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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Planting Date and Hybrid Influence on Silage Corn Yield and Quality at Paddy Field in Middle Region
Ju, Jung-Il ; Seung, Yeul-Gue ; Kim, Chung-Guk ; Lee, Hee-Bong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.001
Few management studies have been conducted on late planting date for corn silage in paddy field as a barley-corn forage cropping system. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 at the Chungnam Agricultural Research & Extension Services. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between planting date and com forage yield and to determine the best hybrid at the delayed planting after whole crop barley`s harvest. The treatments consisted of 2 planting dates and 7 hybrids. Delayed planting considerately reduced stem diameter, individual ear size and weight. The ratio of dried leaf and culm in aerial plants was increased and that of ear was decreased. The coefficient of variation in fresh, dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield was higher at delayed planting date on cropping system with whole crop barley than that of planting at optimum season. So, fresh weight was reduced by 91.8%, dry matter by 72.6%, grain yield by 51.0% and TDN yield by 68.1%. The appropriate hybrid for delayed planting after whole crop barley harvest in middle region was `Gangdaok` as lower in the reduction of ear size and weight compared to that of planting at optimum season. Reduction in grain yield caused to decrease the DM and TDN yields. Therefore, to gain stable dry matter in silage corn by delayed planting date on cropping system with whole crop barley was necessary to select com hybrid on the minimum reduction in ear size and weight.
Growth, Forage Production and Quality of Sorghum, Sorghum X Sudangrass and Sudangrass Hybrids at Paddy Field in Middle Region of Korea
Ji, Hee-Chung ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Yoon, Sei-Hyung ; Kim, Won-Ho ; Lim, Young-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 9~14
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.009
This experiment was carried out to know adaptability and forage production and quality of sorghum and sorghum
sudangrass and sudangrass hybrids at paddy field from 2007 to 2008 at Chungnam province. Among growth characters, `Sordan 79` hybrid was somewhat strong for waterlogging, and higher sugar content and good at the 2nd regrowth, disease and insect resistance. Fresh yield of `Sordan 79` hybrid was the highest as 92,492 kg per ha among 10 Sorghum and Sorghum
Sudangrass hybrids. The dry yield of `Sordan 79` hybrid was also the highest as 21,090kg per ha. The result of this study showed that `Sordan79` hybrid had good growth characters and forage productivity and crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) at paddy field in middle region of South Korea.
Effects of Application of Fermented Swine Manure with Additional Nitrogen Fertilizer on Productivity of Corn and Leaching of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in Corn Cultivation Soil
Choi, Ki-Choon ; Jo, Nam-Chul ; Jung, Min-Woong ; Yook, Wan-Bang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 15~24
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.015
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of swine manure (SM) application with additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer on productivity of corn and environmental pollution in com cultivation soil. The experiment was conformed in lysimeter which was constructed with 30 cm diameter, and 100 cm height. Swine manures used in this study were the compost of swine manure fermented with sawdust (SMFWS) and soft rice hulls treated with high temperature and high pressure (SRH), and swine slurry (SS). The application rates of the additional N, as urea, with swine manure were 50 and 100 kgN/ha on each plot. This study was arranged in completely randomized design with three replication. DM yields in SM treatments with mineral N were increased significantly compared to those in SM treatment without mineral N (zero-mineral N) (P<0.05) and increased as the rate of mineral N application increased (P<0.05). DM yields in SMFWS and SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha showed trends similar to those of chemical fertilizer (control) but higher than those of 50 kg N/ha. DM yields tended to be higher in SMFWS and SS treatments than in SRH treatment. Total N contents in SMFWS, SRH and SS treatments with mineral N were increased, compared with SM treatment without mineral N. N contents in SM treatments with mineral N were lower than those of chemical fertilizer treatment, but N content of chemical fertilizer treatment showed trends similar to that of SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha.
-N concentration in SM treatments with mineral N were increased significantly, compared to those in SM treatment without mineral N and in chemical fertilizer (P<0.05).
