Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Polymer Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 38, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Transport Properties of PEBAX Blended Membranes with PEG and Glutaraldehyde for SO
and Other Gases
Cho, Eun Hye ; Kim, Kwang Bae ; Rhim, Ji Won ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 687~693
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.687
Poly(ether-block-amide) 1657 (PEBAX 1657) blended membranes with molecular weight 400 poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 400) were prepared and their permeability was tested for the gases
by the time-lag method. The permeation characteristics were investigated in terms of diffusivity and solubility, which are dominant factors for gas transport. With the addition of PEG 400, the permeability of all the gases increased and also the ideal selectivity for several pair gases was enhanced. In particular, selectivity for
ranged from 53.2 (pristine PEBAX 1657 membrane) to 84.1 (50% PEG 400 added), for
from 38.9 to 50.7, and for
from 17.7 to 31.4. The increase of both permeability and selectivity is mainly because of the increase of solubility of the gases, especially
. To obtain durability against water vapor, glutaraldehyde (GA) was added to the PEBAX 1657/PEG 400 blended membranes. As a result, permeability decreased owing to a reduction of the free volume and ether oxide units, which are the main factors in elevating the permeability for the blended membranes, and selectivity decrease however; we believe that the durability of the resulting membranes would be increased.
Physical Characterizations and In Vitro Skin Permeation of Elastic Liposomes for Transdermal Delivery of Polygonum aviculare L. Extract
Han, Saet Byeol ; Kwon, Soon Sik ; Jeong, Yoo Min ; Kong, Bong Ju ; Yu, Eun Ryeong ; Park, Soo Nam ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 694~701
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.694
In this study, Polygomun aviculare L. (P. aviculare L.) extract loaded elastic liposomes (ELPs) were investigated to enhance the transdermal delivery of P. aviculare L. extract composed of various flavonoids. ELPs were composed of egg phospholipids (PC) and edge activator (
care 450) and the physical properties and in vitro permeation studies of ELPs were performed. Particle size ranged from 148.1 to 262.2 nm and deformability index was recorded as 11.5~25.4. Loading efficiency was from 53.1 to 66.3%. In vitro skin permeation studies using Franz diffusion cell demonstrated that ELP-4 having ratio of 85:15 for PC to
care 450 exhibited the higher skin permeability than ELP-1, the general liposome without
care 450. It was visually seen by fluorescence image restoration microscopy. The findings suggest that ELP-4 selected as the optimal formulation could be used as useful formulation for transdermal delivery of the extract.
Effect of Extracellular Matrix on the Growth Behavior of Corneal Endothelial Cells to Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Film
Kim, Eun Young ; Kim, Hye Min ; Song, Jeong Eun ; Lee, Hyun Soo ; Joo, Choun-Ki ; Khang, Gilson ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 702~707
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.702
Corneal endothelium is mono-inner cell layer of cornea and lay on Descmet's membrane which comprised of various proteins called extracellular matrix such as fibronectin, collagen, laminin, and proteoglycan, etc. In this study, we fabricated transparent poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film because PLGA is widely used for tissue engineering based on their properties. We investigated the behaviors of rabbit corneal endothelial cells (rCEnCs) on PLGA film surfaces coated with various cell-adhesive molecules like fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I and IV and FNC coating mix. The morphologic images, proliferation and adhesion assay, immunofluorescence for ZO-1 and
and RT-PCR for expression of specific markers were conducted. These results showed that PLGA film plays a role as CEnC carriers in vitro and the cell-adhesive molecules give positive effects on the behaviors of rCEnC.
Prediction of Mechanical Property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polycarbonate and Evaluation of Warpage through Injection Molding
Moon, Da Mi ; Choi, Tae Gyun ; Lyu, Min-Young ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 708~713
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.708
Most plastics products are being produced by injection molding process. However, mold shrinkage is inevitable in injection molding process and it deteriorates dimensional quality through deflections and warpages. Mold shrinkage depends upon the material property of resin as well as injection molding condition. In this study, material property of resin has been predicted for glass fiber reinforced polycarbonate to control the warpage, and computer simulation of injection molding has been performed using predicted property. It was observed that the deflection of part decreased by the glass fiber reinforced resin. In order to verify the validity of this method and confidence of results, experiments of injection molding were performed. The results of experiments and computer simulations showed good agreement in their tendency of deflections. Consequently, it was concluded that the method of designing the material property of resin conducted in this study can be utilized to control the dimensional accuracy of injection molded products.
