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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
Selecting the target year
Partitioning of Carbon and Nitrogen Reserves During Winter Adaptation and Spring Regrowth I. Effects of temperature on growth, total content of nitrogen and non-structureal carbohydrate in forage rape(Brassica napus L.)
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 157~163
The objective of this study is to obtain the basic data for investigating the effects of organic reserves on winter survial or regrowth yield. Dry matter, nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate content of plants grown under
of culture temperature during 25 days were investigated. The dry matter content of leaves and roots were significantly reduced under
culture condition. Comparing with the dry matter per plant under
, those in leaves and roots under
decreased to 25% and 10%, respectively, after 25 days of temperature treatment. Total nitrogen content in leaves under
increased to 68% and 39% compared to the initial lenel(day O), respectively, during 25 days after temperature treatment, Nitrogen content in roots highly increased under 5 C while there was a little change under
condition. The nitrogen contents in roots under
were 39.0 and 30.8mgJg DM, respectively, after 25 days of temperature treatment. Total contents of soluble carbohydrate in both leaves and roots under
were higher than those under
condition. After 25 days of temperature treatment under
, their contents in leaves and roots were 1.4 and 2.0 times higher than those of under
condition. Stach atent in roots under
was less changed, while thatof under
greatly increased from 64.8 to 178.7mglg DM duling 25 days. 'Ihese results clearly showed that an accumulation of both nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate in the plants occured under low temperature condition.e condition.
Grass Productivity and Nutritive Value as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization after First Harvest in Orchardgrass Meadow
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 164~168
A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization levels after first harvest (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kglha) during spring season on the gms growth, dry matter (DM) yield, nutritive value, and efficiency of DM production per N kg applied in orchardgrass meadow. Additional N was applicated at early spring (70 kg), after second harvest (50 kg), and after fourth harvest (30 kg/ha) in all treatments, 1990. Growth and DM yield of orchardgrass at second harvest were significantly increased with increasing level of N after first harvest (P<0.05), but no yield differences were observed between application of N 60, N 90, and N 120 kg. The efficiency of DM increment per N kg applied was rapidly decreased with increasing level of N; that was 14.8, 12.0, 10.7 and 4.7 DM kg/N kgha in the plot of N 30, N 60, N 90 and N 120 kg, respectively. The content and yield of crude protein of orchardgrass at second harvest were significantly increased with increasing of N (P<0.05), ranged h r n 11.0% (N 0 kg) to 16.8% (N 120 kg), and from 195.0 kg (N 0 kg) to 508.2 kglha (N 120 kg), respectively. However, the content of neutral detergent fiber was not affected by N level after first harvest. From the above results, it is suggested that application of N fertilizer after first harvest was very effective for regrowth and nutritive value of orchardgrass during spring season, and the proper amount of N after first harvest was 60-90 kglha in this experiment.
Studies on the N ,
-Application in the Mixed Sward of Alfalfa-Grass I. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on dry mixed sward of alfalfa-grasses
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 169~174
To investigate the effects of nitrogen(N) fertilization levels on the dry matter(DM) yield, nutrition yield, and N efficiency of forages in mixed sward of alfalfa-grasses, a field experiment arranged by randomized complete block design with five treatments(0, 70, 140, 210 and 280kg N/ha) was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station in Suwon, September, 1990 to February, 1993. During two years, average DM yields of forage increased as N fertilization level was increased, but no significant difference was found between DM 10,266kg of N 210kgha and DM 10,845kg of N 280kgha. Crude protein and energy productivity of forages increased as N fertilization level was increased, and the increasing degree was highest between N 140kg and 210kg/ha fertilization. With increasing N fertilization, mineral contents tended to decrease in P and K/Ca+ Mg equivalent ratios, to increase in Mg, but not to be regular in the other elements. Efficiency of N was highest at N 210kg/ha fertilization, which produced DM 21.6kg, net energy lactation 129.3 MJ, starch equivalent 12.3kStE and total digestible nutrients 14.5kg per Ikg N.