-N concentrations in SMFWS and SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha showed trends similar to those of chemical fertilizer, but higher than those of 50 kg N/ha.
-P concentration in SM treatments with mineral N were increased significantly, compared to those in SM treatment without mineral N (P<0.05).
-P concentration in chemical fertilizer treatment showed trends similar to that of SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha. The concentrations of
-P increased as the rate of mineral N application increased (P<0.05). The concentrations of
-P were highly elevated in the concentrated rainy season in the early stage among experimental period. The maximum
-P concentrations in the leaching water were 3.46 mg/L, 1.11 mg/L and 0.14 mg/L, respectively.
Effect of Harvest Stage, Wilting and Crushed Rice on the Forage Production and Silage Quality of Organic Whole Crop Barely
Kim, Jong-Duk ; Lee, Hyun-Jin ; Jeon, Kyeong-Hup ; Yang, Ga-Young ; Kwon, Chan-Ho ; Sung, Ha-Guyn ; HwangBo, Soon ; Jo, Ik-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 25~34
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.025
Although whole crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is now widely grown as a silage crop in Korea, forage production and silage quality of that for organic farm have not been published. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvest stage on forage production and quality of organic barley, and effect of field wilting and crushed rice for shortening of harvest date and improvement of forage quality. The experiment was split-plot design with three replications. Main plots were heading, milking and yellow stages, and sub-plot were field wilting for I day, crushed rice 10% (CR10%) and 15% (CR15%) treatments. The dry matter (DM) contents of heading, milking and yellow stages were 12.8%, 21.9% and 29.8%, respectively. The DM yields of heading, milking and yellow stages were 10,346, 15,819 and 18,336 kg/ha, respectively, and the total digestible nutrients (TDN) of these were 6,288, 9,550 and 10,178 kg/ha, respectively. The pH of milking stage showed low 4.00 pH values. The crude protein, ether extract, crude ash, non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and TDN contents were decreased as harvest stage progressed, while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were increased. The crude ash (CA) of milking stage showed the lowest among harvest stages. Field wilting and crushed rice treatments decreased CA, NDF and ADF contents, and increased NFC and TDN contents. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) decreased with progressed harvest stage, while field wilting and crushed rice treatments increased that of barley silage. Lactic acid and total organic acid contents of milking stage were the highest, and butyric acid of milking stage was the lowest among harvest stage. The good effect of field wilting and crushed rice was observed in heading stage. The experiment results indicate that optimum harvest stage of barley silage for organic was milking stage. The field wilting and crushed rice additive could be recommended as effective method for shortening harvest date and increasing forage quality of organic barley silage
Effects of Different Dietary Energy and Protein Levels on Milk Production in Saanen Dairy Goats in Mid Lactation
Park, Joong-Kook ; Kim, Jong-Duk ; Kim, Ji-Ae ; Yoo, Jung-Suk ; Bae, Gui-Seck ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.035
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on milk production in Saanen (Capra hircus) dairy goats fed the diets with the different ratio of forage and concentrate. Four lactating goats in mid lactation (
BW) were used in a
Latin square with 21-d periods. Animals were randomly allocated to one of the four groups; 10.59 MJ ME/kg and 11.90% CP (TJ), 10.14 MJ ME/kg and 12.73% CP (T2), 9.45 MJ ME/kg and 15.19% CP (T3), 8.75 MJ ME/kg and 16.60% CP DM (T4). Also ratio of forage to concentrate was 49: 51 (Tl), 59: 41 (T2), 74: 26 (T3) and 90: 10 (T4). Intakes of forage and concentrate were linearly increased (p<0.05) with their increasing energy levels in the diets. No significant differences were found in total dry matter intake and body weight between treatments. Milk yield in T3 was the highest among treatments (p<0.05). Relative to other treatments, T4 significantly (p
A Comparative Study on the Intake, Digestibility, Nitrogen and Energy Utilization of Some Hay by Dairy Goats (Saanen)
Lee, In-Duk ; Lee, Hyung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.043
This study was conducted to compare the chemical composition, dry matter digestibility (DMD), dry matter intake, and utilization of nitrogen and energy of dairy goats (Saanen), when fed on imported timothy hay (IT), mixture grass hay (MG) and native grass hay (NG), respectively. The experimental trials were conducted from April, 2008 to December, 2008 at the environmental controlled barn of Chungnam National University. Twelve dairy goats (Saanen) were selected which had nearly the same body weight (24.2kg, male). The content of crude protein (CP) of MG hay was higher than that of other diets (p<0.05), but the contents of NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin of IT and NG diet were higher than those of MG diet (p<0.05). The voluntary DM intake of dairy goats fed with herbage from MG diet (30.7/
