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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 38, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Gradient Structure and Surface Property of Fluorinated Polyacrylate and Polyurethane Latex Blend Films
Zhu, Min ; Chen, Kun ; Zhang, Yufang ; Wang, Xiangrongm ; Zhou, Xiangdong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 265~271
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.265
In order to investigate the characteristics of the gradient fluorinated polyacrylate and polyurethane latex blend films, the fluorinated polyacrylate emulsion and the polyurethane emulsion were synthesized, and then the both emulsions were blended at a series of ratios. The effects of content of the fluorinated polyacrylate on the gradient structure and surface property of the blended films were assessed by AFM, XPS, SEM-EDX and surface free energy measurements. It appeared that, while the content of the fluorinated polyacrylate latex was up to 30%, the fluorinated polyacrylate particles were selectively gathered on the film-air (F-A) and film-glass (F-G) interfaces at room temperature. When the content of the fluorinated polyacrylate was under 30%, the gradient structure of fluorinated component was not evident. The further increasing of fluorinated polyacrylate in the mixed system facilitated the formation and enlargement of gradient structure, but the adhesion of film decreased a little.
In-Line Monitoring the Dispersion of Highly Energetic Material Simulant
Lee, Sangmook ; Hong, In-Kwon ; Ahn, Youngjoon ; Lee, Jae Wook ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 272~277
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.272
We studied in-line monitoring the dispersion of highly energetic material simulant by a twin screw extruder having a high temperature ultrasonic system. The simulant suspension system consisted of ethylene vinyl acetate and Dechlorane plus 25 as binder and filler, respectively. With increasing filling fraction, the ultrasonic velocity was not changed but the attenuation linearly decreased. It was possible to estimate the solid fraction of well dispersed suspension system by measuring ultrasonic attenuation. The ultrasonic attenuation of samples filled over 60 v% approached straight line with increasing filling fraction when the samples was extruded repeatedly. It was due to the enhanced dispersion of solid particles in the suspension system. It was believed that the degree of dispersion and filling fraction could be obtained by combination of on-line measurement like ultrasonic attenuation and off-line analysis like TGA and SEM with image analyzer.
Tissue Engineered Catilage Reconstruction with Alginate Sponge Containing Demineralized Bone Particles
Kim, Hye Min ; Park, Jin Young ; Kim, Eun Young ; Song, Jeong Eun ; Kwon, Soon Yong ; Chung, Jin Wha ; Khang, Gilson ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 278~285
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.278
Demineralized bone particles (DBP) and alginate hybrid sponges were fabricated at 10, 20, 40 and 80% DBP/alginate hybrid ratios for seeding chondrocyte. Cell proliferation was measured via MTT assay. Morphological observation, histology, biological assay and RT-PCR were performed at each time point 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The cell viability was better in 20% DBP/alginate sponges than in other sponges. SEM results showed that more attached and more proliferated cells in the 20% DBP/alginate sponges with the lapse of time. Finally, histochemical assay results showed that the phenotype of chondrocyte was well maintained and both acidic mucopolysaccharide and type II collagen was well formed at 20% sponges. This study suggested that DBP/alginate sponge may serve as a potential cell delivery vehicle and a structural basis for tissue engineered articular cartilage.
Highly Concentrated Polymer Bonded Explosive Simulant: Rheology of Exact/Dechlorane Suspension
Lee, Sangmook ; Hong, In-Kwon ; Lee, Jae Wook ; Lee, Keun Deuk ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 286~292
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.286
The rheology of highly concentrated polymer bonded explosive (PBX) simulant was studied. An energy material, polyethylene plastomer (Exact
) having similar properties to poly(BAMO-AMMO) was selected as a binder. Dechlorane with similar properties to RDX (Research Department eXplosive) was chosen as a filler. Mixing behavior in a batch melt mixer was investigated. During mixing a large amount of heat of viscous dissipation was generated and a continuous decrease in torque was observed when the filler content was above 70 v%. It was believed due to wall slip phenomena. From the SEM images, the fillers were well dispersed and the effect of mixing condition affected slightly on the dispersion. Owing to distinct shear thinning behavior of the suspensions, measuring viscosity of highly filled suspensions was possible in a high shear rate capillary rheometer though it was impossible even in a low shear rate plateplate rheometer.
