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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Factors Influencing Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Efficiency in Perennial Ryegrass
Lee, Ki-Won ; Kim, Ki-Yong ; Lee, Joung-Kyong ; Park, Hyung-Soo ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Lee, Byung-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 165~170
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.165
A system for the production of transgenic plants has been developed for perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Included in this study were two factors which may affect the gene transfer efficiency: concentrations of acetosyringone (AS, 0 to 300
), and co-culture period (1 to 7 days). Both factors were very important to achieve high efficiency gene transformation in the perennial ryegrass. The highest transformation efficiency was obtained when embryogenic calli were inoculated with Agrobacterium in the presence of 100
AS with the culture medium for 5 days. Phosphinothricin resistant calli were developed with into complete plants. GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Northern blot analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that transgenes were integrated into the genome of perennial ryegrass. Using this protocol, it was possible to obtain transformants efficiently for further study.
Effect of Mixed Sowing Ratios Between Whole Crop Barley with Hooded Type and Forage Pea on the Forage Yield and Quality
Ju, Jung-Il ; Park, Jong-Min ; Lee, Jung-Jun ; Kim, Chang-Ho ; Koo, Han-Mo ; Oh, Tae-Seok ; Lee, Hyo-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 171~178
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.171
The study was conducted to clarify the mixed seeding rate of whole crop barley with hood type and forage pea for using of forage crops and to compare the forage yield and quality. At a mixed seeding rate between the whole crop barley (WCB) and forage pea, The heading date and plant height of WCB were not a difference according to mixed seeding rate of forage pea. The tillers of the WCB were a decrease and plant of the forage pea were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The lodging index of the WCB was a appearance with distribution of
, The lodging index of WCB with a 20kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea was 3. The overwintering rate of forage pea was a appearance more than 90% at all treatment. The plant height of forage pea was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. At a mixed seeding between the WCB and forage pea, The fresh weight was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea and was a appearance more than 3,000 kg at all treatment plot. But the dry matter weight was decrease according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. The dry matter weight of 20 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea showed the most amount with 1,266 kg. The crude protein (CP) content was a tendency to increase according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. But, the relative feed value (RFV) was a tendency to decrease according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The highest RFV was 183.8 at 14 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. The highest content of ADF and NDF were 23.9% and 46.3% at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 10 kg/10a of forage pea, respectively. The highest sum of standardized score by fresh weight, dry matter weight, CP, ADF, NDF and RFV was 2.309 at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea. The optimum mixed seeding rate was a considered judgment in the order of mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea, mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 5.0 kg/10a of forage pea.
Comparison of Yield and Forage Quality of Silage Corns at Different Planting Dates
Son, Beom-Young ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Song, Song-Yi ; Baek, Seong-Bum ; Kim, Chung-Kon ; Kim, Jong-Duk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 179~186
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.179
This study was conducted to evaluate yield and forage quality of domestic silage corn hybrids at different planting dates. Days to silking of Suwon169 and P3394 were 62 days, respectively, the shortest among corn hybrids and Gangdaok was the longest. Cheonganok was more resistant to lodging than other hybrids. Kwangpyeongok and Gangdaok were more excellent to stay-green than other hybrids. Ear ratios to total dry matter of other domestic hybrids except Gangdaok were similar with those of DK697 and P3394. Ear ratios to total dry matter were similar in planting dates, May 3 and May 21 with 46% and 45% but June 11, low with 41%. Fresh yield of Gangdaok was the highest of all hybrids and other hybrids except Gangdaok were similar. Dry matter (DM) yields of domestic hybrids except Cheonganok were similar to those of DK697 and P3394. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields of domestic hybrids were no significant difference compared with those of DK697 and P3394. Fresh yield, DM yield and TDN yield of all hybrids were similar in planting dates, May 3 and May 21 but those of all hybrids were reduced in planting date, June 11 compared with May 3 and May 21. All hybrids were no significant difference in acid detergent fiber (ADF) which had values ranging from
. All hybrids were no significant difference in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which had values ranging from
. There were no significant differences in ADF and NDF according to planting dates. Relative feed value (RFV) of P3394 was the lowest of all hybrids. Other hybrids except P3394 had values ranging from
and was no significant difference in RFV. It is concluded that domestic hybrids tested in this study have high forage quality as well as high production similar to those of imported corn hybrids.
