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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Study of the Use of Winter Forage Crops, Early Maturing Rice and Summer Oats in Triple Cropping Systems at Paddy Field in Southern Region
Song, Tae-Hwa ; Park, Tae-Il ; Park, Hyong-Ho ; Cho, Sang-Kyun ; Oh, Young-Jin ; Jang, Yun-Woo ; Rho, Jea-Hwan ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Kang, Hyeon-Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 227~233
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.227
This experiment was undertaken to develop triple cropping systems for winter cereal crops for forage, early maturing rice and oats, and to select a winter forage crop in order to determine rice transplanting time at paddy fields in the southern region. Also, the productivity and feed value of the resulting forage crops were examined. When winter cereal crops used for forages are first harvested at the early maturing rice transplanting period, and again harvested during the winter forage crop harvesting period, the fresh yield and dry matter yield of rye were 32.0, 42.3 ton/ha and 5.8, 16.5 ton/ha, respectively, demonstrating higher yields than other winter crops. The early maturing rice, 'Jopyeong', transplanted on June 4 had a lower percentage of ripened grain compared to those transplanted on May 6, and milled rice yield transplanted on June 4 was also decreased by 22%. Thus, the results showed that early transplanting was profitable. Regarding the oats grown during the fall cropping season, the heading date for the oats sown first was on October 10, but the heading was not observed in those sown later. Dry matter yield and TDN yield of the second sowing was less than 50% compared to the first. Consequently, rye may be the most suitable winter forage crop for triple cropping systems. Early transplanting of 'Jopyeong' after rye harvesting before April 30 in addition to timely sowing of oats in the fall season would be profitable for rice and forage production using triple cropping systems in the southern region.
Effect of Seeding Rates on the Forage Quality and Productivity of Direct-Seeded Whole Crop Rice
Kim, Jong Geun ; Park, Hyung Soo ; Kim, Ji Hea ; Ko, Han Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 234~239
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.234
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seeding rates on the forage quality and productivity of direct-seeded whole crop rice at the experimental field of the Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA from 2007 to 2008. Whole crop rice variety, "Nokyang", developed by the National Institute of Crop Science, was directly seeded with four different seeding rates (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha). There were no significant differences (p<0.05) found in emergence date, heading date, greenish and disease resistance based on the seeding rates. Plant height increased at higher seeding rates but the tiller number per plant decreased (p<0.05). The dry matter (DM) content showed no significant difference based on seeding rates (p<0.05) while the yield of fresh and dry matter increased with incremented seeding rates (p<0.05). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) content increased with higher seeding rates, but the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content did not show a similar tendency. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) content was lowest with 120 kg/ha seeding rate. The grain ratio decreased at higher seeding rates. In economic analysis, the plot seeded at a rate of 60 kg/ha showed the highest income increment. Although high seeding rates increased the DM yield, a seeding rate of 60 kg/ha is recommended as the proper seeding rate for direct-seeded whole crop rice.
Effects of BMR Variety and Corn Grain (Grounded) Supplement on Silage Quality of Sorghum × Sudan Hybrids
Kwon, Chan Ho ; Kim, Eun Joong ; Cho, Sangbuem ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 240~246
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.240
The present study was conducted to evaluate the productivity of
(SX17) hybrid and BMR (brown mid rib)
hybrid and silage quality of these forages with corn grain supplementation. The effect of corn grain supplementation on the quality of silages was also investigated. No remarkable differences at growth characteristics and productivities in two hybrids were found. Sugar content, however, in stem of BMR hybrid showed significantly great (p<0.05) and the difference between two hybrids was about
. Ratio of lactic acid in total organic acid in BMR hybrid (82.8%) was significantly greater than the control (SX17 hybrid) (78.5%) (p<0.05). Ratio of butyric acid in total organic acid in SX17 hybrid (18.5%) was significantly greater than BMR hybrid (9.8%) (p<0.05). According to the result of organic acid ratio, it could be assumed that the use of BMR hybrid can improve silage quality. NDF and ADF contents in both SX17 and BMR hybrids were significantly declined with increased corn grain supplementation (p<0.05). Different TDN values in SX17 (56.2) and BMR (57.1) hybrids were detected. However, TDN values of both SX17 and BMR hybrid silages were significantly elevated by increasing the proportion of ground corn (p<0.05).