Hydrophilization of a Porous Polytetrafluoroethylene Supporter by Radiation Grafting Poly(Acrylonitrile-co-Sodium Allylsulfonate)
Park, Byeong-Hee ; Sohn, Joon-Yong ; Yoon, Ki-Suk ; Shin, Junhwa ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 293~298
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.293
We prepared hydrophilic porous supporters for the reinforced composite fuel cell membrane by radiation grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) and hydrophilic sodium allylsulfonate (SAS) into a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) supporter. The physicochemical properties of the supporters prepared under various reaction conditions such as molar ratio of SAS/AN, monomer concentration, and irradiation dose were evaluated. FTIR was utilized to confirm the successful introduction of SAS/AN copolymer chains into the porous PTFE. The pores of the porous PTFE film were found to be decreased with an increase in the degree of grafting by using FE-SEM and gurley number. Furthermore, by analyzing the degree of grafting, contact angle, and TBO (toluidine blue O) uptake, the hydrophilicity of the prepared supporters was found to increase with an increase in the degree of grafting.
Properties, Structure and Crystallization of Poly Lactic Acid/Zinc Oxide Pillared Organic Saponite Nanocomposites
Zhen, Weijun ; Sun, Jinlu ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 299~306
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.299
ZnO pillared saponite was synthesized via a microwave hydrolysis method. To enhance interfacial compatibility between zinc oxide (ZnO) pillared saponite and poly lactic acid (PLA), ZnO pillared organic saponite was prepared by intercalation modification of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Moreover, PLA/ZnO pillared organic saponite nanocomposites were prepared by melting processing. The microstructure analysis of PLA/ZnO pillared organic saponite nanocomposites showed that ZnO pillared organic saponite was exfoliated and homogeneouslydispersed in PLA matrix. The property results showed that ZnO pillared organic saponite improved the mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of PLA/ZnO pillared organic saponite nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that ZnO pillared organic saponite restrained the appearance of cold crystallization, lowered the glass transition temperature and melting temperature of PLA, and improved the crystallinity of PLA. The results demonstrated that ZnO pillared organic saponite had a good interfacial compatibility and heterogeneous nucleation effect in PLA matrix, and also played an active role in accelerating the crystallization process of PLA.
Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene Sheet/Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) Composites
Lee, Ki Suk ; Kim, Jeong Ho ; Jeong, Han Mo ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 307~313
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.307
The physical properties of functionalized graphene sheet (FGS)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) was examined with various kinds of EVA, having vinyl acetate (VA) contents in the range of 0 to 40 wt%. The compatibility between FGS and EVA was enhanced as the polar VA content of EVA increased. Thus, the dispersion of FGS in EVA became finer, and the decrease of surface resistivity and the increase of tensile modulus by the added FGS became more effective when the VA content of EVA was high. When the VA content was low, the elongation at break was reduced drastically by added FGS due to the poor adhesion of FGS/EVA interface. The crystallization of EVA was generally retarded by the interaction with dispersed FGS. However, when both the VA content of EVA and the added amount of FGS were low, the crystallization of EVA was enhanced, probably due to the predominant nucleating effect by FGS.
Degradation Behavior of Nylon 4 in the Presence of Newly Synthesized Thermal Stabilizers
Jang, Geunseok ; Kim, Jongho ; Kim, Daigeun ; Kim, Young Jun ; Lee, Taek Seung ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 314~319
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.314
Three kinds of thermal stabilizers for nylon 4 were synthesized to incorporate both hindered amine groups and methylene units with various lengths. It is expected that the hindered amine groups play a role in the capture of degradation-triggering species. Considering sequence rules, hydrogen bonding formed between nylon 4 and the stabilizers is optimized to alter the lengths of the methylene units in the stabilizers. As a result, it was found that a tetramethylene unit in the stabilizer is an optimal length for hydrogen bonding in terms of isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Considering the slight and often negligible improvement of thermal stability of nylon 4 containing commercially-available nylon 6 stabilizers, retardation of thermal degradation has been substantially improved upon.
