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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Sep 1986
Volume 6, Issue 2 - May 1986
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Jan 1986
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Physiological and Ecological Studies on Prolongation of the Green Perido in Korean Lawn
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 131~137
Korean lawn, Zoysia japonica STEUD, is the type of a perennial warm-season lawn grass that has a naturally green period during 5 months from May to September. This study was carried out to detect the effects of N-P-K fertilization, regrowth capacity after mowing and chlorophyll contents on prolongation of the green period in Zoysia japonica grasslands. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on Zoysia japonica grasslands were affected on regrowth capacity after mowing, green color of leaf canopies and chlorophyll contents, respectively. 2. A the experimental plots which applied 45g/
/10 weeks of
fertilizer, there were high significant effects on prolongation of the green period and the plots of phosphorus and potassium had additive effects. 3. Prolongation of the green period to the last ten days of October was obviously possible by slow degrees in proportion to increment of N-P-K fertilization. 4. However, it is interpreted that more prolongation of the green period is impossible with N-P-K fertilization and irrigation treatments, unless the intermediate turfgrasses between
plants must be found and bred.
Ecological Studies on the Improvement of Natural Pasture by Fertilization and Grazing
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 138~144
This trial was carried out to find out the methods of improvement of natural pasture by PK-fertilization and sheep grazing. The experimental area covered with the community of Carex ferruginea-dominated and located at the Bavarian Alps in the southern part of Germany. As measuring the changes of the vegetation, the Releve-method, the Point-Intercept-method and the Quadrat-Charting-method were applied. Changes in the ecological evidence of the vegetation were studied during the period from April 1980 to the end of growing season in 1983. 1. The fodder value at the oversown pasture we slightly increased by PK-fertilization with sheep grazing, byt that gradually decreased by grazing without fertilization. 2. The pasture quality at the secondary vegetation was greatly improved as well as that of the oversown pasture in Autumn of the second experimental year by sheep grazing with PK-fertilization, but the fodder value was not like that by grazing without fertilization at the natural pasture. 3. The influence of phosphorus/ potassium-fertilization was much more serious than that of sheep grazing. Sedges almost disappeared due to fertilization, on the other hand grasses and legumes increased distinctly. Sheep grazing without fertilization led to a gradual decrease of legumes. The enormous biomass difference in sedges between the June and October analyses was due to a lack of regenerative capacity. 4. The plant community of Carex ferruginea-dominated before the experiment was successived into Alchemillo-Cynosuretum by PK-fertilization with sheep grazing.
Influence of Growth Location And Cutting Managements on Macro-And Microelements in Temperate Grasses
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 145~150
The experiments were conducted to study the influence of growth location and cutting microelements macro-and on managements in temperate grasses in Korea and West Germany from 1975 to 1979. The field trials were designed as split plot with three grass species of Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L. and Festuca pratensis Huds under three cutting regimes at grazing stage, silage stage and hay stage. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Concentrations of macro-and microelements in temperate grasses showed a different response to growth location and growing season. P concentration in the plants was decreased under hot stress in summer, whereas Mg and Na tended to be increased. The seasonal changes in K and Zn were not significant. 2. Morphological growth stage was to be found as an important factors influenced to mineral components. P and K contents in temperate grasses tended to be decreased as morphological development especially under high temperature in Suweon and Cheju. Ca and Mg were less affected by morphological stage and cutting managements. 3. Mean value of Ca/P ratio in the plants were 1.58, 1.33 and 1.21 for meadow fescue, perennial ryegrass and orchardgrass, respectively. Ca/P ratio in grasses tended to be increased as morphological development. 4. Zn deficiency in the plants occured in all grass species and experimental sites. Mean Zn concentration of the plant were 34.2%, 31.2% and 37.8% for Suweon, Cheju and Taekwalyong, respectivelly. Na deficiency occured in orchardgrass and meadow fescue, especially in taekwalyong. Cool temperature resulted in a decrease of Na absorption and accumulation.
