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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 3 - Sep 1985
Volume 5, Issue 2 - May 1985
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jan 1985
Selecting the target year
Study on the Chracteristicc in ( Miscanthus sinensis )
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 1~7
The leaf anatomy, seasonal growth and regrowth of Miscanthus sinensis were studied at Wonju, 1984. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The leaf of M. sinensis showed typical Kranz anatomy. 2. Seasonal change of standing crop was rapidly increased from May to August and reached its peak in early October. The highest rate of net productivity was
in late July and the lowest was
in September. 3. The LAI was continuously broadened and reached its peak, 6.3 in July then decreased. The number of leaves per plant rapidly increased from April to July, and gradually decreased thereafter. 4. High cut of M. sinensis in late April has brought better regrowth than cut and that of in late May has no more regrowth.
Annual Net Production and the Stability of the Puer Phragmites communis Grassland on the Lower Course of Nakdong River
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 8~12
In the pure Phragmites communis grassland in the lower course of Nakdong river, the seasonal changes of standing crop and productive structure, annual changes of the maximum standing crop, and annual net production were estimated. The maximum standing crop of the pure P. communis grassland is on mid-September, the maximum average daily productivity was
from June to July. The leaf area index of the pure reed grassland increased to July, and then decreased slowly. The logitudinal growth of above-ground parts of the reed grassland was maximum state, 320cm, on mid September. Annual net production was
, and it suggests that grassland is stable. Productive structure of the pure reed grassland indicated that the distribution of leaf was concentrated on the upper parts according to the grassland maturation.
Effect of the Autumnal Cutting Times on the Regrowth , Accumulation of Carbohydrate and Dry Matter Yield of Italian ryegrass ( Loium multiflorum )
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 13~21
This experiment was carried out to study the effect of the autumnal cutting times on the regrowth, the accumulated carbohydrate and dry matter yield of Italian ryegrass The results were summarized as follows: 1. In dry matter yield, the plot of earlier cutting was shown the highest yield (p<0.05), and that of the last-cutting was shown lower yield of dry matter than that the none-cutting plot. 2. TSC (Total Water Soluble Carbohydrate) content slightly decreased after the first cutting and gradually increased according to the regrowth, and then decreased again to the second cutting time. And also the TSC content levels of stubble, stem and leaf at one week before falling to sub-zero temperature were all the highest in the eariler cutting plot (p<0.01), and there was significant correlation between the TSC content level and the second harvested dry matter yield (p<0.05). 3. CGR (Crop Growth Rate) was decreased below
. RLGR (Relative Leaf area Growth Rate) and NAR (Net Assimilation Rate) were both high during 30 days after regrowth, and low after regrowth in all plots. LAI (Leaf Area Index) rapidly increased during 50 days after cutting, and then slowly increased in all the plots, and maximum LAI was 3.4-5.8. Also dry matter yield increased in the plots having a high LAI to 70 days after cutting. 4. It was recognized that there were significant correlation between TSC, LAI, CGR, NAR, LWR (Leaf Weight Ratio) and the second harvested dry matter yield during the low temperature periods, and the degree of contribution to dry matter yield was in order of LWR>LAI>TSC>NAR>CGR.
Studies on the Cutting Managemente of Pasture during the Mid Summer Season I. Effect of cutting management on tall fescue dominated pasture
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 22~32
Optimum pasture management during the summer season is an important factor to maintain good regrowth and persistence of pasture in Korea. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the cutting management on the dead plant, weed appearance, regrowth and carbohydrate reserves in stubble, and dry matter yield of tall fescue dominated pasture during the mid summer season. For the test, a split plot design with 4 replications was treated with 2 different the third cutting times (July 12 and Aug. 4) as the mainplots, and 3 different cutting heights (3, 6 and 9 cm) at the third cut as the subplots, and the experiment was done at the experimental field of the Livestock Experiment Station, in Suweon, 1984. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Considering the meteorological conditions during the experimental period, the temperature was a little higher by
than that of average year, especially the first and second decade of August were high. And the precipitation of 1984 tended to be low when compared with the average year. 2. Temperature of soil surface and underground tended to increase by
as the stubble height was low during the summer season. 3. Regrowth leaf length and leaf area after the third cut increased significantly with the high cutting height at the third cut. 4. A significant higher total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content in stubble after the third cut was observed in the high stubble cut on July 12. The results indicate that the high stubble height reserves more carbohydrates for early regrowth stage after the third cut when compared with the low stubble. On Aug. 4, however, the recovery of TNC contents after the third cut was not effective due to high temperature and rainfall. 5. The percentage of dead plant after the third cut was found to be high with the low cutting height during the mid summer season (p<0.05). 6. With the low stubble height on July 12 cut, it was appeared that the percentage of weed was significantly increased (p<0.05), and main weeds appeared after the third cut were Echinochloa crusgalli>Digitaria sanguinalis>Cyperus iria>Rumex crispus, and so on. In case of cut on Aug. 4, weed appearance was no difference at three cutting heights. 7. Dry matter yield at the third cut was increased in the plot of cutting on Aug. 4 and stubble height (p<0.05). However, yields at the fourth and fifth cut were increased with high stubble height (p<0.05), regardless of harvest time. 8. In total dry matter yield after the third cut, there was no significant difference between the cutting time and forage yield. However, total yield on July 12 was increased with the high stubble height (p<0.05). 9. From the above results, it is suggested that the 9 cm cutting height during the mid summer season is the most effective for good regrowth, weed control and forage yield of tall fescue dominated pasture.
