (w/w/w) to 3134 MPa for
Oxidative Gelation of Dopamine-modified Polyaspartamides by NaIO
Jeon, Young Sil ; Bui, Quang Tri ; An, Jung Hyun ; Chung, Dong June ; Kim, Ji-Heung ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 1, 2014, Pages 108~112
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.1.108
Novel adhesive polyaspartamides containing catechol and primary amine pendent groups were synthesized through successive ring-opening aminolysis reactions of dopamine (DOP) and ethylenediamine (EDA) with polysuccinimide (PSI). The oxidative gelation of aqueous dopamine-modified polyaspartamide was observed by adding
as the oxidizing reagent. FTIR, UV-vis and oscillatory rheometry was used to elucidate the oxidative cross-linking toward gel formation. The prepared gel was characterized by the swelling degree, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).