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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 38, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Adsorption Behavior of Sr Ion on Calcium-Alginate-Chitosan
Lan, Dong ; Bing, Deng ; Lanlan, Ding ; Qiong, Cheng ; Yong, Yang ; Yang, Du ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 557~565
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.557
Sodium alginate and chitosan are added to a
solution to prepare calcium-alginate-chitosan and calciumalginate gels. After dehydration through stoving, two types of adsorbent particles are obtained. The adsorption process of the particles obtained for low concentrations of
satisfies a second-order kinetic equation and the Freundlich adsorption model. The thermodynamic behaviors of the particles indicate that adsorption occurs via a spontaneous physical process. XPS pattern analysis is used to demonstrate the adsorption of
by calcium alginate and chitosan. By building an interaction model of the molecules of chitosan and alginate with
to calculate energy parameters, Fukui index, Mulliken charge, and Mulliken population, adsorption of
on the molecular chains of chitosan as well as the boundary of calcium-alginate-chitosan is observed to show weak stability; by contrast, adsorption between molecular chains is high.
Effect of Maleic Ahydride Grafted PP on the Physical Properties of PP/Pulp Composites
Lee, Jong Won ; Kim, Won Gil ; Kim, Youn Cheol ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 566~572
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.566
Maleic anhydride (MAH) grafted polypropylenes (PP) (MAH-g-PP) were prepared by changing MAH content and styrene monomer (SM)/MAH mole ratio with different type PP, using a twin screw extruder. The types of PP were isotatic PP (iPP), block PP (bPP), and random PP (rPP) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was used as an initiator. The graft degree of MAH was confirmed by the existence of carbonyl group (C=O) stretching peak at
of FTIR spectrum. Thermal properties of MAH-g-PP and PP/MAH-g-PP/pulp composites were investigated by DSC and TGA. There was no district change in thermal properties of PP/MAH-g-PP/pulp composites. Based on tensile properties and SEM pictures for fractured surface of PP/MAH-g-PP/pulp composites, MAH-g-rPP was the best as the compatibilizer and optimum formulation was MAH content of 1.0 wt%, SM/MAH mole ratio of 1.0, and melt index (MI) of 25 g/10 min. The rheological properties of the composites were investigated by a dynamic rheometer. The complex viscosity, shear thinning effect, and water uptake incresed with pulp content.
Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Ozone Resistance Coating Film Using Carbon Nanotube
Kim, Sung Rae ; Lee, Sang Goo ; Yang, Jeong Min ; Lee, Jong Dae ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 573~579
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.573
The effect of synthesis conditions such as carbon nanotube (CNT), 2,2,2-trifluoroethylmethacrylate (3FMA), and composition of organic-inorganic material in ozone resistance and surface characteristics of ultraviolet cured organic-inorganic hybrid coating film has been investigated. Coating solution was prepared using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), silane coupling agent methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), 3FMA, various organic materials with acrylate group, and CNT, then bar-coated on substrates using applicator, and densified by UV-curing. It was found that ozone resistance and adhesion of the coating film were strongly dependent upon contents of TEOS, 3FMA, and CNT. Especially, ozone resistance, adhesion, and surface hardness of coating film with CNT were improved, relatively. Ozone resistance of coating film with a high TEOS content was increased, but adhesion was decreased. In addition, it was also found that ozone resistance of coating film was increased with contents of 3FMA. On the other hand, surface hardness was decreased with increase of 3FMA.
Preparation and Antimicrobial of Zinc Calcium Alginate Films according to Concentration
Seo, Hye-Jin ; Jun, So-Yoon ; Lee, Woo-Seung ; Park, Jae-Hoon ; Son, Tae-Won ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 580~587
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.580
Composite films of zinc calcium alginate were prepared by a film maker from 7 wt% sodium alginate solution and then they solidified into 3, 5 wt% content
solution followed by washing and drying at room temperature. The characteristics were measured with several methods (antimicrobial activity, water solubility, swelling ratio and viscosity, SEM, EDS) and the film properties were investigated. Composite films of zinc calcium alginate showed an increase in the water resistance by increasing
content and the antimicrobial test showed that the calcium alginate as well as zinc alginate films result in excellent antimicrobial activity in the two strains, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli. The results show the possible improvement of the physical properties of composite films.
