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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
Significance of Unreduced ( 2n ) Gametes in Plant Breeding
Rim, Yong-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 1~10
Unreduced (2n) gametes are meiotic products (pollen or egg) having a sporophytic (somatic) chromosome number, resulting from abnormalities during either microsporogenesis or megasporogenesis. They occur naturally at a low frequency in many plant species. Unreduced (2n) gametes in plants can be identified for four possible ways as follow i) pollen size and/or shape differences between haploid (n) and diploid (2n) pollen, ii) ploidy analysis (chromosome number) of progeny or meiotic analysis (presence of dyads andlor triads at the microspore stage), iii) progeny performance and fertility and iv) dosage of isozyme and DNA markers. Unreduced (2n) gametes can be an effective breeding tool in synthesizing new cultivars, providing a unique method to maximizing heterozygosity, i.e., transferring a large proportion of the non-additive genetic effects (intra- and inter- locus interactions) h m parent to offspring and can also be used to overcome infertility of interploidy crosses. Sexual polyploidization through 2n gametes has been a major route to the formation of naturally occurring polyploids. The three mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in potato have been discovered as follow: i) parallel spindles (ps) or tripolar spindles (ts), ii) premature cytokinesis (pc-I, pc-2) and iii) synaptic mutants (sy-2, sy-3, sy-4). Genetic analysis indicated that the mechanisms of 2n gamete formation were controlled by single recessive gene in potato, alfalfa, red clover, etc., and by two recessive genes in wheat. The use of 2n gametes which can efficiently transfer germplasm fiom wild relatives to cultivated species, especially fiom diploid to tetraploid could make a contribution to the improvement of germplasm base in breeding programs.
Protoplast Formation and Regeneration of Bacillus spp.
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 11~18
This study was to provide the basic data in improving protoplast formation and regeneration of antagonistic bacteria against phytopathogenic fungi and pest. The antagonistic rhizobacterium, BS 101, against Rhizoctonia solrmi and Fusurium oxyspomm was isolated and identified as Bacillus subtilis. Another bacterium for protoplast formation and regeneration was B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstcJtiHD-l (BT 37669) which have insectcidal toxin in the orders Coleopteria, Dipteria etc.. Auxotrophic mutants, BS 1013 and BT 69, were isolated by treating with NTG 300 ug/ml for 40 min. at
, and with NTG 300 ug/ml for 30 min. at
, respectively. The BS 1013 and BT 69 were converted to protoplas by treating with lysozyme 300 ugh1 for 30 min. at 37C, and lysozyme 9 mglml for 60 min. at
, respectively. The fequencies of the protoplast formation of BS 1013 and BT 69 were 90.00 and 92.83% respectively, after 1~2 day at
. The regeneration kequencies of the protoplasts BS 1013 and B T 69 were 0.52 and 0.10%, respectively, after 4~6 days at
Studies on the Phosphatic fertilizer Application Grassland I. Recidual effect of phosphatic fertilizer botanical composition and mineral contents of pasture plants in mixed sward
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 19~26
To find out the residual effect of phosphate fertilization on botanical composition, mineral contents and mineral nutrient deprivation of pasture plants, this experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with six treatments(0-0, 50-50, 100-65, 150-65, 200-65 and 250-65kg
/ha), those were composed of three P,O, fertilization level(0, 50 and 65kg P,OJha) after phosphate fertilization trial with six treatments(0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250kg
/ha) from 1989 to 1992, and conducted at hilly land in Kwangju, Kyonggi Province 60m 1993 to 1994. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The botanical composition of pasture plants without phosphate fertilization was very poor. With increasing available phosphate of soil, the percentage of grasses and legumes were remarkably increased and weeds was decreased. With 150-65kg
/ha application for two years, the average DM yield was composed of 80.6% grasses, 15.4% legume and 4.0% weeds, the percentage was similar to that of 200-65kg
/ha. As available phosphate of soil increase, P, K and Mg content of pasture plants were increased, but Ca/P ratio was lowed and the other mineral contents tended not to be regular. The mineral nutrient contents deprived by DM yield was increased as available phosphate of soil was increased, but those were not different between 150-65 and 250-65kg
/ha. However, mineral nutrient of
and MgO were higher in 200-65 and 250-65kg
/ha. Most of applied mineral elements were accumulated at a subsurface(0-2.5cm) of grasslands, and mineral tended to be decrease than that of soil chemical analysis before the experiment of residual effect of phosphate fertilization.