/day) was higher than that of other diets, but no significant difference was observed between that of IT diet and NG diet (p>0.05). The DMD of MG diet (69.8%) was higher than that of NG diet (62.2%) and IT diet (60.8%) (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between that of IT diet and NG diet (p>0.05). In nitrogen utilization, the apparently digested N %, retained % and biological value of dairy goats fed with herbage from MG diet were higher and TG diet was lower (p<0.05). In energy utilization, digestible energy and the energy of apparently digested minus urinary losses of MG diet were higher than those of IT diet and NG diet (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found between IT diet and NG diet (p>0.05). Based on the results, the dry matter intake, DMD and utilization of nitrogen and energy of dairy goats of MG were higher than those of IT diet and NG diet (p<0.05), the DMD and biological value (%) of NG diet was higher than that of IT diet (p<0.05).
The Effect of Feeding Mixed-sowing Winter Forage Crop and Whole Crop Barley Silage on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Characteristics in the Korean Black Goats
HwangBo, Soon ; Jo, lk-Hwan ; Jung, Gi-Woung ; Kim, Won-Ho ; Lim, Young-Cheol ; Kim, Jong-Duk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 49~58
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.049
This experiment was carried out to estimate the nutritive value of mixed-sowing winter forage crop and whole crop barley by investigating the effects of feeding mixed-sowing winter forage crop and whole crop barley in KBG (Korean black goat) on feed intake, average daily body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention. The 12 male KBG were divided into four experimental groups - i.e. T1: barley silage added group, T2: mixed-sowing hairy vetch silage added group, T3: mixed-sowing field peas added silage, T4: mixed-sowing Italian rye grass added silage group. Three KBG per each treatment were allotted into individual metabolic cages by Latin-square design. The results from this study are as follow. The DMI (dry matter intake) and organic matter intake in T4 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in T1 and T3 and crude protein intake in T4 also recorded the highest among treatments (p<0.05). The highest values in intakes of ADF and NDF were observed in T4 followed by T2, T1 and T3 in order. The average daily body weight gains in T4 and T2 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in TI and T3. The dry and organic matter digestibility in T2 and T4 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in T1 and T3. The crude protein digestibility in T1 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in T2 and T4. The nitrogen intakes in T2 and T4 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in T3. The results obtained from this study suggested that the feeds supplemented with whole crop barley with hairy vetch and Italian rye grass mixture silage increased KBG productivity resulted from increases in feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention.
Effects of Feeding Level of Concentrate on the Digestible Nutrient Intake, Using Efficiency of Nutrients and Nitrogen Retention of Korean Black Goat Fed Whole Crop Barley Silage
Choi, Sun-Ho ; HwangBo, Soon ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Won-Ho ; Jo, Ik-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 59~66
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.059
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of feeding level of concentrate on the digestible nutrient intake, using efficiency of nutrients and nitrogen retention of growing Korean black goats (KBG) fed on whole crop barley (WCB) silage. WCB silage with concentrates at 2.0% (BS2.0), 1.5% (BS1.5) and 1.0% (BS1.0) of BW, respectively, and rice straw with concentrate at 2.0% (RS2.0) of BW as a control. Goats for digestibility trials were assigned within each group with three animals to individual metabolism crates with Latin square design. Digestible crude protein (DCP) intakes goats in control, BS2.0 and BS1.5 was significantly higher than that in BS 1.0 (p<0.05). Digestible NFC intakes of goats in BS2.0 and BS 1.5 was significantly higher than that in BS1.0 (p<0.05). The highest Average daily gain (ADG) were recorded in group BS2.0 followed by BS1.5, RS2.0 and BS1.0 (p<0.05). The highest DM digestibility was shown in group BS1.5 treatments (p<0.05). Nitrogen retentions in RS2.0, BS2.0 and BS1.0 were significantly higher than that in group BS1.0 (p<0.05). The results obtained from this study suggested that feeding level of concentrate seems to be proper at 1.5% of BW to achieve the best performance when black goats are fed WCB silage as a roughage source with concentrate.