Changes of Feed Quality at Different Cutting Dates among Five Winter Cereals for Whole-Crop Cereal Silage in Middle Region
Ju, Jung-Il ; Lee, Joung-Jun ; Park, Ki-Hun ; Lee, Hee-Bong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 187~196
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.187
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the different cutting dates on the changes of feed quality among five cereals (barley, wheat, rye, triticale and oat) for whole crop silage. Field trials were conducted at paddy field in Yesan, Chungnam Province and the aerial parts were clipped 10 days from 15 March to 15 June. Changes of acid detergent fiber (ADF) content in relation to different cutting dates was described by a quadratic curve for 5 winter cereals crops. ADF content reached a maximum at 5 days after heading in barley cultivar `Youngyang`, 7 days in wheat `Keumkang`, 18 days in rye `Gogu`, 1 days in triticale `Shinyoung` and 10 days in oat `Samhan`. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content were linearly increased as growing after overwintering and stagnated or slightly decreased after heading. The crude protein were linearly decreased throughout the growth period of 5 whole crop cereals. Digestible dry matter (DDM) content were decreased from early stages to heading and subsequently increased as grain filling. Relative feed value (RFV) for 5 crops were decreased as growing and subsequently increased as grain filling after heading. Barley cultivar for only forage use `Youngyang` were lower at ADF and NDF content and higher at DDM and RFV after heading than those of other cereals for forage use. So, barley for whole crop silage was a good crop with high feed quality and high proportion of spikes compared with other winter cereal crops. Wheat cultivar for grain `Keumkang` were higher at crude protein than those of other four cereals from overwintering to maturing and were higher at DDM and RFV after heading than those of rye, triticale and oat. Rye cultivar with cold tolerant and high fresh yielding `Gogu` were highest at ADF and NDF content and lowest at DDM content and RFV. So, rye was a crop with low quality for forage use compared to other winter cereal crops. Triticale cultivar with flourishing and high yielding `Shinyoung` was intermediated between barley and rye, and were linearly increased at DDM yield by different cutting dates. Oat cultivar with cold tolerant and high tillering `Samhan` were lower at ADF and NDF content and higher at crude protein before heading, but after heading, there are not especially advantages compared to barley, wheat or triticale.
Study on Cropping System and Nitrogen Fertilizers of Whole Crop Barley and Leguminous Crop for Production of Good Quality Forage
Kim, Dae-Ho ; Kang, Dal-Soon ; Moon, Jin-Young ; Shin, Hyun-Yul ; Shon, Gil-Man ; Rho, Chi-Woong ; Kim, Jung-Gon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 197~210
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.197
To improve the forage quality and reduce nitrogen input, trial was conducted on the effect of seeding method, combination, and nitrogen fertilizer with WCB (whole crop barley) and leguminous plant. Present experiment was carried out by split-split design having seeding methods for main plot, combinations for sub-plot, and nitrogen fertilizers for sub-sub plot with three replications. When WCB and leguminous plant were mixed-sown, WCB showed earlier heading and maturing than those of inter-sown, and the more nitrogen delayed growth stage a little. Occurrence of BaYMV (Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus), a serious disease caused by soil fungi and decrease barley yield, was deterred by mixed-seeding as compared to inter-sown barley a little. Inter-sown WCB increased the number of spike per
as compared to mixed-seeding showing more spikes with nitrogen increase. WCB produced much fresh and dry matter yield at mixed-seeding than inter-seeding, and had advantage with hairy vetch (HV). Increased nitrogen showed much forage yield, however, half application of it is considerable for environmental-friendly farming. Electric conductivity (EC) decreased in inter-cropping or mixed-sowing soil with WCB and leguminous crop after harvest. But, organic matter (OM) content of soil after harvesting was vice versa. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of WCB plant were higher at mixed-seeding than those of inter-sown ones. It showed increased tendency with time progress.