Effect of Homofermentative and Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Quality and Aerobic Stability of Silage : Meta-Analysis
Cho, Sangbuem ; Kang, Jung Sun ; Cho, Kyung Jin ; Lee, Kang Hee ; Kwon, Chan Ho ; Song, Jaeyong ; Lee, Kihwan ; Kim, Su Yeon ; Kim, Eun Joong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 247~253
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.247
In the silage quality, the process of fermentation and use of micro-organism as starter cultures are crucial. The present study investigated the effect of homo and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria as a starter culture strain on the silage quality and its aerobic stability using meta-analysis. Total 19 studies were used in the analysis. According to the strains of lactic acid bacteria used, experimental groups were assigned to heterofermentative (HEL), mixture of hetero and homofermentative (HHO), homofermentative (HOL) and various homofermentative (HOM). In each experimental group, standardized result of the treatment (with inoculant) was compared with the control (without inoculant) using risk ratio calculation method. The effect of experimental group was also compared. Different starter culture strains did not influence on silage pH and propionic acid production. However, lactic acid and acetic acid production were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the start culture strains. HOM showed the greatest lactic acid production and HEL was the lowest. In contrast, HEL showed the greatest in acetic acid production and HOM and HOL were the lowest. In terms of ammonia nitrogen, HHO produced more (p<0.05) than the rest of the treatment. In crude protein and water soluble carbohydrate contents, there were no significant effects among treatments. Different strain of lactic acid bacteria significantly influenced on the effect of aerobic stability (p<0.05). Use of heterofermentative showed greater aerobic stability and the use of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria.
Effects of Sowing Mixed Legume Forage and Applying Cattle Manure on the Productivity, Feed Values and Organic Hanwoo Feeding Capacity of Whole Crop Barley
Jo, Ik Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 254~261
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.254
This study was to assess the effect of sowing mixed legume forage and applying cattle manure on the productivity and feed value of whole-crop barley (WCB) as a representative of winter crops and to estimate feeding capacity of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) per unit area by defining optimal application level of cattle manure for more fertile soil and manure recycling for the purpose of reduced environmental pollution and efficient production of organic forage contributable to production of organic animal products. Sowing mixed legume forage significantly (p<0.05) increased yields of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) for WCB compared to WCB alone sowing, but there was no difference between mixed sowing treatments. The yields of DM, CP and TDN were significantly (p<0.05) highest in 100~150 kg N/hg. The CP and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents were highest in mixed sowing with hairy vetch, followed by sowing mixed forage pea and WCB alone (p<0.05). There were no differences in CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents among cattle manure application levels. As nitrogen application level increased, ADF content increased (p<0.05), but TDN content decreased (p<0.05). Feeding capacity of organic Hanwoo (head/ha) weighing 450 kg of body weight with 400 g of daily gain significantly (p<0.05) increased due to mixed sowing with legume forage, and with increasing application levels of fermented cattle manure, feeding capacity significantly (p<0.05) increased. The results indicate that mixed-sowing of WCB and legume forage not only cut nitrogen application level of fermented cattle manure by over 50 kg per ha but also increased their feed value and productivity, and feeding capacity. This would be contributable to diversity of forage resources as well as production of organic animal product by creating low cost and high quality of forage.