Effects of the High Shear Rate Processing on the Thermal Properties of PC/ABS Blends
Lee, Hyeong Il ; Lee, Han Ki ; Kim, Dea Sik ; Choi, Seok Jin ; Kim, Seon Hong ; Yoo, Jea Jung ; Yong, Da Kyoung ; Lee, Seung Goo ; Lee, Kee Yoon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 320~326
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.320
The effects of high shear rate processing on the thermal properties of PC/ABS blends were studied. It was executed by the high shear processing machine (NHSS2-28) at the varied conditions of screw speeds and loaded duration. After the samples were processed with NHSS2-28, the
were shifted from 143 to
, and the behavior of degradation determined by TGA showed two distinct steps before high shear rate processing, while it showed a straight line after the processing. In order to provide the reasons of the properties, it was showen by SEM and UTM that the droplet sizes morphologically decreased after the processing, and the elongations decreased slightly until 1000 rpm of screw speed and then sharply decreased, according to the conditions of high shear rate processing. Therefore, it can be confirmed that
of PC/ABS blends were considerably shifted under an appropriate high shear rate condition, and rapidly dropped, so that blends degraded above the condition, due to stress-induced degradation.
Effects of Wood Flour Size on the Physical Properties of Polypropylene/Wood Flour Composites
Seo, Yong Won ; Kim, Dae Su ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 327~332
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.327
Polymer/wood flour composites are recently attracting a lot of interest because they are economic and ecofriendly. In this study, the effects of wood flour size on the thermal and mechanical properties of a polypropylene/wood flour composite were investigated. Mechanical properties of the composite samples prepared by melt-mixing and compression molding were tested by UTM and an izod impact tester, and thermal properties of them were measured by TGA, DMA, DSC and TMA. The best coupling agent was selected by testing three kinds of maleic anhydride modified polypropylene coupling agents, and under the same condition, the effects of wood flour size on the physical properties of the composite were investigated. According to the test results for four different wood flour sizes of 600, 250, 180 and
, flexural strength, flexural modulus, crystallinity and water-resistivity of the composite increased with decreasing wood flour size.
Drug Adsorption Behavior of Polyolefin Infusion Tube Compared to PVC and PU
Park, Kang Hoon ; Park, Chang Kyu ; Park, Jong ; Jeon, Seungho ; Bang, Sa-Ik ; Kim, Ji-Heung ; Chung, Dong June ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 333~337
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.333
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) intravenous fluid bags and tubes that contain DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate) as a plasticizer have several associated disadvantages for intravenous injections. We investigated the drug absorption behaviors on the inner surface of an infusion tube that consisted of commercialized PVC/PU (polyurethane). We developed a non-PVC (polyolefin) tube in order to improve the efficacy of this drug administration method. We prepared four types of non-PVC (polyolefin) infusion tubes using a polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), syndiotactic 1,2-polybutadiene (PB), and styrene-ethylene (SE) copolymer elastomers were prepared using a single screw extruder. The four types of manufactured non-PVC (polyolefin) infusion tubes had good mechanical properties that were equivalent to PVC tube properties. The four types of prepared non-PVC (polyolefin) infusion tubes also prohibited drug absorption when compared to the commercialized PVC and PU tubes. Therefore, based on the results of this study, prepared non-PVC (polyolefin) tubes are good candidates for infusion because they prevent drug absorption and the release of DEHP.
Electrospinning of Asiaticoside/2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex-loaded Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats: Release Characteristics and Potential for Use as Wound Dressing
Panichpakdee, Jate ; Pavasant, Prasit ; Supaphol, Pitt ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 338~350
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.338
Cellulose acetate (CA) fiber mats containing inclusion complexes of asiaticoside (AC) in 2-hydroxypropyl-
) for potential usage as wound dressings were developed. The AC/
complex-loaded CA fibers at various
to AC molar ratios of 0.5, 1, and 2 were prepared in 90:10 v/v mixture of 80% (v/v) acetic acid and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) via electrospinning. The maximum released amounts of AC depended on the
content and were much greater than those released from the AC-loaded CA fiber mat. In the in vitro study, indirect cytotoxic evaluation with human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) showed that these materials released no substances in the levels that were harmful to the cells and the cells appeared to attach and proliferate well on these substrates. However, only the CA fiber mats containing AC/
complexes at the
to AC molar ratio of 0.5 was effective in upregulating the production of collagen of the cultured cells.