Preparation and Characterization of Nylon 6-Morpholinone Random Copolymers Based on ε-Caprolactam and Morpholinone
Kim, Hye Young ; Ryu, Mi Hee ; Kim, Dae Su ; Song, Bong-Keun ; Jegal, Jonggeon ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 714~719
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.714
Bio-based nylon 6-morpholinone random copolymers were prepared by the anionic ring opening polymerization of
-caprolactam and morpholinone, both of which were prepared from lysine and glucose, respectively. From this work, a new biomass based nylon 6 with improved hydrophilicity was prepared. Optimizing the polymerization condition, copolymer with a viscosity-average molecular weight of 30000 g/mol was prepared, with a yield of 80%. It was possible to improve the hydrophilicity of nylon 6 by its copolymerization with morpholinone. The prepared nylon 6-morpholinone random copolymers were then characterized using several analytical methods such as DSC, TGA, XRD, viscosity measurement with U-shaped glass capillary viscometer and contact angle measurement.
Preparation and Properties of Polydimethylsiloxane Modified Urea with Multi Acrylate Group Coating Materials
Bak, Seung Woo ; Kang, Ho-Jong ; Kang, Doo Whan ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 720~725
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.720
Aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane was synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction with hydride terminated polydimethlysiloxane and allyl amine. Polydimethylsiloxane modified urea with isocyanate group was prepared from cyclic trimer of hexamethyldiisocyanate with aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane. Polydimethylsiloxane modified urea/acrylate resin (PUA) was prepared from the urethane reaction of PU with isocyanate group and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate. PUA structure was analyzed by FTIR and NMR. Coating materials were prepared by mixing PUA, acrylic monomer, photo-initiator, and solvent and coated on PET film to obtain flexible hard coating film by UV irradiation.
Effect of Additive-added Epoxy on Mechanical and Dielectric Characteristics of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Vu, Cuong Manh ; Nguyen, Liem Thanh ; Nguyen, Thai Viet ; Choi, Hyoung Jin ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 726~734
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.726
Three different types of additives, thiokol, epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), were dispersed in an epoxy matrix before being used in glass fiber (GF) composites, and their effects on the mechanical and dielectric properties of epoxy resin and glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites (GF/EP) were examined. The addition of each of 7 phr ENR, 9 phr ELO and 5 phr thiokol into the epoxy resin increased the fracture toughness significantly by 56.9, 43.1, and 80.0%, respectively, compared to the unmodified resin. The mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of the GF/EP at propagation was also improved by 26.9, 18.3 and 32.7% when each of 7 phr ENR, 9 phr ELO, and 5 phr thiokol, respectively, was dispersed in the epoxy matrix. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the additives reduced crack growth in the GF/EP, whereas their dielectric measurements showed that all these additives had no additional effect on the real permittivity and loss factor of the GF/EP.
Determination of Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution of Polypropylene Using Rheological Properties
Lee, Young Sil ; Yoon, Kwan Han ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 735~743
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.735
The rheological measurement of polypropylene (PP) has been performed using a rheometer, an intrinsic viscometer, and an MI machine to predict the molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution. Also, GPC has been used for the determination of the molecular structure. The distribution broadness parameter using modified Carreau model has been used to make the correlation between the rheological parameter and the molecular structure instead of the rheological PI (polydispersity index) which is determined from the cross of modulus from the dynamic oscillatory measurement. Even though the rheological PI is useful to determine the molecular weight distribution of the PP using controlled rheology, which has narrow and uniform molecular weight distribution, but not suitable to determine the molecular weight distribution of the PP made from direct polymerization which has broad and various molecular weight distribution. However the distribution broadness parameter which determined from the index of the shear thinning of the PP melt well predicts the molecular weight distribution of PP.