Growth Characteristics , Yield , and Nutritive Value of Early- and Late Maturing Cultivars of Orchargrass ( Dactylis glomerate L. )
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 27~34
This experiment was carried out to determine growth characteristics, dry matter (DM) yield, seasonal yield distribution and nutritive value of early- and late maturity orchardgrass, 1990 to 1992. The cultivars used in this study were Potomac, Hallmark (early maturing cultivar) and Lidacta, Rancho (late maturing cultivar), and a mixture plot (Potomac 25% + Hallmark 25% + Lidacta 25% + Rancho 25%) was involved. The seeding rate was 20 kgha in all treatments. Plant height of Potomac and Hallmark was longer than that of Lidacta and Rancho. The dates of initial heading and 50% heading of early maturing cultivars (Apr. 30 and May 10) were 10 days earlier than those of late matuing cultivars. Potomac and Hallmark were upright, and Lidacta and Rancho were semi-upright type, and severe disease and weeds (30 ~ 40%) were observed at Lidacta plot. On an average of three years, the DM yields of Potomac (10,549 kglna), Hallmark (10,435 kg) and mixture (10,356 kg) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of Rancho (9,457 kg) and Lidacta (8,218 kg). However, seasonal yield distribution of late maturing cultivars was better than that of early maturing cultivars. The contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, nitrogen %ee extract, aude ash, neutral detergent fiber, P, K, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between cultivars, but higher aude protein yield was found at Potomac, Hallmark and mixture plots. Based on the above results, it may be concluded that early maturing cultivars for high productivity, late maturing cultivars for seasonal yield distribution, and seeding of mixture andlor separation of early- and late maturing cultivars are recommended. Also Lidacta was a not promising cultivar due to low productivity, severe disease, and high weeds development.
The Effect of Cattle Slurry on the Forage Yield and Grassland Ecosystem
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 35~42
Many farmers apply cattle slurry on grassland, often in excess of crop N requirements, resulting in groundwater contamination. Our research objective was the development of grassland management systems that reduce undesirable sideeffects on other compartment of the ecosystem. Field experiment was conducted during 1991~1993 on sandy loam soil at AllgZiu south western Germany. Different sets of conditions were tested such as : zero fertilization, reduced sluny application
, intensive sluny application(conventional sluny application,
). The plots of the reduced slurry application had no significant effect on dry matter yields, digestible dry matter and net energy of herbage. Dry matter yield of zero fertilization was significantly lower than that of usual slurry application, however the content of Ca and Mg in herbage tended to increase. We conclude that reduced sluny application can be applied on grassland without adverse effects on dry matter production and quality of herbage.
The Effect of Cattle Slurry on N-Dynamics and
Leaching in Pasture Mixtures
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 43~50
The aim of the study is to describe the fate and transformation of nitrogen in grassland ecosystems. Field experiments were conducted using sandyloam soil under variabling conditions: Zen, fertilization, reduced slurry application(l20kg N
), usual sluny application (240 kg N
).Soil water samples were gathered with 120cm ceramic cups with initial pressure of 0.5 bar. Samples were collected twice a month and analysed for NO, colormetrically. Percolation was calculated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and leaching as the product of percolation and nitrate content of the water h m the ceramic cups. The N
-N content in soil had no significant effect on slurry application, but high slurry application on grassland resulted in high N
-N content in soil. The NO, concentration in soil water was remarkably variable during the year. The average N
, concentration during experiment became the lowest(8.5 mg/e ) without slurry application and highest with 240kOa cattle sluny(25.3 mg4 ). For each of the three different amounts of cattle sluny applied (0, 120, and 240kOa), the amount of N
-N leached per year were 12, 23 and 29kg/ha respectively. On grassland under the climatic conditions of Allgau showed enormous nitrate leaching, which has a p a t potential of polluting the ground water. The high pool of mineral N in the soil are the source for N
leaching. The leaching of N
cannot be avoided completely, but minimized by optimizing N fertilization rate.