Proteomic Response of Alfalfa Subjected to Aluminum (Al) Stress at Low pH Soil
Rahman, Md. Atikur ; Kim, Yong-Goo ; Lee, Byung-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 262~268
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.262
In order to reveal the aluminum (Al) stress tolerance mechanisms in alfalfa plant at low pH soil, a proteomic approach has been conducted. Alfalfa plants were exposed to Al stress for 5 days. The plant growth and total chlorophyll content are greatly affected by Al stress. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and
contents were increased in a low amount but free proline and soluble sugar contents, and the DPPH-radical scavenging activity were highly increased. These results indicate that antioxidant activity (DPPH activity) and osmoprotectants (proline and sugar) may involve in ROS (
) homeostasis under Al stress. In proteomic analysis, over 500 protein spots were detected by 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis analysis. Total 17 Al stress-induced proteins were identified, of which 8 protein spots were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. The differential expression patterns of protein spots were selected and analyzed by the peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) using MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Three protein spots corresponding to Rubisco were significantly down-regulated whereas peroxiredoxin and glutamine synthetase were up-regulated in response to Al stress. The different regulation patterns of identified proteins were involved in energy metabolism and antioxidant / ROS detoxification during Al stress in alfalfa. Taken together, these results provide new insight to understand the molecular mechanisms of alfalfa plant in terms of Al stress tolerance.
Effect of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Quality of Italian Ryegrass and Whole-crop Barley Silage
Lee, Ho Il ; Choi, Yeon Jae ; Mamuad, Lovelia ; Kim, Eun Joong ; Oh, Young Kyoon ; Park, Keun Kyu ; Lee, Sang Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 269~276
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.269
This study was conducted to determine the quality of italian ryegrass (IRG) and whole- crop barley (WCB) silage combined with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during fermentation. Six strains of LAB (L. plantarum IMAU 70164, L. acidophilus KACC 12419, L. casei KACC 12413, L. reuteri KCTC 3594, L. buchneri KACC 12416 and L. diolivorans KACC 12385) were used in this study. L. casei and L. reuteri had the highest propionic acid production and were therefore used for fermenting the forages. The forages were fermented using monoculture and co-culture of L. casei and L. reuteri for 30, 45 and 60 days of ensiling. Addition of LAB lowered the pH of the IRG silage (p<0.05). Moisture content, lactic acid and acetic acid contents were higher (p<0.05) after addition of LAB. Water soluble carbohydrate was significantly lower (p<0.05) in WCB with a co-culture containing L. casei and L. reuteri. Propionic acid production was comparatively higher after addition of LAB to WCB on days 30, 45 and 60 while butyric acid was only detected in the IRG control on day 60. Fungi was not detected within 60 days after addition of LAB in IRG and WCB. Through this experiment, improved forage preservation was achieved using a co-culture containing L. casei and L. reuteri. WCB silage had higher propionic acid concentration and thus, it was a better forage for ensiling using co-culture of L. casei and L. reuteri.
Prediction of Nutrient Composition and In-Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of Corn Kernel Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Choi, Sung Won ; Lee, Chang Sug ; Park, Chang Hee ; Kim, Dong Hee ; Park, Sung Kwon ; Kim, Beob Gyun ; Moon, Sang Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 277~282
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.277
Nutritive value analysis of feed is very important for the growth of livestock, and ensures the efficiency of feeds as well as economic status. However, general laboratory analyses require considerable time and high cost. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic technique used to analyze the nutritive values of seeds. It is very effective and less costly than the conventional method. The sample used in this study was a corn kernel and the partial least square regression method was used for evaluating nutrient composition, digestibility, and energy value based on the calibration equation. The evaluation methods employed were the coefficient of determination (
) and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP). The results showed the moisture content (
, RMSEP=0.109), crude protein content (
, RMSEP=0.212), neutral detergent fiber content (
, RMSEP=0.763), acid detergent fiber content (
, RMSEP=0.142), gross energy (
, RMSEP=23.249), in vitro dry matter digestibility (
, RMSEP=1.69), and metabolizable energy (approximately
>0.80). This study confirmed that the nutritive components of corn kernels can be predicted using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.