Fabrication of Electrospun Antibacterial Curcumin-loaded Zein Nanofibers
Bui, Hieu Trung ; Chung, Ok Hee ; Park, Jun Seo ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 744~751
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.744
Electrospinning was used to load curcumin (a natural compound that has antiinflammatory properties) into zein nanofibers. An emulsifier, Tween 80, was combined with curcumin in the zein nanofibers. The morphology of the curcumin-loaded zein nanofibers (CLZNFs) was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Investigation of curcumin released from the zein nanofibers into phosphate buffer saline at pH 7 indicated that the Tween 80 had increased the amount of curcumin released from the CLZNFs. The antibacterial activity of the CLZNFs against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was determined by measuring the optical density of bacterial solutions containing CLZNFs. The zein nanofibers fabricated with 10 wt% surfactant and 1.6 wt% curcumin showed high (i.e., 83%) efficiency in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus in the solution incubated for 21 h. These results suggest that the electrospun CLZNFs show potential application as antibacterial nonwoven mats.
Residual Stress Behavior and Characterization of Polyimide Crosslinked Networks via Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization
Nam, Ki-Ho ; Seo, Jongchul ; Jang, Wonbong ; Han, Haksoo ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 752~759
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.752
Crosslinked polyimides (PIs) were synthesized by reacting 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine (TFDB) with various ratios of the cross-linkable, end-capping agent cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (CDBA) via ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Residual stress behaviors were investigated in-situ during thermal imidization of the crosslinked PI precursors using a thin film stress analyzer (TFSA) by wafer bending method. The thermal properties were investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical properties were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and spectrophotometry. All properties were interpreted with respect to their morphology of crosslinked networks. With increasing the amounts of the end-capping agent, the residual stress decreased from 27.9 to -1.3 MPa, exhibited ultra-low stress and high thermal properties. The minimized residual stress and enhanced thermal properties of the crosslinked PI makes them potential candidates for versatile high-density multi-layer structure applications.
Preparation and Characterization of Bead Type Superabsorbent Resin
Ahn, Kyo Duck ; Yoon, Minjoong ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 760~766
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.760
Bead type super-absorbent resins to be used for release-control were prepared by modification of the inverse suspension polymerization, and their physical properties were characterized. Acrylic acid and acrylamide were used as monomers, and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide was used as crosslinker, controlling the viscosity of monomer solution by adding hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC). SEM studies of the synthesized beads verified that the bead surfaces had many pores with their diameters of several tens nm. The bead sizes were in the range of
, depending on the viscosity of the monomer solution. Both absorbent amount and absorbent rate of the beads were inversely proportional to the bead size, and the maximum water absorbent amount of 1 g beads was determined to be ca. 170~200 g for 5 hrs. The absorbent rate was also dependent on pH change of the aqueous solution, exhibiting the maximum rate in pH ranging from 5 to 11. The absorbent rate decreased as the concentration of salt (NaCl and
) or ethanol and ethylene glycol increased. Release time of the water absorbed into the bead resins was 700 hrs, confirming the usefulness of the resin for the good release-control materials.
Effect of Adding Crosslinked Particles on Rheological and Electrical Properties of Polystyrene/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites
Yeom, Hyo Yeol ; Na, Hyo Yeol ; Lee, Seong Jae ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 767~773
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.767
Rheological and electrical properties of polystyrene (PS)/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites via coagulated precipitation were investigated. Chemical modification and surfactant wrapping of CNT to improve the dispersion of CNTs may reduce the intrinsic properties of pristine CNT. To avoid this problem, PS and CNTs were dissolved and dispersed in dimethylformamide and then PS/CNT nanocomposites were prepared by the coagulated precipitation of CNT-dispersed PS solution in water. The coagulated precipitation method was highly effective enhancing the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites. Furthermore, the effect of adding poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) crosslinked particles to PS matrix on the rheological and electrical properties was investigated. With the addition of the crosslinked particles, the electrical percolation threshold of CNT reduced to 0.25 wt% and electrical conductivity increased further. It is speculated that CNTs in the volume occupied by crosslinked particles helped electrical pathway formation.