Effect of Tillage System and Livestock Manures on the Silage corn Production and NO
-N Concentration in Leaching Water
Jung, Min-Woong ; Jo, Nam-Chul ; Kim, Jong-Geun ; Lim, Young-Chul ; Choi, Ki-Choon ; Yoon, Sei-Hyung ; Lee, Ki-Won ; Yook, Wan-Bang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 211~216
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.211
Approximately 43 million tons of livestock manure (LM) are produced each year on Korean farms. LM can be utilized as a valuable resource and/or it can contaminate water by runoff and leaching through the soil, when LM has been thoughtlessly applied to the land and directly discharged into the water. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of no-till system and LM application on dry matter (DM) yield of silage corn and
-N concentration in leaching water of lysimeter installed in the experimental field. The treatments were replicated three times in split plot design. Main plots consisted of tillage systems, such as conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). Sub plots consisted of the type of LM, such as chemical fertilizer (CF), composted cattle manure (CCM) and composted swine manure (CSM). The control plots were fertilized as commercial chemical fertilizer. DM yields of corn increased significantly in order to CF > CCM > CSM (p<0.05). DM yield of corn in CT increased as comparing with that of corn in NT. Plant height, ear height and stem diameter also increased in order to CF > CCM > CSM. In addition, the root weight in CT was increased as comparing with that of corn in NT. However, there was no interaction effects of between type of LM and tillage system.
-N concentration in leaching water of LM application was less than 10 ppm, but
-N concentration in CF exceeded 10 ppm which is safety level of drinking water during summer time (rainfall season).
Effects of Collection Time on Physical Characteristic and Nutritive Value of Rice Straw
Kim, Ung-Duk ; Lee, Sang-Moo ; Hwang, Joo-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 217~226
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.217
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of collection time on the physical characteristics, Nutritive value, digestibility and palatability in rice straw. Collection time of rice straw after the rice harvest was allocated into nine treatments: T1 (10 days), T2 (25 days), T3 (40 days), T4 (55 days), T5 (70 days), T6 (85 days), T7 (100 days), T8 (115 days) and T9 (130 days). The results are summarized as follow: Plant length, leaf length and green degree were decreased with prolonging collection time. Mold distribution and dry matter loss were increased with prolonging collection time. Crude protein and crude fat were decreased with prolonging collection time, crude fiber were increased with prolonging collection time. But crude ash showed multifarious. In situ dry matter digestibility was decreased with prolonging collection time. Palatability of Hanwoo, Holstein and deer was decreased with prolonging collection time. The results of this study indicate that good rice straw collection time would be recommendable during the from 10 days to 40 days after rice straw harvest.
Study on Establishment of Organic Pasture by Using Korean Black Goat and Improvement of Botanical Composition
Yoon, Sei-Hyung ; Lim, Young-Cheol ; Kim, Jong-Geun ; Lee, Joung-Kyong ; Choi, Sun-Ho ; Cho, Nam-Chul ; Choi, Ki-Choon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 227~234
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.227
This study was carried out to determine the effect of establishment of organic pasture by hoof cultivation with Korean black goat on productivity of grassland and properties of soil. This study was conducted from August, 2005 to September, 2008 at Cheonan, Korea. Experiment was designed composing with 4 treatment : Standard (Control, T1), Grazing after application of cattle manure (T2), Application of cattle manure after grazing (T3), Application of cattle manure at half of grazing (T4). The establishment ratio of pasture in control treatment increased significantly as compared with that of organic treatment(p<0.05). The yield of dry matter (DM) of pasture in control treatment increased significantly as compared with that of organic treatment. The contents of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) of pasture were not influenced by cattle manure and grazing method. Grasses coverage ratio in grassland in second year after grassland development were higher than that of first year. The contents of organic matter (OM) and
in soil samples collected in organic treatment at the end of the experiment were higher than those of control. However, The pH, and the concentrations of CEC (Ca, Na and Mg) in soil samples collected in organic treatment were hardly influenced, as compared with those at the beginning of the experiment. This study suggests that the grasses and legumes coverage ratio in grassland can be improved by suitable pasture management.