Synthesis, Characterization and Swelling Properties of Chitosan/Poly(acrylic acid-co-crotonic acid) Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks
Hosseinzadeh, Hossein ; Alijani, Darioush ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 588~595
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.588
A semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel composed of crosslinked chitosan and poly (acrylic acid-co-crotonic acid) was prepared in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker. Fourier-transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy were employed to confirm the structure of the semi-IPN hydrogel. The swelling capacity of hydrogel was shown to be affected by the monomers weight ratio, chitosan content, initiator and GA concentrations. The results also indicated that the semi-IPN hydrogel had different swelling capacity at various pHs. Additionally, the swelling behavior of the hydrogel was investigated in aqueous solutions of NaCl,
Synthesis and Characterization of Thermoplastic Elastomer Poly(ether-b-amide) Containing Aromatic Moiety
Lee, Ji Hun ; Kim, Hyung Joong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 596~601
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.596
Polyamide (PA) oligomers, which are the hard segment of poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA), presenting thermoplastic and high performance elastomeric properties were prepared by polycondensation between 4-aminobenzoic acid and 12-aminododecanoic acid. Subsequently PEBAs were obtained by addition polymerization of the PA oligomers and various molecular weights of poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG). The structure of the final PEBA was identified by using FTIR and
NMR and the thermal properties depending on changes in the structure of hard segment were collected by using DSC and UTM analysis. As the results, the melt temperature (
), the initial modulus, and the maximum strength of PEBAs increased with an increase in aromatic moiety up to 30% without reducing crystallinity.
Synthesis of Polyurethanes Containing Poly(dimethyl siloxane) and Their Thermal and Shape Memory Properties
Ra, Sang Hee ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 602~612
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.602
Polyurethanes containing poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) unit, PU-Si, were synthesized and their thermal and shape memory properties were investigated. Various amounts of PDMS units were incorporated via a solution polymerization method using mixed diols of poly(tetramethylene ether glycol) (PTMEG) and PDMS-diol as the soft segment (SS) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol as the hard segment (HS). Two series of PU-Si samples with an HS content of 23% or 32% were prepared and analyzed. For PU-Si with an HS content of 23%, both the cold crystallization temperature (
) and melt crystallization temperature of the SS domain moved higher temperature with increasing PDMS content, while the melting temperature (
) of the SS domain remained unaffected. The increase in HS content from 23% to 32% resulted in the increased
and disappearance of
. The shape recovery of PU-Si flim with an HS content of 32% increased while its shape retention decreased as PDMS content increased.
Polypropylene/Polyamide Elastomer Blends: Morphology and Mechanical Property
Liu, Qingsheng ; Xu, Yan ; Zhang, Hongxia ; Li, Yuhao ; Deng, Bingyao ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 613~619
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.613
The polypropylene/polyamide elastomer (PP/PAE) blends were prepared by melt mixing. PP and PAE in PP/ PAE were immiscible completely. The size of PAE domains was large and the clear gap in the interface between PP and PAE existed, which did not meet the conditions enhancing toughness of polymers by elastomer. Therefore, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MP) was used to improve the miscibility between PP and PAE. The miscibility between PP and PAE was improved and the size of dispersed phase PAE decreased by introducing MP. The crystallization of PP became easier by introducing PAE as a nucleating agent. With the increase of PAE content, the melt-crystallization temperatures of PP components in PP/PAE/MP blends increased gradually. The melt-crystallization of the polytetramethylene oxide segment of PAE component in PP/PAE blends were hampered by PP component. In addition, PAE can enhance significantly the toughness of PP, and the tensile strength and modulus did not decrease.
Enhancement of Paper Characteristics by Polyvinyl Alcohol/Polyamide-epichlorohydrin Coating as a Complex Strength Additive
Jang, Yunjae ; Lee, Hwaljong ; Kang, Ho-Jong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 620~625
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.620
The effect of polyvinyl alcohol/polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PVA/PAE) complex strengthening additive on dry and wet strength and surface properties of paper was investigated. The enhancements of dry and wet strength and dimensional stability were found when PVA/PAE was applied as a complex strengthening additive compared with the cases of applying individual PVA or PAE. This was understood as physical crosslinking between PVA and PAE in the PVA/PAE complex strength additive. This complex strengthening additive also lowered surface roughness and increased sizing. As a result, PVA/PAE complex strengthening additive provided the distinctive gain dot in printed papers.