Studies on the Cultuer of Cool-Season Grasses in Forest
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 33~36
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of crown density of trees on the growth and yield of cool-season grasses in forest. The species used in this study was orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and 4 levels of tree crown density(O=full sunlight, 25, 50 and 75%) were treated. The experiment was performed at the experimental filed of the Livestock Experiment Station in Suweon, during 1979 to 1950. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Maximum leaf area was obtained at 25% crown density of trees, followed by 0, 50 and 75%, regardless of cutting times. 2. Plant height tended to increase as the crown density of trees increased. However, there was no difference between 0% and 25% crown density of trees. 3. There was a negative correlation between plant height and leaf area of orchardgrass grown under pine trees. 4. The more dry matter yield of orchardgrass was obtained at 25% crown density of trees (p<0.05), follwed by 0, 50 and 75%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between 0% and 50% crown density of trees. Therefore it is suggested that the critical level of crown density of trees is 50% to culture of cool-season grasses in forest.
Studies on the Grassland Development in the Forest I. Botanical composition and yield of grass-clover mixtures grown under pine trees
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 37~44
With a view to producing forest trees and forages, the grassland development in the forest has become an important issue in Korea. For better grassland development in the forest, a field research was carried out to investigate the effects of 3 dominant types of seed mixtures (orchardgrass type, tall fescue type, and reed canarygrass type) on the botanical composition, pasture plants composition and dry matter yield of grass-clover mixtures grown under pine trees (shading level; about 50%). As a preliminary test, 3 shading levels (o; full sunlight, 50, and 60%) were treated to compare the yield of pasture in the forest. This experiment was arranged as a randomized block design with 3 replications, and performed at the experimental field in the suburban forest of Suweon, during 1982 to 1984. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. As the shading level increases by 0, 50, and 6075, the dry matter yield of forage was decreased by 100 (11.13 ton/ha),81 and 76%, respectively. 2. The total ground cover and percentage of pasture plants were decreased by year, regardless of 3 different dominant types of pasture mixtures. The wild grasses and shrubs, however, tended to be increased by year. 3. Orchardgrass was found to be the only dominant grass showing 80% of all pasture plants, regardless of 3 types of pasture mixtures. But the percentage of tall fescue, reed canarygrass, Kentucky bluegrass and ladino clover were low. 4. Dry matter yield was rapidly decreased to 5075 in the second harvest year, 1984 compared with that of the first harvest year, 1983. In 1983, the yield of orchardgrass type, tall fescue type, and reed canary-grass type was 8.95, 9.05, and 7.93 ton per ha, respectively, while in 1984, the yield was 4.66, 4.57, and 4.38 ton per ha, respectively. 5. From the above results, it is suggested that tile orchardgrass dominant type of pasture mixtures is the most desirable considering forage production and botanical composition, and maintaining productivity for several years is important in the grassland under the trees.