Energy Balance and Methane Production of Hanwoo Cows Fed Various Kind of Roughage
Oh, Young Kyoon ; Kim, Do Hyung ; Moon, Sang Ho ; Park, Jae Hyun ; Nam, In Sik ; Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj ; Kim, Kyoung Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 283~287
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.283
This experiment was conducted to determine methane production and emission factors for a range of roughage diets fed to Hanwoo cows at a level of maintenance energy requirement. Seven cows were fed mixed hay only, 12 cows were fed mixed hay containing 30~50% rice straw and 6 cows were fed a mixed hay diet supplemented with 1.0 kg of wheat bran. Each cow was placed in a metabolic crate for 10 consecutive days, including last 7 days for sampling of feces and urine. At the end of the sampling period, the cows were transferred to an open-circuit respiration chamber for 24 consecutive hours. Methane conversion rate (5.5~6.2%, mean value = 5.8%) and emission factor (33.6~38.6 kg/head/year, mean value = 35.2) were not significantly affected by the diets although the mixed hay only diet resulted in 11 and 15% higher respective rates than the other two. However, in light of the many assumptions that forage with good quality might reduce methane production, additional experiments should be required for participation in the greenhouse gas emission trading system.
Effects of Mixing Time for Total Mixed Rations using Corn Silage on Ruminal In situ Dry Matter Degradation and Milk Production in Dairy Cows
Lim, Dong-Hyun ; Ki, Kwang-Seok ; Choi, Sun-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Il ; Park, Seong-Min ; Park, Su-Bum ; Kwon, Eung-Gi ; Kim, Eun-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 288~295
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.288
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mixing time for TMR (total mixed rations) mixed with corn silage on particle size, peNDF (physically effective neutral detergent fiber), laceration, and ruminal in situ dry matter degradation. The study also aimed to evaluate the effect of consumption of the TMR on the milk yield and milk components of mid-lactational dairy cows. TMRs were mixed for 30 minutes (T1) and 50 minutes (T2) using the same material. All samples were then analyzed with a Penn State Particle Size Separator (PSPS). The particle size of T1 was significantly lower in the bottom pan (8 mm>) than that of T2 (p<0.01).
was significantly higher in T1 (17.18%) than in T2 (13.85%) (p<0.01). For ruminal in situ dry matter degradation of particle retention (>19 mm), no significant difference was found after 72 hours incubation, although T1 degradation was significantly higher after 24 hours incubation (p<0.01). Milk yield was no different between the groups of cows, whereas the milk fat from T1 fed cows was significantly higher (p<0.01). The results show that feeding TMR mixed for 30 minutes to dairy cows may improve the physical value of forage without negative effects on the milk yield and milk components.
Study on the Activation Plan for Utilization of Agri-food by-products as Raw Materials for TMR
Chung, Sung Heon ; Park, Hyun Woo ; Kwon, Byung Yeon ; Gu, Gyo Yeong ; Bang, Seo Yeon ; Park, Kyung Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 34, issue 4, 2014, Pages 296~306
DOI : 10.5333/KGFS.2014.34.4.296
This study was conducted to survey and analyze the quantity of various organic wastes and to vitalize the utilization of agri-food by-products as raw materials for Total mixed ration (TMR), to improve feed cost savings and the quality of animal products. On-the-spot obstacles for animal farmers, along with legal and institutional alternatives are presented. The results are as follows. First, organic wastes in Korea are managed by the Allbaro system created in the Wastes Control Act, which processes 10,488 tons of cooking oil waste, 832,493 tons of animal and plant residues, 5,740 tons of animal carcasses, 1,171,892 tons of animal residues, and 2,172,415 tons of plant residues including 12,905 tons of rice hull and bran, for a total of 4,205,931 tons. Raw materials for TMR, namely rice hulls and bran as well as plant residues, accounted for 51.7% of the total national organic waste. The top 10 municipalities process 76~100% of all organic wastes and a supply management system is needed for the waste. Second, the 10 major agri-food by-products used as raw materials for TMR are bean curd by-product, rice bran, oil-cake, brewers dried grain, Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), barley bran, soy sauce by-product, citrus fruit by-product, mushroom by-product and other food by-product (bread, noodles, snacks, etc.). Third, the biggest difficulties in using agri-food by-products are legal obstacles. Because agri-food by-products are regulated as industrial wastes by the Waste Control Act, animal farmers that wish to use them have legal reporting obligations including the installation of recycling facilities. To enable the use of agri-food by-products as raw materials for TMR, waste management system improvements such as 'the end of waste status' and the establishment of more than 10 public distribution centers nationwide are deemed essential.