Application of Animal Excreta for Forage Production on Uncultivated Rice Paddy
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 175~185
This experiment was carried out to investigate the optimum rates of animal excreta(cattle slurry-N) for the highest dry matter production and improve the nutritive values of reed canarygrass with different cutting frequency. The results are summarized as follows; The highest relative dry matter yields for annual dry matter yield were 42.2% and 45.2% at 3rd cut in 3 and 4 cuttings, and 34.7% at 4th cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. The annual dry matter yields of non slurry-N application plot showed were from 6.8 tons to 8.0 tons/ha in all cutting frequencies. The highest annual dry matter yield obtained was in 3 cuttings. The annual dry matter yield increased with an increase of applied rates of slurry-N in all cutting frequencies. Annual dry matter yield was produced by 3.3 tons/ha at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 cuttings, and more 1.7 tonsha and 2.4 tons/ha at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 4 and 5 cuttings than that of non slurry-N application plots. The contents of crude protein were 12.01% and 15.0% at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 and 4 cuttings, and 16.59% at rates of 120 kg N/ha/cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. On the contrary, the content of acid detergent fibre(ADF) showed the lowest values at same rates of slurry-N application in each cutting. J. The average content of crude protein was significantly increased with cutting frequencies, and they were 11.43%, 13.53% and 15.53% in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. The average contents of acid detergent fibre(ADF) were 40.27%, 40.53% and 37.06% in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings. The values of 5 cuttings were significantly lower than other cutting frequencies, but the values of acid detergent fibre(ADF) was not significantly different between 3 and 4 cuttings. 6. The efficiency of dry matter production to slurry-N application rates showed the highest values of 18.9 kg and 15.7 kg DM/kg N at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 3 and 5 cuttings, and 16.3 kg DM/kg/ N at rates of 90 kg N/ ha/cut in 4 cuttings. The efficiency of total nitrogen yield to slurry-N application rates were the highest values of 0.51 kg and 0.43 kg W k g N at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 4 and 5 cuttings, and 0.52 kg TN/kg N at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 cuttings, respectively. 7. The ranges of economic slurry-N rates were estimated as the 107.2-151.0 kglha, 359.1-375.7 kgha and 160.3-236.9 kg/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, and marginal dry matter yields were 9.6-10.0 tons/ha, 12.4-12.6 tons/ha and 9.0-9.7 tons/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. 8. The limiting sluny-N application rates to maintain the highest dry matter yields were estimated to be 420.0 kg/ ha, 440.6 kg/ha and 666.3 kg/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings.
Chemical Control of Weed for Rapes ( Brassica napus L. )
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 186~191
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herbicides on weed control, growth characteristics and yield in rapes, after direct seeding it to the field. All herbicides treated had no effect on the emergence period, bolting rate of rapes. The major weeds were Cerastium holosteoides var. hallaisanense, Stellaria media Villars, Larnium ampleicaule L., Lobelia chinensis Lour., Geranium wilfordii Maxim. and Capsellu bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus. Rapes yield were increased somewhat more with alachlor-G, herbicide than the other hehicides and by hand weeding. Alachlor-G and alachlor-Ec were had no i j u r y but butachlor- G and simajin-Wp were slightly harmful for the rapes with recommended concentration. On the other hand all hehicides were harmful in the double dosage level.
Grazing Utilization of Winter Rye , Sorghum-sudangrass and Oat for Dairy Cattle
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 192~197
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the grazing performance of dairy cattle for winter rye, sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and oat including of rape in Hwa seong-gun, Kyeonggido, from 1993 to 1994. Each crops were utilized from the stage of 8-leaves to late blooming for sorghum-sudangrass, and from final leaves to soft dough for winter rye and oat plant. Under three different cropping system of winter rye-sorghum x sudangrass, spring oat-sorghum X sudangrass-autumn oat, and silage corn-autumn oat, a succeshl hehage production was available for grazing performance from April 26 to December 15, continuously. Annual dry matter yields for grazing allowance were 26.1 tontha in average of all cropping system. Autumn oat rnixtured with rape showed the highest herbage utilization with 91.6% grazing intensity and the lowest in sorghum-sudangrass with a value of 60.6- 69.1 %. Labor investment for herbage production were 805 hour in the cutting management and 339 hour per hectar in the grazing utilization.
