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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Effect of Tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix Scop.) Genotype on Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) Transmission under Water stress
Noh, Jaejong ; Ju, Ho-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 325~334
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.325
It has been known that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) is beneficial to tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix Scop.) because the mutualistic endophyte is able to confers tolerance against abiotic and biotic stresses to tall fescue. However, this fungal endophyte produces toxic alkaloid resulting in negative effects on animal performance. Recently, Non-toxic endophyte have been developed and inserted into tall fescue to avoid detrimental effect on animal but remaining positive influence on tall fescue. In order to keep this beneficial impact, it is essential to have endophyte infected tall fescue through vertical transmission from maternal plants to seeds. Little research has been carried out on endophyte transmission. To get basic information related to endophyte transmission, experiment was conducted to examine the effect of plant genotype on endophyte transmission under water stresses. Overall endophyte concentration in seeds was higher than that in panicles and endophyte concentration in seeds and panicles relied on plant. This study revealed that drought is not a critical component to control the endophyte transmission from maternal plants to seeds. Plant genotype is an important factor controlling the endophyte transmission from plant to seed.
Anthocyanin Stability and Silage Fermentation Quality of Colored Barley
Song, Tae Hwa ; Han, Ouk kyu ; Park, Tae Il ; Kim, Dae Wook ; Yoon, Chang ; Kim, Kee Jong ; Park, Ki Hun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 335~342
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.335
This study was conducted to observe the fermentative quality and anthocyanin content in whole crop colored barley silage during storage periods and anthocyanin stability in in vitro ruminal fluid. Silages of colored barley cultivar "Boanchalbori" and normal barley cultivar "Yuyeonbori" were stored during 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. The in vitro ruminal fluid was fermented for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hrs. For the feed value, crude protein of colored barley silage was slightly increased in the silage compared to that of normal barley silage, and being increased up to 2 months after ensiling and thereafter maintained at the similar level. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of both the barley significantly increased by prolonged storage of 2 months (p<0.05), but they were maintained at the constant level after 2 months of storing silage. Whereas TDN (total digestible nutrients) contents of them were decreased by the prolonged storage of 2 months (p<0.05), then maintained at the constant levels. The fermentative quality and pH values in both the barley silages were slightly decreased during the storage time. Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were increased during prolonged storage period, but not significantly different among treatments. Butyric acid was not detected. In the colored barley silage, pH value showed slightly lower compared to that of the normal barley silage but not significant, and lactic acid content was significantly higher than the normal barley silage (p<0.05). The total anthocyanin content in the whole crop colored barley silage decreased to 42% after 2 months of ensilage, however maintained at the constant level until 12 months of ensilage. In the case of anthocyanin stability on in vitro ruminal fluid digestion, the pH value of the ruminal fluid was slightly lower at 6, 12, 24, 48h incubation time and the content of anthocyanin was at similar levels. These results indicated that the colored barley showed higher fermentation quality, and total anthocyanin content was maintained stable at 42% level of the first value in storing silage. As the anthocyanin had higher stability in the ruminal fluid, the colored barley has a potential as functional feeds for Ruminants.
Sulphur Supply Level Effects on the Assimilation of Nitrate and Sulphate into Amino Acids and Protein in Forage Rape (Brassica napus L.)