Study on the Growth Characteristics, Seasonal Anthesis Distribution and Botanical Composition of Spring Sown Wildflower Pastures
Lee, Byong-Chul ; Lee, In-Duk ; Lee, Hyung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 67~76
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.067
The purpose of this study was to suggest the growth characteristics, seasonal anthesis distribution and botanical composition of wildflower pasture. The experimental wildflower were 34 species (1 turfgrass species, 4 native wildflower species and 29 introduced wildflower species). The experiment were administered in the Chungnam National University experimental field from March, 2008 to December, 2009 and the result is as follows: the wildflower length were within the range of 8-60 cm and their up-and-down space arrangement quite good. They bloomed into several colors of nine but one or three of nine colors were biased during August, September, and October. Their anthesis was biased toward May and June, and their seasonal distribution and permanence maintenance were too difficult from August and moreover two years later (2009) because of the decrease of the botanical distribution of annual wildflower after winter, the color, seasonal distribution, and permanence of wildflower became a problem. The botanical composition of wildflower, turf grass, and weeds came to 24%, 62%, and 14% each one year later (2008) and two years later (2009) 16%, 69%, and 15% each. Being grounded upon this result, in case of wildflower pasture of spring seeding, it is more important to maintain the color, seasonal distribution, and permanence of wildflower two years later than in the establishment year.
Mold Growth and Mycotoxin Contamination of Forages
Sung, Ha-Guyn ; Lee, Joung-Kyong ; Seo, Sung ; Lim, Dong-Cheul ; Kim, Jong-Duk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 30, issue 1, 2010, Pages 77~88
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2010.30.1.077
In order to ensure good animal health and performance, it is essential to produce forages with high feeding value and good hygienic quality. However, huge amounts of forages consumed by ruminants are contaminated with mold prior to harvest or during storage as hay, straw or silage. These mold can grow in forages only when nutrients are available, correct temperature exist, oxygen is present, and unbound water is available. Fungal `species can be divided into two groups: field fungi and storage fungi. Field fungi invade the forages while the crop is still in the field, require high moisture conditions, and are such as species of Fusarium, Alternaria, Clodosporium, Diplodia, Gibberrella and Helminthosporium. Storage fungi invade forages during storage and need less moisture than field fungi. These such as species of Aspergillus and Penicillium usually do not occur any problem before harvest. Mold growth can spoil the nutritional aspects of the forages and also results in secondary metabolites that are highly toxic to animal, humans and plants. Moldy feeds are less palatable and may reduce dry matter intake. This, in turn, leads to a reduction of nutrition intake, reducing weight gains or milk production. Performance losses of 5 to 10 percent are typical with moldy feeds. Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by fungi (molds) growing on crops in the field or storages. While greater than 400 mycotoxins have been chemically identified, the biological or veterinary medical impact of only several mycotoxins is known. Mycotoxins have attracted considerable attention as potential causes for poor performance and health disorders in domestic livestock. They can be carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, hematotoxic, immunosuppressive, estrogenic, or mutagenic. So, feeding moldy forages has adverse effects on animal health and milk consumers. Also, this author reported that rice straw hay was contaminated mycotoxigenic fungi such as Penicillium roqueforti and Fusarium culmorum in Korea. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop an improved post harvest storage method to reduce nutrient loss and mycotoxin contamination of forages, which will have a positive impact on human health.