Effect of Nitrogen and Age of Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L. ) Seeding on Growth and Nodulation When Growth under a Cool Environment
;E. H. Jensen;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 151~156
There are differences in recommendations in the USA as to whether nitrogen fertilizer should be applied when establishing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). The reason for not applying nitrogen is because some researchers found the addition of nitrogen reduced nodulation of alfalfa plants. A replicated experiment was conducted under controlled environmental conditions at the University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA, to determine the effects of nitrogen application on seedling growth and nodulation of alfalfa when grown in a cool environment. A sterile sand was used in the growing media to which a complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen was applied volumetrically to each pot daily. Half of the pots received
, at the rate of 11.2 kg/ha, at seeding and two and four weeks after planting, giving a total nitrogen application rate of 33.6 kg/ha. Rhizobia inoculant (R-12) consisted of a mixture of strains 171-15a. 1682c and 80 PI 265 of Rhizobium meliloti. Inoculant was applied to the seeds prior to planting and to the sand media at two and four weeks after seeding. Twenty seeds were planted in pots 14.0 cm in diameter and 11.5 cm deep. Seedlings were thinned after emergence to ten plants per pot. They were grown in a controlled environment chamber with a 16-hour light period. Soil temperatures at 6 cm depth ranged from
and had a daily mean of
Plants were harvested at weekly intervals for seven weeks at which time root, shoot and total length, dry weight, volume and number of nodules per plant were determined. Root, shoot and total length were not affected by nitrogen fertilizer. However, application of nitrogen increased the size of the seedlings as determined by dry weight and volume when compared to plants which were not fertilized. This indicates that rhizobia did not fix enough atmospheric nitrogen to promote good growth. Nitrogen application resulted in significantly more nodules per plant. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer became more apparent as the plant became older. Results of this experiment show there are benefits from applying nitrogen at a low rate when establishing alfalfa under a cool environment.
Studies on Dry Matter Yield s, Chmical Composition And Net Energy Accumlation in Three Leading Temperate Grass Species III. Seasonal changes of chemical components under dfferent cutting managements
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 157~163
Synthesis and accumulation pattern of Weender components in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) cv. Potomac and Baraula, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cv. Reveille and Semperweide and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) cv. Cosmos 11 and N.F.G. were studied under different growth environments and cutting managements. The field experiments were conducted as a split plot design with three cutting regimes of 6-7 cuts at grazing stage, 4-5 cuts at silage and 3 cuts at hay stage from 1975 to 1979 in Korea and West Germany. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Air temperature, rainfalls and solar radiation were found to be an important meteorological factors influenced to synthesis and accumulation of Weender components. Under high temperature and strong solar radiation during summer season in Korea, accumulation of crude fiber and cell-wall constituents (NDF) in the plants, as average of all grass species and cutting regimes, were increased to about 30.1% and 48.7% from 27,9% and 42.9% in spring, respectively, while total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) were decreased to 1.52% in summer from 4.01% in spring. In West Germany, the concentration of Weeder components showed little seasonal variation. 2. Crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were shown higher concentration in orchardgrass than those of perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue, but N-free extractions and TNC as well as net energy value were less accumulated in orchardgrass. Orchardgrass contained lower net energy contents with 534 StE. 431 StE and 575 StE/kg for Suweon, Cheju and Freising, respectively, as compared with 624 StE (Suweon), 491 StE (Cheju) and 657 StE/kg (Freising) in meadow fescue.
Effects of Sowing Time and Seeding Rate on Growth Chrcteristics, Winter Survival and Dry Matter Yield of Forage Rye (SeCale cereale L.)
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 164~168
This study was conducted at the forage experiment field of SNU, Snweon to investigate effects of sowing time and seeding rate on growth characteristics, winter survival and dry matter yield of forage rye (Secale cereale L.) as fresh-cut forage. Treatments involved 9 combinations of sowing times (September 8, 28 and October 18) and seeding rates(80, 130 and 180kg
). Plant height was not influenced by the time of sowing, but forage rye had a tendency to be taller as increasing seeding rate when sown on September 8 and October 28 and harvested in fall and spring, respectively, Winter survival was reduced by fall harvesting in the plot sown on September 8, however, total dry matter yield was increased by the fall harvesting. Average dry matter yields of 5884, 4993 and 3525kg
were obtained when forage rye was sown on September 8, 28 and October 18, respectively. Dry matter yield was decreased as delaying the time of sowing, but a tendency toward higher yield of forage rye by increasing seeding rate was observed. Yield difference by seeding rates was markedly larger when forage rye was sown on October 18 than September 8 and 28. Based on the results of this study, it appears that the dry matter yield of forage rye could be enhanced by sowing early to late September under upland condition in the middle plain are of Korea. The seeding rates of 80 to 130 kg
would be suitable for early to mid fall and late fall sowings, respectively.