Lee, Bok-Rye ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 343~352
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.343
Sulphur deficiency has become widespread over the past several decades in most of the agricultural area. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a very sensitive to S limitation which is becoming reduction of quality and productivity of forage. Few studies have assessed the sulphur mobilization in the source-sink relationship, very little is known about the regulatory mechanism in interaction between sulphur and nitrogen during the short-term sulphur deficiency. In this study, therefore, amount of sulphur and nitrogen incorporated into amino acids and proteins as affected by different S-supplied level (Control: 1 mM
, S-deficiency: 0.1 mM
, and S-deprivation: 0 mM
) were examined. The amount of sulphur in sulphate (S-sulphate) was significantly decreased by 25.8% in S-deprivation condition, compare to control, but not nitrogen in nitrate (N-nitrate). The markedly increase of sulphur and nitrogen incorporated amino acids (S-amino acids and N-amino acids) was observed in both S-deficiency and S-deprivation treatments. The amount of nitrogen incorporated proteins (N-protein) was strongly decreased as sulphur availability while the amount of sulphur incorporated into proteins (S-protein) was not affected. A highly significant (
) relationship between S-sulphate and S-amino acid was observed whereas the increase of N-amino acids is closely associated with decrease of N-proteins. These data indicate that increase of sulphur and nitrogen incorporated into amino acids was from different nitrogen and sulphur metabolites, respectively
Nutritive Value and Fermentation Quality of the Silage of Three Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinas L.) Cultivars at Three Different Growth Stages
Kim, Byong Wan ; Sung, Kyung Il ; Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi ; Shin, Jong Suh ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 353~360
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.353
This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and the quality of ensiled kenaf after fermentation with three cultivars at three different times of harvesting. Experimental plot were allocated with three harvest date (Early;8/3, medium;8/15 and late;8/28) and three cultivars (Tainung-a, Everglade, Whitten). The DM (dry matter) yield increased with maturity in all three cultivars, especially in Whitten which showed the highest yield at each harvest time. The DM content in Whitten at late harvesting time was higher than other treatments (231 g
DM). The CP (crude protein) contents of the kenaf silage of all three cultivars ranged from 151 to 164 g
. Highest content of NDF (neutral detergent fiber) was observed in Everglade at medium harvesting date, but the ADF (acid detergent fiber) content was highest in Everglade at early harvesting date (p<0.05). All treatments produced a pH less than 4.0, which is sufficient for stable storage. The pH of Tainung-a was higher than other cultivars at all harvesting times (p<0.05). Whitten showed the higher content of lactic acid (25.8 g
DM) showed at early harvesting date than other cultivars (p<0.05), while the acetic acid content (21.1 g
DM) was higher in Tainung-a at medium harvesting date (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in ammonia-Nand butyric acid concentrations among all treatments. These results indicate that a kenaf silage could be used as fodder for ruminants. Especially, the Whitten harvested at late growing stage showed promise as a forage silage crop under Koran environments.
Optimization of Carbon Sources to Improve Antioxidant Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Persimmon peel Using Lactic Acid Bacteria
Hwang, Joo Hwan ; Kim, Eun Joong ; Lee, Sang Moo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 361~368
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.361
The present study was conducted to develop persimmon peel, a by-product of dried persimmon manufacturing, as a feed additive via lactic acid bacteria fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and three strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were used as a starter culture in the solid state fermentation of persimmon peel, and antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content were assessed. Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCTC 3100 showed high antioxidant activity (p<0.05), whereas Pediococcus pentosaceus showed high total polyphenol content (p<0.05). These two strains were thus selected as starter culture strains. Glucose, sucrose and molasses were used as variables for optimization and a total 15 experimental runs were produced according to Box-Behnken design. Regarding significant effects of variables, molasses showed linear and square effects on antioxidant activity of persimmon peel fermentation (p<0.05). In conclusion, optimum concentrations of glucose, sucrose, and molasses were determined to be 4.2, 3.9 and 5.3 g/L, respectively, using a response surface model. Antioxidant activity was also improved 2.5 fold after optimization.
Effects of Mixed Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Liquid Swine Manure on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Corn Hybrid for Silage in Paddy Field Cultivation
Lee, Sang Moo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 369~378
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.369
This study was performed out to investigate the influence of the mixed application of chemical fertilizer (CF) and liquid swine manure (LSM) on the growth characteristics, dry matter yield, amino acids, minerals, and free sugars in cultivating silage corn on paddy soils. The field experiment was designed in a randomized block design of 3 repetitions with CF 100% treatment (C), CF 70% + LSM 30% treatment (T1), CF 50% + LSM 50% treatment (T2), CF 30% + LSM 70% treatment (T3), and LSM 100% treatment (T4). At this time, the application of LSM was based solely on the nitrogen. Ear length, ear circle, stem diameter, and stem hardness of the silage corn did not show significant differences between treatments. Fresh yield, dry matter yield and TDN yield were highest in T3, whereas the lowest in C treatment (p<0.05). Crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash content were significantly higher in T1, C, and T4 treatment, respectively (p<0.05). However, NDF, ADF and crude fiber content did not show significant difference between treatments. The total mineral content decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the LSM application rate increased. Total composition amino acid content was higher in the order of T1 > T2 > C > T4 > T3 treatment (p<0.05). Free sugar content was higher in the order of T1 > T3 > T4 > T2 > C treatment (p<0.05). Based on the above results, suggests that the mixed application of chemical fertilizer 30~50% and LSM 50~70% (T2 and T3) is the most effective, considering the yield performance and the content of sugar degree and free sugar affecting silage.