Temperature-Sensitive Polymers Adhered on FO Membrane as Drawing Agents
Lee, Chong-Cheon ; Lee, Jonghwi ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 626~631
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.626
Water purification requires a large amount of energy that can cause pollution problems. For this reason, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted intense interest that required a relatively low amount of energy for water purification. The forward osmosis has a serious problem that it needs drawing agents creating osmotic pressure to extract water from contaminated water. In this study, a copolymer of zwitterionic moiety and an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel based on thermo-responsive polymer hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) were prepared and attached on FO membranes, which successfully played the role of drawing agents. In the copolymer hydrogel, its swelling ratio was improved, but thermo-sensitivity was decreased. The swelling ratio and thermo-sensitivity of IPN hydrogel was lowered. We could confirm that swelling ratio is related to osmotic pressure.
Characterizations of Copoly(ester imide)s with New 2,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene Bis(trimellitate anhydride)
Ju, Jieun ; Chang, Jin-Hae ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 632~639
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.632
2,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene bis(trimellitate anhydride) (2,7-TA) was synthesized from trimellitic anhydride chloride and 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene. Copolyimides (Co-PI) containing ester group were synthesized from 2,7-TA, pxylylenediamine, and 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine (TFB). The Co-PI films were obtained from poly(amic acid) by solution casting through thermal imidization on a glass plate. The thermal property, gas permeation, and optical transparency of the Co-PI films with various TFB monomer contents were investigated. These Co-PIs could be solution-cast into a flexible and tough film. The cast Co-PI films exhibited high optical transparency with a cut-off wavelength of 370~395 nm in UV-vis. absorption and a low yellow index value of 3.55~7.63. The thermal property of Co-PI films increased linearly with increasing TFB content. However, the oxygen permeation and optical transparency of the Co-PI films was found to worsen with increasing TFB content.
Analysis of Coating Uniformity through Unsteady and Steady State Computer Simulation in Slot Coating
Woo, Jeong-Woo ; Sung, Dal-Je ; Lyu, Min-Young ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 640~644
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.640
As a process of plat panel display production, slot coating is widely used for the coating of photoresist on a wide glass substrate. A uniform coating thickness is important, and the coating uniformity is divided into nozzle and machine directions. The machine and nozzle directions coating uniformities are influenced by the operation condition of coater and flow uniformity inside the die, respectively. Non-uniform coating during steady coating process occurs according to those factors, however, non-uniform coating along the machine and nozzle directions has been observed at the beginning of coating by unsteady flow. In this study, steady and unsteady state flow simulations have been performed and compared with experiment to examine the causes of non-uniform coating. Computational results exhibited that it took a time to get a uniform pressure distribution at whole inside the die, and during this period of time edge regions showed lower exit velocity compared with center region. Subsequently edge regions had thinner coated layers than center region. However edge regions showed higher exit velocity than center region after steady state, and this made edge regions had thicker coated layer than center region.
Investigation into a Chemical Cracking and the Measurement of Stress in a Polycarbonate Specimen through Deformation Jig
Yoo, Seo Jeong ; Hong, Hyoung Sik ; Lyu, Min-Young ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 645~649
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.645
The causes of residual stress in an injection molded part are high temperature variation and shear stress during molding process. Chemical cracking test is one of the methods of measuring residual stress and cracks are developed according to the degree of residual stress. In this study, the relationship between chemical cracking and exerted stress have been investigated. Deformation jig was designed and used to give a stress through deformation in a specimen. Specimens were molded by a hot press using polycarbonate (PC) and annealed to remove residual stresses in the specimens. Specimens were fixed in the deformation jig and immersed into the solvent to create cracks in the specimens. Solvents were prepared by using tetrahydrofuran and methyl alcohol. As stress accordance with the deformation in the specimen increased, the frequency and density of cracks in the specimen also increased. The results of this study can be used for the measurement of residual stress quantitatively in an injection molded PC product using a chemical cracking method.
Lewis Acid Degradation Characteristics of Perfluoropolyethers Derivatives
Chun, Sang-Wook ; Kang, Ho-Jong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 650~655
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.650
The degradation characteristics of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) derivatives currently being used as computer hard disk lubricants have been investigated. Especially, we considered the effects of end group on degradation behavior of PFPE derivatives. It was found that the degradation of PFPE derivatives in the presence of
involves two degradation mechanisms such as thermal degradation and Lewis acid disproportionation by
which was mainly formed by oxide-to-halide reaction between
and the degraded PFPE. The end groups were strongly related to Lewis acid disproportionation of PFPE derivatives, and it is due to the difference of electron donating ability in the each end groups. Even if PFPE derivatives have same repeating unit in the main chain, Lewis acid disproportionation was prohibited by higher electron donating ability by the end group which caused the high electron density at the acetal group in the repeating unit.