Effects of Alum Sludge Application on the Growth of Forage Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor X S. bicolor )
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 51~58
An experiment of alum sludge application was carried out on a mountainous site, to know its effect on the growth of forage sorghum hybrid, Pioneer 93 1 (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor). When alum sludge with 80% water content was applied at the level of 133 ton per ha, the effect of the application on the growth of Pioneer 931 was much smaller than that of chemical fertilizer. But Eresh yield of the forage, with the sludge application, was greater than that without fertilizer when the soil is not fertile. But when the soil was comparatively fertile, the sludge application gave an adverse affect on the growth of the forage plant. The content of exchangeable K in the soil has a very close positive relation with the Eresh yield and plant height of the plant, while that of exchangeable Ca has a close negative relation with those growing factors. There was a tendency of yield decrease of the forage plant, when alum or compost was applied with NPK to the comparatively infertile soil especially for alum sludge. As a result, when soil is not fertile more attention will be necessary for applying alum sludge with chemical fertilizers. But to soil with better fertility, it is recommended to use alum sludge with chemical fertilizer to obtain more yield of the forage plant.
Effects of Rye Harvest Date and Residue Management on Growth and Yield of Corn for Silage
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 59~66
This experiment was conducted at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon in 1992 and 1993 to investigate the effects of tillage method-conventional and rotary-till, rye (Secde cereale L.) harvest date-early (April 14) and late (April 26), and rye residue treatmentno paraquat(1, 1-dinethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) and paraquat in minimizing the adverse effects of the rye residue on growth and yield of succeeding corn(Zea mays L.). Corn plant height during the growing season was slighly taller with conventional tillage relative to rotary-till when rye was harvested in early and treated by paraquat. Corn LA1 during the growing season was slighly increased when rye was harvested in early and where conventional tillage was used with paraquat treatment. There were no differences in the leaf number and silking dates of corn among the tillage methods, harvest dates of rye and paraquat treatments. The dry matter yield of corn was significantly increased by paraquat treatment when rye was harvest in early, but no differences were found in the dry matter percentage, ear percent to total dry matter, and stover, ear and estimated TDN yields of corn among the treatments.
Effects of Timing of Rye Harvest Date and Residue Residue Chemical Treatment Corn for Silage
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 67~74
This experiment was conducted in 1992 and 1993 at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon to determine timing of rye(Secde cemde L.) harvest and residue chemical treatment prior to tillage in minimizing the adverse effects of the rye residue on growth and yield of succeeding corn(Zea muys L.). Eight treatments were established in 1993 which included four treatments such as no paraquat (1, l'diiethyl- 4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride), paraquat treatment at 10, 23, and both 23 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 14, and another four treatments such as no paraquat, paraquat treatment at 1, 5 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 26. No paraquat treatment significantly resulted in reductions in corn plant height on June 3 and 10 when rye was harvested on April 14, but differences in the plant height and leaf number of corn among treatments were generally nonsignificant. Corn LA1 and silk emergence were not affected by paraquat treatment times regardless of rye harvested dates, but silk emergence was delayed by 1 to 2 days with no paraquat when rye harvested on April 14. Corn dry matter and TDN yields were significantly increased by paraquat treatment at 10 and 5 days prior to tillage treatment when rye was harvested on April 14 and 26, respectively, but other agronomic characteristics such as dry matter percentage, ear percent to total dry matter, and stover and ear yields of corn at harvest showed little or no response to paraquat treatment times.
Effects of Teatment Level and Seasons of Slurry on Productivity of Rye (Secale cereale L.)