Effect of Different Silages for TMR on In vitro Rumen Simulative Fermentation
Mbiriri, David Tinotenda ; Oh, Seong Jin ; Choi, Nag-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 379~386
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.379
In this study, the in vitro fermentation parameters of whole crop barley (WCBS-TMR) and Italian ryegrass (IRGS-TMR) silage total mixed rations were compared. A rice straw based diet (RSBD), which was a mixture of rice straw and concentrate (60:40), was used as the control. The feeds were incubated in buffered rumen fluid for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours at
. At the end of each incubation period the following parameters were determined, total gas, pH, ammonia nitrogen (
-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and then the acetate to propionate ratio (A/P) was calculated. The dietary treatments did not affect (p>0.05) the overall production of
-N, gas, total VFA and all the individual VFA, with the exception of n-butyrate (p<0.001). The treatment diets significantly affected the A/P ratio (p<0.01). The control diet resulted in the lowest A/P ratios, followed by WCBS-TMR and lastly IRGS-TMR had the highest ratios. Gas production was not different between treatments, suggesting a probable similar level of digestibility when treatments are fed to animals. It can therefore be concluded from the present study that WCBS and IRGS are of almost an equivalent nutritional value when incubated in a TMR form. WCBS-TMR however resulted in lower A/P ratios than IRGS-TMR, which is indicative of a more energy efficient diet.
Effects of Dietary Addition of Bentonite and Probiotics on Meat Characteristics and Health of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) Steers fed Rice Straw As a Sole Roughage Source (a Field Study)
Kwak, Wan-Sup ; Lee, Sang-Moo ; Kim, Young-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 387~396
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.387
A study was conducted to determine the dietary effects of Na-bentonite (NaB) and probiotics on meat characteristics and health of Hanwoo steers fed rice straw as a sole roughage source. A total of 24 growing Hanwoo steers (avg BW 232 kg) were assigned to two treatments which included a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treatment diet (control diet + 0.5-1.0% NaB + 0.5-1.0% probiotics. The diets were fed for 22 months up to the time the animals were slaughtered. Dietary treatment increased (p<0.05) concentrations of trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, and Fe in the longissimus muscle compared to the control. The treatment diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as backfat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index, yield grade and quality traits such as marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, maturity and quality grade. Blood profiles of growing steers were within the normal ranges for healthy cattle. In conclusion, feeding a combination of clay mineral and probiotics to Hanwoo steers fed rice straw as a sole roughage source could have a desirable effect on improving trace mineral retention in longissimus muscle without any deleterious effects on carcass traits of steers.
Effect of Stocking Density on Eating Behavior of Finishing Hanwoo Steers (Bos taurus coreanae)
Lee, Sang Moo ; Kwon, Young Chul ; Kim, Eun Joong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 397~404
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.397
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of stocking density on eating and ruminating behavior of Hanwoo steers (Bos taurus coreanae) in the finishing period. A total of 30 finishing Hanwoo steers (
kg, 25 months old) were allocated to one of four stocking density groups comprising 1, 2, 3, and 4 steers per 32
pen [G1 (32
), G2 (16
), G3 (10.7
) and G4 (8
), respectively] in triplicate. Eating, rumination behaviors, as well as dry matter intake of steers were measured, and the results were subjected to analysis of variance with stocking density as the main effect. The results of eating behaviors over 48 hours are summarized as follows: Total intake was significantly (p<0.01) higher in G1, G2, and G3 compared to G4. Eating time was not different among the treatments, whereas ruminating time increased in the order of G1 > G2 > G3 > G4 (p<0.01). However, resting time and chewing time (sum of eating and ruminating) were not significantly different among the treatments. Number of boluses and number of total chews were highest in G1 (p<0.01), whereas number of chews per bolus was highest in G3 (p<0.01). Ruminating time per bolus as well as number of boluses per minute was not significantly different among the treatments. Number of defecations was higher in G1 and G2 animals compared to G3 and G4 animals (p<0.01). However, stocking density had no effect on drinking or urination. In conclusion, increasing stocking density (i.e. G4) per pen decreased voluntary intake, ruminating time, and total chewing number in the finishing period of Hanwoo steers. However, care must be taken in discussing stocking density in the present study as the space allowance per animal was satisfactory to meet the current animal welfare regulation in Korea and in Europe, although the beef production system in Korea is more intensive than in Europe.