Comparative Tield and Quality of Summe Annual Grasses as Fresh-cut Forage
M. H. Jo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 169~173
This experiment was conducted to provide comparative data on the newly imported thirteen sorghum-sudangrass hybrids(Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench), TE Goldmaker sorghum hybrid (S. Bicolor (L.) Moench), NC+ 88SS sudangrass hybrid (S, bicolor (L.) Moench), Supermill pearlmillet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) and teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana Schrad,) in comparison with the check variety Pioneer 988 sorghum-sudangrass hybrid for dry matter yield, protein content, in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD), and other desirable agronomic characteristics, SX-17 and NC+855 gave significantly higher dry matter yield than the check variety. There was no significant difference in total dry matter yield of the remaining 14 varieties with the exception of teosinte and TE Goldmaker which had the lowest yield. The most varieties were moderately resistant to leaf diseases although differences exist among varieties. No diseases were found in pearlmillet and teosinte, but NC+ 88SS was very susceptible to leaf blight. The mean percent crude protein of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids was lower than that of pearlmillet and sorghum hybrid, but was higher than that of sudangrass hybrid, The IVDMD of G-83F, TE Goldmaker, teosinte and HW 5111 was higher than that of the check variety. There was no consistent relationship between the percent of crude protein and IVDMD of the summer annual grasses.
Effect of alternative temperature on germination of sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass and corn seeds
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 174~178
This experiment was carried out to study the influence of temperature treatments on germination of sorghum (cv. Pioneer 931), sorghum-sudangrass (cv. Pioneer 988), sudangrass (cv. Piper) and corn (cv. Suweon 19) in growth chamber. Each crop seeds were germinated under different day/night temperature of 10/5, 15/10, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25, 35/30 and
over 14/10 hour days. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. Germination of sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass were less affected by high temperature than those of corn and sudangrass. The optimum temperatures for germination were
for sorghum and
for corn. High temperature(
), however, resulted in great decrease of seed germination rates of seed germination rates of corn, while those of sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass shown high germination rates with the value of 95.8% and 89.9%, respectively. 2. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrid was shown to have a great tolerance to low temperature. Under low temperature(
) seed germination of sorghum-sudangrass was 80.0% but those of corn and sudangrass were 43.2% and 24.8% respectively. Germination rates of sorghum were decreased to about 68.8% at low temperature from a value of 98.1% at optimum temperature. 3. The days required to the seed germination of sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass hybrid were shortened by increasing of temperature. Under different temperature treatments, it was required 12 days (
), 6 days (
) and 3 days (
) in sorghum but corn required 16, 7 and 3 days, respectively.
Effect of soil temperature on the growth and dry matter accumulationof sorghum and corn
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 6, issue 3, 1986, Pages 179~184
The pot trial was carried out to investigate the influence of soil temperature on the growth and dry matter accumulation in sorghum cv. Pioneer 931 and corn cv. Suweon 19 during their growing season in 1985. Soil temperature maintained with low (
) and high temperature(
) over 24 hour. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Growth of sorghum plants was associated with increasing of soil temperature, while that of corn was reduced under high temperature(
). The highest plant height of corn was found at natural temperature(
). Sorghum had higher growth rate than corn plants in all temperature levels. 2. Assimirable leaf areas of the plants were greately increased under high temperature both in sorghum and corn. Sorghum plants maintained almost same levels of leaf area during maturity stage, but those of corn were markedly decreased after mild stage. 3. The highest rates of photosynthesis were found at nature' soil temperature (
) both in sorghum(
) and corn plants(
). Under high temperature(
) the photosynthesis rates of the plants were decreased to about 1.553 mg and 0.404 mg for sorghum and corn, respectively. Low temperature (
) produced only a value of 0.775 mg for sorghum and 0.048 mg for corn. 4. Seasonal dry matter accumulation of sorghum increased in the order of high>natural>low soil temperature, but that of corn increased in the order of natural>high>low soil temperature, respectively.