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 75~81
This study was wnducte to investigate the effects of treatment level and seasons of sluny hm bovine feces on the productivity of rye, N efficiency and improvement of soil fertility under the Korean climate condition. The results obtained fiom this study summarized as follows ; 1. The highest dry matter yield of rye was obtained in the partial fertilization of sluny in spring or autumn. There is no differences of dry matter yield between spring and autumn application. 2. With increasing the amount of slurry-N, the dry matter yield of rye was signigicantly increased up to 100Kg sluny Nha. As the level of slurry-N rises above about 100Kg N/ha, the maximal yield of dry matter was unchanged or declined. 3. As the level of sluny fertilization rises, the crude protein content of rye increases significantly. However the contents of crude protein was less affected by the application seasons. 4. The amount of nitrogen which produced 6om rye is dependent upon the level of slurry-N. The highest nitrogen yield of rye was obtained by the partial fertilization of sluny-N. 5. The season or amount of slurry treatments did not affect the organic matter content in soil. N-content in soil was the lowest by the partial fertilization of slurry in spring or autumn. However, N-content was increased with the higher level of sluny-N.
The Effect of Roughage Source on Voluntary Feed Intake and Digestibility in Korean Native goats
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 82~88
A study was carried out to evaluate the values of roughages available in Korea on feed intake and digestibility of Korean native goats and consequently to apply its results to the feeding system of Korean goats as a basic information. The results are as follows. 1. The protein contents in Alfalfa and Acacia leaf were 17.6 and 16.3% respectively 11.7 and 6.8% higher than orchardgrass and pine needle. Ether extract tom pine needle was about two times higher than other roughage sources which are 9.2%. 2. Dry matter intake per day in goats fed alfalfa, acacia leaf and orchardgrass was higher (P < 0.05) at 590.3, 543.8 and 496.58 respectively and 217.lg in pine needle. 3. Dry matter intake per basal weight (DM glkg of B
and DM g/kg of BW%) was higher in goats fed acacia leaf at 68.5 and 3.5% respectively than any other treatments goats fed pine needle showed the lowest (P< 0.05) dry matter intake at 28.6 and 1.5% respectively. 4. Dry matter digestibility was highest (PcO.05) in alfalfa fed goats at 61.4%. Dry matter digestibilities in orchardgrass, pine needle and acacia leaf were 58.0, 46.8 and 46.6% respectively. 5. Total digestible nutrients were highest (P< 0.05) in Alfalfa fed goats at 59.5%. Total digestible nutrients in orchardgrass, pine needle and acacia leaf were 54.2, 50.7 and 47.7% respectively. 6. In conclusion, the value of orchardgrass as feed for goats was as excellent as alfalfa and although acacia leaf had a less value than alfalfa in goats, it is considered to be used as a protein supplement in diets for goats due to its high content of protein and excellent palatability. Intake of pine needle in Korean goats in this study was satisfactory and it indicates the possibility of its use as a supplement in diets for goats. However, fkther investigation will be necessary particularly on the deleterious effects of ether extracts of pine needle
Effect of Cutting Stage on Yield and Quality of triticale ( x triticosecale Witt ) Cultivars
Celen, A.Esen ; Celik, Nuran ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 89~92
The aim of the research was to investigate the herbage yield and some characteristics of three triticale cultivars (Beaguelita, Eronga and Juanillo) harvested at the boot and milky-waxy ripeness stages in 1993-94 and 1994-95. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Although there were no significant differences between the years and the cultivars, significant differences were found between the harvest stages and for most of the parameters studied superiority was observed for the late cutting (at milky-waxy ripeness). The highest crude protein (11.9%) and crude ash (9.4%) contents were obtained h m the boot stage, whereas the highest yields for green matter, dry matter, crude protein and crude ash were obtained h m the milky-waxy ripeness stage (34.94; 11.65; O.% and 0.92t/ha, respectively). Also, the dry matter content was higher at the late cutting (33.4%).