Study on Silage Manufacture of Rape Treated as Weed
Choi, Ki Choon ; Ryu, Jai Hyunk ; Jung, Min-Woong ; Park, Hyung Su ; Kim, Won Ho ; Kim, Da Hye ; Kim, Cheon Man ; Kim, Jong Geun ; Kim, Mang Jung ; Lim, Young Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 405~410
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.405
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of harvest stage of rape on nutritive values and quality of round baled rape silage in field of forage crops of Department of Animal Resources Development, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA. Rape was harvested at three different growth stages (flowering, milk and dough stage) and ensiled at each harvest stages. The content of moisture of rape increased with delayed harvest maturity. However, the content of moisture of rape was controlled by pre-wilting (24 hr. and 48 hr). The content of moisture in dough stage was similar to that of haylage. The content of crude protein in round baled rape silage increased with delayed harvest maturity, but the contents of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrient decreased. The pH in all rape silage ranged from 3.8 to 4.4 at three different harvest stages, and pH in dough stage was higher than that of flowering and milk stages (p<0.05). The content of lactic acid of all rape silage increased with delayed harvest maturity (p<0.05), but the content of acetic acid decreased (p<0.05). And then, flieg's score revealed that there was an increase in order; flowering stage (100) = milk stage (100) > ripen stage (88).
Study on Dry Matter Yields and Persistence of Forage Plants Using Swine Slurry in Fallow Paddy Land Located in the Mid-mountain Area
Yoon, Sei Hyung ; Kim, Sang Woo ; Lim, Young Chul ; Jung, Min Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 411~418
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.411
This study was conducted to develop the technique for cultivation of forage crops using swine slurry in fallow paddy land located in the mid-mountain area (FPL). The field experiments were carried out from 2007 to 2009 on FPL at Kumsan, Chungbuk province in Korea. Swine slurry was prepared which decayed for 6 months. The experimental plots were consisted of seven treatments; tall fescue-based mixed pasture applied with chemical fertilizer (Control), mono-tall fescue pasture (MTF), tall fescue-based mixed pasture (TFBM), mono-Perennial ryegrass (MPR), mono-Italian ryegrass (MIR), mono-Red clover (MRC and mono), Reed canarygrass (MRCG) applied with swine slurry. The field of tall fescue-based pasture had been sown with a grasses mixture containing 'Fawn' tall fescue, 'potomac' orchardgrass, 'Reveille' Perennial ryegrass, and 'kenblue' Kentuky bluegrass, 'Kenland' Red clover. Seeding rates were 16, 6, 4, 2 and 2 (kg) per ha, respectively. DM yields of forages and rates of grass coverage were higher in MTF, TFBM and MRCG as compared with control treatment. This result means that FPL has contained with favorable conditions for growing grass, because forage productivity is more than 14.5 tons per ha per year in fallow paddy land. In addition, the farmer can save the trouble of repeated plowing and sowing every year, with the introduction of perennial grasses. The farmer must conduct the re-seeding and induce the improvement of management methods for the elevation of the persistence of red clover and perennial ryegrass, because both red clover and perennial ryegrass having high nutritive value and palatability was less persistent. Therefore, we suggest that FPL may be the good land for forage production utilizing swine slurry and swine slurry can be applied on FPL without any negative effects on DM production and the property of soil. FPL of Korea can be better utilized by applying swine slurry to the mono and/or mixed swards.