Evaluation of Fermentation Ability of Microbes for Whole Crop Barley Silage Inoculant
Kim, Jong-Geun ; Ham, Jun-Sang ; Chung, Eui-Soo ; Park, Hyung-Soo ; Lee, Joung-Kyong ; Jung, Min-Woong ; Choi, Ki-Choon ; Cho, Nam-Chul ; Seo, Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 235~244
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.235
This experiment was conducted to develop a new silage inoculant for barley at forage analysis laboratory, Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA from 2000 to 2002. Barley is very important crop in Korea. The great part of them is utilized as forage. Generally, it contains a lot of grains that are feed of animal, especially whole crop silage in ruminant. Efficient lactic acid bacteria were isolated from good barley silage by plating MRS agar containing 0.02% sodium azide, and assessed by growing and acid producing ability in MRS broth. Four lactic acid bacteria were selected, and were found to be Gram positive, rods and catalase negative and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum on the basis of the biochemical characteristics and utilization of substrates. Barley was ensiled at dough stage following treatment with four lactic acid bacteria, commercial inoculant, and no additive (control). After 2 months, B2-2 bacteria inoculated silage was lower pH and higher lactic acid content than others treatments. The Flieg`s score and grade of B2-2 bacteria treated silage were higher than commercial inoculant. According to this experiment, Lactobacillus plantarum B2-2 (NLRI 201) was recommendable for good silage inoculant of whole crop barley silage.
Effect of Shading Degrees on Grass Production, Forage Quality and Botanical Composition of Grass-Clover Mixtures
Kim, Byong-Wan ; Sung, Kung-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 245~252
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.245
The grassland establishment under the forest become important, but it comes with a shade for the grass growing among trees. The objective of this study is to select the proper grass-clover mixtures to several shading degrees. The grass-clover mixtures were grown under full sunlights and shade cloths, which reduce sunlight intensity by 35, 50 and 75%. The various types of mixtures were allocated at each shading degrees with three replications. The productivity of mixtures was the highest under full sunlights, and intermediate with 35% degree of shading and least with both 50 and 75% degrees of shading. The 1st mixture (orchardgrass+tall fescue+Kentucky bluegrass+ladino clover+perennial ryegrass+timothy) showed the greatest yield in all treatments. The crude protein (CP) concentration of all mixtures increased with the higher degree of shading, but no CP concentration difference was observed in mixtures within same degree of shading. The lowest neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations and highest relative feed value (RFV) were resulted in the 1st mixture in all treatments. This study indicates that tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, ladino clover, perennial ryegrass and timothy can be used as components for mixtures with orchardgrass which is major component for forest-pastures.