Synthesis and Curing Behaviors of Polyisoimide Oligomers with Ethynyl End Groups
Choi, Seok Woo ; Kim, Bo Ock ; Kim, Ji-Heung ; Nam, Sung Woo ; Jeon, Boong Soo ; Kim, Young Jun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 774~781
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.774
Acetylenic or phenylethynyl end-capped polyisoimide oligomers (
2500 g/mol, 5000 g/mol) based upon 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (4,4'-ODA)/4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and 4,4'-ODA/3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) were synthesized by using 4-ethynylaniline (4-EA) or 4-phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride (4-PEPA) as an end capper. The incorporation of ethynyl groups were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The isomerization temperature was influenced by molecular weight as well as the backbone structure of polyisoimides oligomers. Thus, polyisoimide oligomers with molecular weight of 2500 g/mol was found to be imidized at temperature
lower than that for the oligomers with molecular weight of 5000 g/mol. The crosslinking reaction of ethynyl groups occurred at a higher temperature than that for the isoimide/imide isomerization reaction. These two reactions were totally or partially overlapped on the DSC thermograms for the polyisoimide oligomer end-capped with 4-EA. Kinetics of thermal imidization and crosslinking reactions for the 4,4'-ODA/ODPA polyisoimide oligomers end-capped with 4-PEPA were investigated by performing dynamic DSC experiments at heating rate of
. The activation energy and pre-exponential factors were 141 kJ/mol and
for the imidization reaction and 177 kJ/mol and
for the crosslinking reaction, respectively.
Thermal Conductivity of Thermally Conductive Ceramic Composites and Silicon Carbide/Epoxy Composites through Wetting Process
Hwang, Yongseon ; Kim, Jooheon ; Cho, WonChul ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 782~786
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.782
Various kinds of thermal conductive ceramic/polymer composites (aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide, boron nitride, and silicon carbide/epoxy) were prepared by a casting method and their optical images were observed by FE-SEM. Among these, SiC/epoxy composite shows inhomogeneous dispersion features of SiC and air voids in the epoxy matrix layer, resulting in undesirable thermal conductive properties. To enhance the thermal conductivities of SiC/epoxy composites, the epoxy wetting method which can directly infiltrate the epoxy droplet onto filtrated SiC cake was employed to fabricate the homogeneously dispersed SiC/epoxy composite for ideal thermal conductive behavior, with maximum thermal conductivity of 3.85W/mK at 70 wt% of SiC filler contents.
Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on Thermal Stability and Adhesion Properties of DGEBF Epoxy Resin
Lee, Dong Su ; Lee, Seul-Yi ; Min, Byung-Gak ; Seo, Young Soo ; Lee, Bong Han ; Park, Soo-Jin ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 787~790
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.787
In this work, the epoxy specimens were prepared from diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) with silane coupling agents (3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS)) in different ratios. Thermal stability was studied in terms of polymer decomposition temperature (PDT), temperature of maximum rate of weight loss (
), integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT), and decomposition activation energy (
) using TGA analysis. Adhesion properties of epoxy composite specimens were measured by UTM (universal testing machine) at atmosphere temperature. In this result, the adhesion properties of DGEBF were improved by addition of silane coupling agents compared to non-treated epoxy resin. However, when the content of GPTMS agent is more than 10 phr, adhesion properties decreased with increasing GPTMS agent.
Preparation and Characterization of Poly(phenylene sulfide)-Functionalized MWNTs
Hong, Sung Yeon ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 791~800
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.791
4-Chlorobenzoyl (CB) group-attached multi-walled carbon nanotube (c-MWNT) was prepared via a direct Friedel-Crafts acylation of MWNT with 4-chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) in a
/poly(phosphoric acid) medium. c-MWNT with a maximum chlorine content of 5.3 wt% (CB group content of 20.9 wt%) was obtained by controlling the amount of CBA during the reaction. Using a self-condensation polymerization of 4-chlorobenzenethiol (CBT) to poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS), MWNT-g-PPS was prepared by adding c-MWNT of chlorine content of 5.3 wt% during the self-polymerization of CBT and removing homo PPS after polymerization in order to increase the interfacial interaction between PPS and MWNT. Thermal and surface properties of the MWNT-g-PPS were characterized. The results showed that PPS was formed on the surface of c-MWNT by the condensation of c-MWNT and CBT.