Feed Value and Fermentative Quality of Haylage of Winter Cereal Crops for Forage at Different Growing Stages
Song, Tae Hwa ; Park, Tae Il ; Han, Ouk Kyu ; Kim, Kee Jong ; Park, Ki Hun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 419~428
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.419
This study was carried out to analyze winter cereal crops for harvest time, proper drying time and haylage quality in order to investigate the possibility of the production of good quality haylage substitute for hay. As a result, in case of productivity and feed value, dry matter yield and TDN yield was increased with late harvest and crude protein and NDF, ADF was decreased (p<0.05). To make haylage for whole crop barley, oats, triticale, whole crop wheat need more than 32 hour wilting time in the milk ripe stage, yellow ripe stage need about 8~24 hour, and wilting time did not need the full ripe stage. Rye does not suitable for making haylage because of difficulty pre-wilting time. In case of fermentative quality on haylage, pH was increased with late harvest on all winter cereal crop forage. Lactic acid content was decreased with late harvest (p<0.05), and highest in the milk ripe stage. Acetic acid was also decreased with late harvest, and butyric acid was not detected. In conclusion, to harvest sooner of winter cereal crops could be an efficient way when making haylage in terms of protein content and fermentation quality. Ray can used as fresh and silage, because difficulty for pre-wilting time in Korea. Whole crop barley, oats, triticale, wheat can be used haylage when harvested yellow ripen stage and pre-wilting time for 8~24 hours.
Effects of Feeding Levels of Concentrate on the Growth, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Evaluation in Feeds Based on Rice-straw of Korean Black Goats
Kim, Sang Woo ; Yoon, Sei Hyung ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Kim, Dong Hoon ; Kang, Geun Ho ; Kim, Young-Sin ; Lee, Sang Moo ; Suh, Sang Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 429~436
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.429
This study was conducted to examine the effect of feeding levels of concentrate feed on growth performance, meat quality and economic evaluation of Korean black goats. The 40 male Korean native goat were divided into four treatment groups T1 (1.5%), T2 (2.0%), T3 (2.5% feeding of concentrate feed body weight per day) and T4 (ab libitum) with ab libitum rice straw. Rice straw intake decrease as against feeding levels, however average daily gains were 22, 50, 69 and 94 g/day in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups respectively levels (p<0.05). Dressing percentage were 41.77, 42.78, 46.12 and 49.78% in each group (p<0.05), also fat percentage were a significant increase according to feeding levels. In economic efficacy, T4 was higher than other treatment groups. In conclusion, both rice straw and concentrate feed ab libitum are good for feeding and management system on Korean black goats.
Suitability Classes for Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) Using Soil and Climate Digital Database in Gangwon Province
Kim, Kyung-Dae ; Sung, Kyung-Il ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ; Lee, Hyun-Il ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi ; Jo, Mu-Hwan ; Lim, Young-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 32, issue 4, 2012, Pages 437~446
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.4.437
As a part of establishing suitability classification for forage production, use of the national soil and climate database was attempted for Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., IRG) in Gangwon Province. The soil data base were from Heugtoram of the National Academy of Agricultural Science, and the climate data base were from the National Center for Agro-Meteorology, respectively. Soil physical properties including soil texture, drainage, slope available depth and surface rock contents, and soil chemical properties including soil acidity and salinity, organic matter content were selected as soil factors. The crieria and weighting factors of these elements were scored. Climate factors including average daily minimum temperature, average temperature from March to May, the number of days of which average temperature was higher than
from September to December, the number of days of precipitation and its amount from October to May of the following year were selected, and criteria and weighting factors were scored. The electronic maps were developed with these scores using the national data base of soil and climate. Based on soil scores, the area of Goseong, Sogcho, Gangreung, and Samcheog in east coastal region with gentle slope were classified as the possible and/or the proper area for IRG cultivation in Gangwon Province. The lands with gentle or moderate slope of Cheolwon, Yanggu, Chuncheon, Hweongseong, Pyungchang and Jeongsun in west side slope of Taebaeg mountains were classified as the possible and/or proper area as well. Based on climate score, the east coastal area of Goseong, Sogcho, Yangyang, Gangreung and Samcheog could be classified as the possible or proper area. Most area located on west side of the Taebaeg mountains were classified as not suitable for IRG production. In scattered area in Chuncheon and Weonju, where the scores exceeded 60, the IRG cultivation should be carefully managed for good production. For better application of electronic maps.