Prediction on the Quality of Total Mixed Ration for Dairy Cows by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Ki, Kwang-Seok ; Kim, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Hyun-June ; Yang, Seung-Hak ; Lee, Jae-Sik ; Jin, Ze-Lin ; Kim, Hyeon-Shup ; Jeo, Joon-Mo ; Koo, Jae-Yeon ; Cho, Jong-Ku ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 253~262
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.253
The present study was conducted to develop a rapid and accurate method of evaluating chemical composition of total mixed ration (TMR) for dairy cows using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). A total of 253 TMR samples were collected from TMR manufacturers and dairy farms in Korea. Prior to NIR analysis, TMR samples were dried at
for 48 hour and then ground to 2 mm size. The samples were scanned at 2 nm interval over the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm on a FOSS-NIR Systems Model 6500. The values obtained by NIR analysis and conventional chemical methods were compared. Generally, the relationship between chemical analysis and NIR analysis was linear:
and standard error of calibration (SEC) were 0.701 (SEC 0.407), 0.965 (SEC 0.315), 0.796 (SEC 0.406), 0.889 (SEC 0.987), 0.894 (SEC 0.311), 0.933 (SEC 0.885) and 0.889 (SEC 1.490) for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), respectively. In addition, the standard error of prediction (SEP) value was 0.371, 0.290, 0.321, 0.380, 0.960, 0.859 and 1.446 for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, crude ash, ADF and NDF, respectively. The results of the present study showed that the NIR analysis for unknown TMR samples would be relatively accurate. Use of the developed NIR calibration curve can obtain fast and reliable data on chemical composition of TMR. Collection and analysis of more TMR samples will increase accuracy and precision of NIR analysis to TMR.
A Study on the Analysis of Functional Components and Antioxidative Activity in Mulberry (Morus alba) Silage
Jeon, Byong-Tae ; Kim, Yeong-Kyu ; Lee, Sang-Moo ; Park, Jae-Hyun ; Sung, Si-Heung ; Park, Pyo-Jam ; Kim, Sung-Jin ; Moon, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 263~268
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.263
This study was conducted to determine application possibility of mulberry (Morus alba) silage as a functional feed in feeding management of Korean native cattle for high quality beef production by analysing active components and antioxidative activity. The chemical analysis of mulberry silage indicates that the content of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and crude ash was
, respectively. The content of 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), which is representative active ingredient of mulberry and blood sugar descending component, was 0.568 mg/g and the content of
-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is blood pressure descending component, was 5,936.22 pmol. Mulberry silage used in this study did not contain flavonoids but did contain total phenols for 21.69
. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was increased with increasing the concentration of mulberry silage extracts and there was above 50% of scavenging activity at the concentration of 0.25 mg/ml. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was also increased with increasing the concentration of silage extracts. Alkyl radical scavenging activity was high at the low concentration of silage extracts, which was above 50% of scavenging activity at the concentration of 0.125 mg/ml. The result of this study indicated that there was high possibility of mulberry silage as a functional feed for beef cattle.
Effect of Crude Protein and Total Digestible Nutrient Levels on Intake, Digestibility, Nitrogen and Energy Utilization in Growing Dairy Goats
Ki, Kwang-Seok ; Lim, Young-Soon ; Jin, Ze-Lin ; Lee, Hyun-June ; Kim, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Wang-Shik ; Yang, Seung-Hak ; Cho, Won-Mo ; Kim, Hyeon-Shup ; Jeo, Joon-Mo ; Lee, In-Duk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2009, Pages 269~276
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.269
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of increases of nutrient level of TMR on dry matter intake, digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance in growing dairy goats (Saanen). Twelve growing dairy goats weighing 17.5kg were randomly assigned to one of four TMRs; low energy-low crude protein (CP) TMR (control; A), high energy-low CP TMR (B), low energy-high CP TMR (C) and high energy-high CP TMR (D). The content of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and CP in the control diet were 67% and 11%. The TDN content of the high energy TMR was 73.7% and the CP content of the high CP TMR was 13%. Dry matter intake was highest in D, and significantly higher in B than in C (p<0.05). Digestibility for dry matter and cell contents increased in proportion to dry matter intake. NDF digestibility was higher in D than in A, while ADF digestibility was higher in A and C than in B, but was not significant. Digestible nitrogen, apparently digested nitrogen and retained nitrogen were correlated with intake, and significantly higher in B than in C (p<0.05). Digestible energy and metabolizable energy were highest in D, and significantly higher in B than in C (p<0.05). Therefore, the present results showed that D or B were better than C for high intake, digestibility, nitrogen and energy utilization.