Studies on Reserved Carbohydrates and NEL ( Net energy Lactation ) in Corn and Sorghum I. Synthesis and Accumulation Pattern of Fructosan, Mono-and Disaccharose
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 45~52
Phytotron and field experiments were conducted to determine the influence of morphological development and environmental temperature on synthesis, translocation and accumulation behaviour of Fructosan, Monoand Disaccharose in corn cv. Blizzard and fodder sorghum cv. Sioux and Pioneer 931 at Munich technical university. Sorghum and maize plants were grown for 42 days at 4 temperature regimes (30/25, 25/20, 28/18 and 28/8 dog C) and mid-summer sunlight over 13-h days. The obtained results are summarized as follows: 1 Non-structural carbohydrates in maize and sorghum were accumulated mainly as Mono- and Disaccharose. The concentrations of Mono- and Disaccharose were increased markedly after differentiation of growing points and shown at early milk stage the highest contents with 27.8-29.1% and 16.8-20.4% for maizeand sorghums respectively. 2. Non-structural carbohydrates were accumulated mainly in stalk. However, during the late maturity the most of Mono- and Disaccharose were translocated into grain and reserved as starch. The increase of starch was associated with decrease of total non-structural carbohydrates. 3. Fructosan synthesis was not affected by morphological changes and environmental factors, which shows a value of 1.5-2.5% in whole stage of maize and sorghum. 4. Sorghum and maize plants were shown to have a great photosynthetic rates to high temperature. Reserved Mono- and Diaaccharose were, however, declined when temperature exceeded 30 dog C. Under cold stress at l8/8 deg C non-structural carbohydrates were not translocated and also were accumulated in leaves too much that cause to restrict of photosynthesis. 5. Net Energy Lactation (NEL) of sorghum and maize were directly associated with synthetic rates of non-structural carbohydrates, especially Mono- and Disaccharose. The highest values of NEL were found at physiological maturity stage with 6.6- 6.9 MJ and 5.7-6.0 MJ-NEL/kg for maize and sorghum respectively.
Studies on Percentage of Nitrogen Derived from Fertilizer ( P. N. D. F. ) and A-Value in Seuveral Forage Corps
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 53~61
Effects of nitrogen incorporated with 15N-nitrogen, which was applied to grown alone and in mixture with grass and legumes of forage crops, on the yield of dry matter, total nitrogen content, percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (P.N.D.F.), A-value were studied, and the results obtained are as follows: 1. With nitrogen for the yield of dry matter was highly effective only to orchardgrass and were also effect to the early stages of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil in case of a mixed sowing. 2. Alone and mixed sowings showed the yield of dry matter in decreasing order of alfalfa<red clover>orchardgrass>birdsfoot trefoil, and orchardgrass + alfalfa>orchardgrass + red clover>orchardgrass + birdsfoot trefoil, respectively. 3. In case of grown alone, orchardgrass gave higher percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (P.N.D.F.) than legume, whereas in case of grown in mixture it was in reverse order throughout the plots. It appears likely that orchardgrass was rather supplied soil nitrogen by legume then by nitrogen application. And P.N.D.F. was getting smaller in the latter stage of all forage crops in case of grown alone. In case of grown in mixture, however, and inconsistent P.N.D.F. was obtained from orchardgrass. 4. The A-value in case of grown alone was decreased in order of alfalfa>red clover>orchardgrass>birdsfoot trefoil. In contrast, however, the A-value in case of grown in mixture wes decreased in order of orchardgasss+alfalfa (3:7)>orchardgrass+red clover (3:7)>orchardgrass+red clover (3:7)>orchardgrass+alfalfa(5:5)>orchardgrass+birdsfoot trefoil (5:5)>orchardgrass+red clover (5:5)>orchardgrass+birdsfoot trefoil (3:7).
Effect of seeding date on growth , dry matter accumulation and chemical composition of sorghum , sudangrass and sorghum-sudangrass Hybrid
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 62~72
In order to find out the effects of seeding time on growth, dry matter production and nutritive content of Pioneer 931, Pioneer 988 and Piper, this study was carried out on the experimental field of Livestock Experiment Station in 1981-83. Seeding time were 7 with 14-day interval from April 16 to July 9. The results are summarized as follows: 1. It tool about 12 to 13 days from seeding to emergence in case of Mid-April seeding and 7 to 8 days in Late-June. Earlier seeding, more longer growth period from emergence to heading they required. 2. Plant height of Pioneer 931 seeded lately was longer than 4.5 meters in primary growth and Sudangrass was about 2.0 to 2.5 meters. Leaf area was the greatest in Mid-August by early seeding but it was increased until Early-October by late seeding. 3. Sorghum gas brought the highest yield in dry mater and Sudangrass the lowest. In general dry matter yield reduced gradually in response to later seeding but Pioneer 931 has brought more than 10 tons per hecter until Late-June. 4. Relative Growth Rate, Leaf Area Ratio and Leaf Weight of all varieties decreased in accordance with growth development. 5. Crude protein content of leaf was higher than stem and the younger the plants, the more protein they contain. Nitrogen Free Extract was just opposite to crude protein.