Study on Baled Silage Making of Selected Forage Crop and Pesture Grasses II. Yield performance and nutritieve evaluation of baled silage as affected by stage of growth
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 198~206
Baled silage making(BS) of selected forage crops was discussed during 1991-1993, to determine the best cutting time of the plants for BS production, BS yields and silage quality. Seven species of forage crops and pasture grasses(rye, barley, spring oat, Italian ryegrass, orchardgrass, alfalfa and grass-legume pasture mixtures) were harvested at different stage of growth from young plant to physiological maturity, and baled in a self constructed square baling chamber. Each bales, measured 90cm length, 60cm width and 50cm height, were wrapped with 0.05mrn thick polyethylene plastic film, and stored in stack silo. Each bales were weighed between 15-20 kg in dry matter basis. The effects of pre wilting and formic acid addition on the silage quality of young plant materials, which contained high water concentration, was also evaluated during the experiment. Rye plant including of barley and spring oat were evaluated as a good materials for baled silage making. Fodder rye produced high quality BS with a value of silage quality point 84(Flieg's point) when the plant harvested at stage of greatest dry matter accumulation by 12.64 tonha. The best quality BS of barley was obtained at stage of hard dough to yellow stage by 11.9 ton/ha dry matter yield and 81 point silage quality. Italian ryegrass and pasture grasses including of orchardgrass, alfalfa and grass-legume pasture mixtures procuced also high quality bale silage by harvesting at stage of late blooming. However pre witting operation and formic acid addition was required for BS production of grass materials because of high water contents. Water contents of Italian ryegrass and other pasture species ranged 18.9%(Italian) to 20.8%(alfalfa). Silage quality point of Italian BS harvested at late blooing was increased from 72 to 88 by 1/2-one day pre wilting and 0.3% formic acid treatment. Silage quality of young plant materials of rye and other forage crops, barley and spring oat were also improved markedly through the pre wilting treatment and formic acid addition.
Effect of Concentrate Level on Chewing Activities and Ruminal Characteristics in Daily Cows Fed Rice Straw , Corn Silage and Grass Hay
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 207~214
'Ihis experiment was canied out to investigate the feed intake, chewing activities and ruminal characteristics by change in roughage intake and concentrate feeding amount with 15 Holstein cows. 1. DM intake of cow fed rice straw, corn silage and grass hay was 4.97, 5.47 and 5.60% of metabolic weight, respectively, and that by kg increase of concentrate was decreased by 0.330, 0.294 and 0.461 kg, respectively. 2. RVI of rice straw, com silage and grass hay was 98.3, 93.7 and 87.1 respectively, and correlations between RVIfl) and concentrate level@) were the following;
(rice straw) = 99.4543 - 5.9759X + 0.0230
This experiment was carried out to investigate the feed intake, chewing activities and ruminal characteristics by change in roughage intake and concentrate feeding amount with 15 Holstein cows. 1. DM intake of cow fed rice straw, corn silage and grass hay was 4.97, 5.47 and 5.60% of metabolic weight, respectively, and that by kg increase of concentrate was decreased by 0.330, 0.294 and 0.461 kg, respectively. 2. RVI of rice straw, com silage and grass hay was 98.3, 93.7 and 87.1 respectively, and correlations between RVI(Y) and concentrate level(X) were the following;
(rice straw) = 99.4543 - 5.9759X + 0.0230
(com silage) = 88.7601 - 2.9000X - 0.2111
(grass hay) = 95.1515 - 6.3096X + 0.0873
3. Average ruminal pH in rice straw feeding group was the highest and correlations between ruminal pH(Y) and concentrate level(X) were the following;
= 7.0920 - 0.0309X - 0.0023
= 6.5000 - 0.0516X + 0.0002
= 6.7666 - 0.0072X - 0.0044
4. Average ruminal
concentration in forage hay feeding group was the highest and correlations between ruminal
concentration(Y) and concentrate level(X) were the following.