Physical Properties of Covered Stent in Gastric Acid Environment: In Vitro Study
Park, Sung Chul ; Park, Nark-Soon ; Kim, Dong-Gon ; Nah, Jae-Woon ; Jeen, Yoon Tae ; Cho, Hye Jin ; Kim, Eun Sun ; Keum, Bora ; Seo, Yeon Seok ; Lee, Hong Sik ; Chun, Hoon Jai ; Um, Soon Ho ; Kim, Chang Duck ; Ryu, Ho Sang ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 351~357
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.351
In membrane covered stent, occlusion and fracture from membrane degradation by gastric acid sometimes occurred. Therefore, we investigated the physical properties of membrane covered stent according to its ingredient and concentration in gastric acid environment. Membrane covered stents consisted of silicone and polyurethane with 15%, 18%, 20% concentrations were used. After incubating stents in a condition of pH 1.2, we checked any changes at every 3 weeks for 18 weeks. The changes of membrane surface, radial expansion and recovery force of stent were investigated. Coating thickness increased proportionally to an increase in ingredient concentration. Surface was evenly coated with silicone compared to the case with polyurethane and its homogeneity was excellent in a high concentration. Degradation was much severe in the case of polyurethane. The radial force of silicone was higher than polyurethane, and the decrease of radial and recovery force was higher in the case of polyurethane. In conclusion, high concentration of silicone membrane was more stable than polyurethane in acid environment of in vitro study.
Adhesion Force Measurements of Nano-Imprint Materials Using Atomic Force Microscope
Yun, Hyeong Seuk ; Lee, Mongryong ; Song, Kigook ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 358~363
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.358
Adhesion forces between acrylate imprinting resin and a surface treated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were investigated. Compared to the untreated silicon tip, 38% of the adhesion force is reduced for the hydrophobic tip treated with
plasma whereas 1.6 time increases is found for the hydrophilic tip with
plasma treatment. Such a measurement of the adhesion force using AFM provides very quantitative results on adhesion comparing to the crosscut adhesion test which gives qualitative results. Since the adhesion area becomes larger as the imprinting pattern size gets smaller, the surface treatment issue becomes more important in the nano-imprinting process.
Behavior of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Cultured on Silk Films
Lee, So Jin ; Kim, Hye Yun ; Kim, Seul Ji ; Yang, Jaewon ; Lee, Seon Ui ; Park, Chan Hum ; Joo, Choun-Ki ; Khang, Gilson ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 364~370
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.364
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in maintaining a healthy retina and the degeneration of RPE caused a number of retinal diseases. The transplantation of RPE has recently become a possible therapeutic modality for retinal degeneration. To transplant RPE cells securely, substrates are essential, and then as a substrate, we fabricated films using silk that has unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility. After the FTIR spectra, contact angle and biodegradation of silk films were confirmed, RPE cells were seeded and the influence of RPE cells on silk films was examined. We measured the cell adhesion, cell viability, morphology and specific mRNA expression by MTT assay, SEM, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. In this study, we confirmed that attachment, proliferation and phenotype maintenance of RPE cells cultured on silk films were great, and thereby we were able to confirm the potential applications of silk films as tissue engineering carrier for regeneration of retina.
Physical Characteristics of Silicone Modified Epoxy as a Undercoating Materials
Kim, Jin Kyung ; Hwang, Hee Nam ; Kang, Doo Whan ; Kang, Ho-Jong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 371~377
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.371
The effect of modification conditions on the physical properties of polydimethyl siloxane modified epoxy (PDMSME) was investigated. The number of ring opened epoxy attached to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by silane coupling agent affected the physical properties of undercoating materials. The flexibility of thin coating was enhanced by PDMSME and the increase of ring opened epoxy attached to PDMS resulted in the increase of hardness by the crosslinking in the present with moisture. The higher molecular weight of PDMS caused the lowering of hardness while the surface contact angle increased due to the high silicone content in PDMS. The viscosity of silicone modified epoxy coating materials decreased with increasing of molecular weight of PDMS due to the lowering of entanglement of PDMSME molecules by acetone solvent and consequently, the smooth undercoated surface was obtained.