Preparation and Release Behavior of Atorvastatin Calcuim - Encapsulated Polyoxalate Microspheres
Lee, Cheon Jung ; Kim, Su Young ; Lee, Hyun Gu ; Yang, Jaewon ; Park, Jin Young ; Cha, Se Rom ; Lim, Dong-Kwon ; Lee, Dongwon ; Khang, Gilson ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 656~663
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.656
Atorvastatin calcium-loaded polyoxalate (POX) microspheres were prepared by an emulsion solvent-evaporation/ extraction method of oil-in-oil-in-water (
) for sustained release. We investigated the release behavior according to initial drug ratio, molecular weight (
) and concentration of POX and concentration of emulsifier. The microsphere was characterized on the surface, the cross-section morphology and the behavior of atorvastatin calcium release for 10 days by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis of crystallization was analyzed to use X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results showed that the release behaviors can be controlled by preparation conditions.
Effect of Changing of Filling Materials in NR-SBR Type Elastomer Based Rubber Materials on Mechanical Properties
Bulbul, Saban ; Yasar, Mustafa ; Akcakale, Nuretttin ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 664~670
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.664
The effects of different filling materials and stabilizers in polymer based materials that are used as shoe soles in the shoemaking industry on the mechanical properties (strength, failure, tensile, tearing, bending etc.) of the final products have been examined in this study. Natural rubber (NR RSS3) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR 1502) were used as the main matrix material. New compounds were formed by replacing the fillings in the general compound of the existing factory (
) with 40% (1200 g) blast furnace flue dust, rice husk, reclaimed rubber (recycled) and wood ash. Comparison of the new compounds with the existing compounds revealed a decrease in hardness, density, dimension stability, bending, tearing, % elongation and failure strength and an increase in wearing.
4-Arm Star Shaped and Linear Block Copolymers for Copper Phthalocyanine Dispersion
Kim, Byoungjae ; Jeong, Jonghwa ; Jung, Ji-Hye ; Kim, Bong-Soo ; Jung, Ki-Suck ; Paik, Hyun-Jong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 671~675
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.671
Well-defined star shaped and linear block copolymers were synthesized to study the dispersion stability of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). We synthesized dispersants using (2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PEGMA) by activators generated by electron transfer (AGET) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). pDMAEMA-b-pPEGMA copolymers were characterized by GPC and NMR. Furthermore, we studied the effect of the dispersion stability of copper phthalocyanine by controlling the degree of polymerization of PEGMA as a stabilizing group. The 4-arm star shaped polymeric dispersant showed better dispersion stability of CuPc at
for 7 days.
Development of Porous Cellulose Hydrogel for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Liquiritin and Liquiritigenin as Licorice Flavonoids
Kim, Su Ji ; Kwon, Soon Sik ; Yu, Eun Ryeong ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 676~681
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.676
Licorice, widely used as a herbal medicine, has flavonoids such as liquiritin and its aglycone, liquiritigenin that show anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Licorice flavonoid-loaded cellulose hydrogels were prepared as carriers for skin drug delivery, and their properties were investigated. The porous cellulose hydrogel was made by reacting cellulose with epichlorohydrin as a cross-linking agent in NaOH/urea(1~10%) solutions. Through studies on the rheological properties and water uptake of the hydrogel, a NaOH/urea(6%) solution was established as being optimum for the synthesis of the cellulose hydrogel containing liquiritin and liquiritigenin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of a cross-section of the prepared hydrogel indicated its porosity. In particular, in skin permeation experiments using a Franz diffusion cell, hydrogel containing the licorice flavonoids showed remarkable transdermal permeation compared to the control group. These results indicate that porous cellulose hydrogel is a potential drug delivery system to enhance the skin permeation of licorice flavonoids.
Effect of Chemical Structure of Acrylate Monomer on the Transparent Acrylic Pressure Sensitive Adhesives for Optical Applications
Baek, Seung-Suk ; Jang, Se-Jung ; Lee, Sang Won ; Hwang, Seok-Ho ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 5, 2014, Pages 682~686
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.5.682
To prepare transparent acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), terpolymer syrups were photopolymerized from 2- ethylhexyl acrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate with third monomer having different chemical structure. After polymerization, 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate as a crosslinker and a photoinitiator were added and then UV-irradiated to prepare the PSAs. The adhesion performances and optical characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Their adhesion performance was dependent on the composition of monomers in the polymer chain but optical properties were maintained at a suitable level. The PSAs prepared by bulky and heteroatom-containing monomers such as IBOA, THFA, and ACMO showed better adhesion performance than others.