= 3.3777 - 0.0587X + 0.0682
= 4.2765 + 0.5921X + 0.0181
= 5.3634 - 0.4203X + 0.0223
5. Ruminal VFA wncentmtion in corn silage feeding group was the highest.
Effect of Feeding Wet BreWers` Grains on Ruminal Charateristics and Performance of Dairy Cattle
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 215~221
Three fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were used to examine the change in ruminal characteristics when fed diets of 100% corn silage, 50% corn silage + 50% wet brewers' grain(WBG) and 100% WBG, and also twenty Holstein heifers averaging 156
3.2kg BW were randomly assingned to determine the adequate feeding level of concentrate with the following treatments ; Only WBG, concentrate to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of BW under feeding WBG ad libitum. Tne main results were as follows : I. Ruminal pH was minimized 3 hrs after feeding and then gradually increased. The mean ruminal pH was highest in feeding only WBG (6.72) and lowest in only corn silage(6.0) 2. Ruminal
-N concentration was maximized 1 hr after feeding and then gradually decreased regardless of diets, n7e average ruminal
-N content was highest in diet of 100% WBG(12.9 rngldl) and lowest in 100% corn silage(5.9 mg/dl) 3. Acetic acid percent among VFA was highest when WBG replaced 50% corn silage and acetic to propionic acid ratio was higher in order of feeding only corn silage, 50% corn silage + 50% WBG and only WBG. 4. Ruminal bacteria and protozoa number in diet of 50% corn silage + 50% WBG were 8.14
, respectively, which were most of all treatments. 5. Daily gain and feed efficiency of Holstein heifer in feeding concentrate to 0.5% of BW and forage hay to about 20% of total DM intake when fed free WBG were better
Establishment of Optimum Pattern of Farm Machinery for Forage Production
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 222~230
This study was canied out to ddermine optimum areas for various sizes of land coverage of the farm machinery utilization in 1993-1994. A kind of machinery size and work systems were classed as the power tiller of 10HP+man power, the tractor of 35~46HP (tractor of 64~86HP and attachment were leased to harvest work), 64-86HP+ attachment and 90- 105HP+ attachment, respectively. \ulcornerhe results are summarized as follows: 1. The optimum areas of tractors of 90~105HP, 64~86HP and the power tiller of lOHP were estimated as 21.9 (corn-rye cropping system)- 26.9ha (sorghum
sudangrass - rye cropping system), 14.7 - 22.8ha and 1.2 - 1.61ha, respectively. The break-even-point areas of the tractors of 90-105HP. 64-86HP and the power tiller of lOHP were 16.6 (corn-rye cropping system)- 19.9ha (sorghum
sudangrass - rye cropping system), 12.5 - 16.lha and 0.12-0.13ha, respectively. 2. The optimum areas (land sizes, annual field capacity) for 50 cows by feeding rate(%) of roughage to concentrate were 6.8ha, 13.6ha in the 4060, 8.5ha, 17.0ha in the 5050 and 10.2ha, 20.4ha in the 60:40, and in case of 30 cows, it were 4.lha, 8.2ha in the 40:60, respectively. In the former case for the form of work system was the trador of 90-105HP+attachment and 64~86HP+ attachment, and the latter was the tractor of 35~46HP (tractor of 64~86HP and attachment were leased to harvest work) and 64-86HP+ attachment. 3. Productiori cost for corn-rye cropping system reducted to 51.8% in 102.9 wonkg dry matter the tractor of 90~ 105HP+ attachment with 213.4 wonkg dry matter the power tiller of 10HP+ man power.