Sonochemical Grafting of Poly(vinyl alcohol) onto Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in Water
Kim, Yeongseon ; Baeck, Sung Hyeon ; Shim, Sang Eun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 378~385
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.378
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified with a water soluble polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, using a simple ultrasonic wave in water. Under the irradiation of ultrasound, PVA chains were severed as macroradicals and instantly grafted onto the surface of MWCNTs due to the radical scavenging effect of MWCNTs. To control the grafting PVA onto MWCNTs, the ultrasonication power and irradiation time were changed from 300 to 500 W and from 10 to 50 min, respectively. The grafted PVA onto MWCNTs was confirmed by FTIR, TGA, SEM, and TEM. Dispersion stability of the modified MWCNTs was monitored by Turbiscan. The amount of grafted PVA on MWCNTs increased with the increase in the sonication power and irradiation time. The grafted PVA on MWCNTs induced the improved dispersion stability of the modified MWCNTs in water. These findings exhibit that ultrasound can be readily used for the grafting polymer chains on MWCNTs.
Synthesis of Fréchet-type Dendrimers with Tripodal Core via Staudinger/Aza-Wittig Reactions
Han, Seung Choul ; Lee, Jae Wook ; Jin, Sung-Ho ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 386~390
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.386
Efficient stitching methods for the synthesis of tripodal Fr
chet-type dendrimers containing secondary amine as a connector were elaborated. The synthetic strategy involved Staudinger/aza-Wittig reactions (new click reaction) between tripodal tris(azides) and aldehyde-dendrons in toluene in the presence of triphenylphosphine and followed by the reduction of imine intermediates. The tripodal core (1,3,5-tris-(3-azido-propoxy)-benzene) was chosen to serve as the azide functionalities for dendrimer growth. 1,3,5-Tris-(3-azido-propoxy)-benzene was stitched with the aldehyde-functionalized Fr
chet-type dendrons via Staudinger/aza-Wittig reactions leading to the formation of the corresponding Fr
chet-type dendrimers in high yields.
3-Dimensional Coating Polymer Microneedles for Economical and Efficient Transdermal Drug Delivery
Lee, Han-Sol ; Park, Jung-Hwan ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 391~396
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.391
Polymer microneedles can be fabricated by a micromolding method, an easy and cost-effective method. However, it is not easy to achieve uniform coating with an aqueous coating solution due to hydrophobic surface of polymer microneedles. 3-Dimensional coating polymer microneedles could deliver more than twice as much dose as in-plane metal microneedles by increasing coating area and the number of microneedles per unit area. A uniform coating was not obtained by addition of coating additives in the coating solution. The satisfied coating was achieved by treatment of surface of polymer microneedle with metal deposition and UV/ozone, and UV/ozone treatment was an ultimate surface treatment method based on biological safety. Calcein coating polymer microneedles were prepared by using UV/ozone treatment and followed dip-coating, and they delivered calcein in porcine skin successfully after 15 min of insertion.
Effects of Tape Thickness and Inorganic Fillers on the Adhesion Properties of Double-sided Acrylic Adhesive Tape by Ultraviolet Curing
Kim, Dong-Bok ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 397~405
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.397
To manufacture of high-performance semi-structural double-sided adhesive tape, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and acrylic acid (AAC) were used, and the syrup was prepared by UV irradiation in this study. The effects of the thickness, various inorganic filler contents, and filler types on the semi-structural properties of acrylic double-sided adhesive tape were investigated. The peel strength increased with increasing thickness and wetting time. In case of the thin thickness (under
) with decreasing true density of inorganic filler, the peel strength increased with increasing wetting time. The initial peel strength showed a higher value at a big size of inorganic filler, and the filler's size in adhesive tapes was confirmed by SEM images. The peel strength and dynamic shear strength increased as a proportional relationship with various inorganic fillers and contents, and these inorganic fillers in
thickness indicated more effect on the dynamic shear strength of double-sided adhesive tape. From these results the thin acrylic double-sided adhesive tape determined to be use for applications as a high-performance semi-structural.
Effect of Zinc Ion Containing ZDBC on the Vulcanization and Mechanical Properties of Silica Filled Natural Rubber
Kim, Sung Min ; Kim, Kwang-Jea ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 3, 2014, Pages 406~410
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.3.406
Zinc ion containing thiuram type accelerator zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC) was compared to other thiuram type accelerators (tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) and dipentamethylenethiuram tetrasulfide (DPTT)) in silica filled natural rubber (NR) compound upon vulcanization and mechanical properties (modulus, tensile strength, and elongation %). ZDBC added compound showed the fastest cure time (t10) and the highest reinforcement index (R.I.) among them and showed a marching behavior. The mechanism was reviewed and a new mechanism was proposed.