The Effect of Maturity Stage and Particle Length of Sorghum-Sudan Hybrid on the Quality of Silage
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 73~78
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of maturity stages and particle length on quality of silage made from Sorghum-sudan hybrid (Pioneer 988). The silage was made at heading, milky, dough and yellow ripe stage and cut 1.0, 2.5, 4.0cm at each stage. The quality of the silage was evaluated on the bases of the chemical compositions, content of organic acids, pH and
of the silage, and also the correlation between main compositions of the silage. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The moisture content was decreased with advancing maturity, but dry matter content was increased. Crude protein was decreased with advancing maturity at the level of 12.55 percentageat heading stage. Crude fiber was tended to increase. 2. The moisture content of silage was markedly decreased with advancing maturity (p<0.01). 3. The pH value of silage was the lowest when particle length was 2.5cm, and there was no significant difference between particle lengths. At the yellow ripe stage, the pH value was the lowest (3.53) and at the dough stage, the pH value was the highest (4.59) (p<0.01). 4. The rate of
to total-N was the highest (16.3%) at heading stage, the lowest (9.2%) at the dough stage. 5. The organic acid contents was not uniformly fixed at the particle length, but the highest quality silage was produced at yellow ripe stage as was not produced butyric acid and plenty of lactic acid was contented. 6. The correlations between pH and lactic acid (r=0.719), pH and total acid (r=-0.716), butyric acid and Flieg's score (r=0.872) were negative, respectively (p<0.01). And those between lactic acid and total acid (r=0.990), moisture and
(r=0.767) were positive, respectively (p<0.01).
Seed Production Studies in Italian ( Lolium Multiflorum Lam. Italicum ) II. Moisture content , seed weight , shattering and germination in ripening process of Italian ryegrass
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 79~83
This experiment was carried out in order to determine the optimum harvesting time of tetraploid Italian ryegrass. Moisture content, 1000-seed weight, germination and seed shattering were investigated at six harvesting times after anthesis in 1984 at Suweon. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Seed moisture content was slowly decreased until 24 days and fastly decreased from 24 days after anthesis. The daily mean moisture loss during the ripening period was about 1.5 percentage. 2. The maximum 1000-seed weight was reached at 24 days after anthesis and 1000-seed weight of Waseking was heavier than that of Giant. 3. Shattering began at 17-20 days after anthesis and thereafter rapidly increased. 4. Germination was 50% at 10 days after anthesis and maximum germination was reached at 24 days. 5. Considering germination, 1000-seed weight and shattering, the optimum harvest time was 24 to 27 days after anthesis. At this time, moisture content was 55.0 to 43.5 percent and two to five seeds per ten spikes were shed by shaking at the vertical point.
Digestibility and fermentation rate or Alfalfa , Orchar grass with different cutting times
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 5, issue 1, 1985, Pages 84~89
Chemical composition, dry matter and cellulose digestibilities and fermentation rates of alfalfa and orchard grass cut at different time were estimated in vitro method and the results summurized as follows: 1. Crude protein, crude fiber cwc and cellulose content of Alfalfa were decreassed as advancing cutting time. Crude protein, crude fiber and cwc content of Orchard grass were decreased as advancing cutting time up to 3 cutting, but crude protein was slightly increased at 4th cutting, crude fiber and cellulose content were higher at 2nd cutting, but decreased thereafter. 2. DM digestibility of Alfalfa was 51.80, 51.86, 52.92 and 59.52% at 1, 2, 3 and 4th cutting time, respectibly, thus slightly increased as advancing cutting time, and cellulose digestibility of Alfalfa was not much different with different cutting time. DM digestibility of Orchard grass was 62.21, 66.10, 60.95 and 66.32% at 1, 2, 3 and 4th cutting time, respectibly, and cellulose digestibility of Orchard grass was slightly increased at 3rd cutting time and then increased at 4th cutting time. 3. Fermentation rate of DM of alfalfa was the highest 1st cutting time (0.83%/hr.) and was not different at 3 and 4th cutting time. Cellulose fermentation rate of Alfalfa was the highest at 1st cutting time (1.29%/hr.), decreased at 2 and 3th and then increased at 4th cutting time. Fermentation rate of DM of Orchard grass was 1.42, 1.58, 1.60 and 1.57%/hr. and of cellulose was the highest at 2nd cutting time (1.77%/hr.)