Acrylic Polymer Composition Suitable for Ion Delivery and Selective Detection of Proton, and Hydroxyl and Cu(II) Ions
Lee, Dahye ; Woo, Heejung ; Do, Jung Yun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 801~808
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.801
Ion diffusion and chemical binding to acrylic polymer were investigated in a solid film. The composition of acrylic monomers containing amino group and carboxylic acid was adjusted for rapid ion migration in the film. p-Methylred (PMR) and phenolphthalein derivatives were optically sensitive to the concentration of proton and hydroxyl anion, respectively and verified the ion migration through the film layers. A rapid proton migration was observed in the film of a high amino content. On the other hand,
migration occurred rapidly in a high content of carboxylic acid group. The proton migration occurred through the internal layer as well as surface layer of a film and was reversible during 50 repetition examination. Copper(II) ion migration was examined with a Rhodamine-containing polymer film. The light absorption and emission spectra of a Rhodamine-Cu complex showed the key contribution of carboxylic acid group to the Cu(II) migration in a film.
Enhanced Sensitivity of PEDOT Microtubule Electrode to Hydrogen Peroxide by Treatment with Gold
Park, Jongseo ; Son, Yongkeun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 809~814
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.809
An array structure of conducting polymer microtubule was fabricated for an amperometric biosensor. 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) was electropolymerized in the microporous template membrane with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT/PSS) composite as a binder. The array structure can provide enhanced current collecting capability due to large active surface area compared to the macroscopic area of the electrode itself. For a biosensor application, the array electrode was tested for
detection and showed very sluggish electrochemical response to
. To enhance the detection efficiency to the oxidation of
, gold was treated on the electrode by two different approaches: sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Gold treatment with either method greatly enhanced the sensitivity of the electrode to
. So, conducting polymer microtubule array with gold treatment was expected to be a sensitive amperometric biosensor system based on the detection of
Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on Scaffold by Solid Freeform Fabrication
Park, SuA ; Lee, JungBok ; Kim, YangEun ; Kim, JiEun ; Kwon, IlKeun ; Lee, JunHee ; Kim, WanDoo ; Kim, HyungKeun ; Kim, MiEun ; Lee, JunSik ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 815~819
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.815
Scaffolds of tissue engineering should be biocompatible and biodegradable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. In the various scaffold fabrication, 3D printing technique can make the three dimensional scaffold with interconnected pores for cell ingrowth. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is biodegradable polyester with a low melting temperature and has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In this study, PCL scaffold was fabricated by 3D bioprinting system and surface modification of PCL scaffold was controlled by NaOH treatment. Morphological change and wetability of NaOH-treated scaffold were observed by SEM and contact angle measurement system. The remnant of PCL treated with NaOH was measured by ATR-FTIR. In vitro study of scaffolds was evaluated with WST-1 and ALP activity assay. NaOH treatment of PCL scaffolds increased surface roughness, hydrophilicity, cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These results indicate that NaOH-treated PCL scaffold made by 3D bioprinting has tissue engineered potential for the development of biocompatible material.
Bond Strength and Tensile Strength of Polymer-Modified Mortar Using Styrene and Butyl Acrylate
You, Kipyo ; Hyung, Wongil ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 820~826
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.820
The objective of this study is to find the relationship between the tensile strength of the polymer film and the bond strength and tensile strength of the polymer-modified mortar using styrene (St) and butyl acrylate (BA), and porosity. In the test results, the bond strength and tensile strength of the polymer-modified mortar increased with increases in the tensile strength of polymer film and the fine pore volume.
Investigation of Oxidation Methods of Organic Radical Polymer for Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries
Lee, Ilbok ; Kim, Younghoon ; Moon, Ji-Yeon ; Lee, Chul Wee ; Kim, Daeun ; Ha, Kyoung-Su ; Lee, Dong Hyun ; Son, Hyungbin ; Yoon, Songhun ;
Polymer Korea, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 827~831
DOI : 10.7317/pk.2014.38.6.827
An organic radical polymer (ORP) was prepared by radical polymerization and following oxidation into nitroxyl radical. Two different oxidation methods were employed and their radical concentrations were measured using electroparamagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and UV-visible absorption (UV-vis) spectroscopy. From these measurements,
oxidation method exhibited a complete oxidation, which resulted in 97.6% spin concentration. Also, it was revealed that convenient and cheap UV-vis measurement was useful for preliminary radical concentration comparison. After applied as a cathode material in lithium ion batteries, ORP electrode showed a high initial capacity (
), a good initial efficiency (96%), a very high rate performance (70% charging during 1.2 min) and stable cycle performance.