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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 1988
Volume 8, Issue 2 - May 1988
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 1988
Selecting the target year
Variability of the Rumination-Behaviour in Strrrs fed a Constant Amount of Hay
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 68~76
The variation of rumination response in steers fed a same amount of orcharugrass hay was investigated. With three steers (6, 12, 24 months) of the Japanese Black Breed, rumination behaviour was measured continuously during a 5 days period by masseter EMG telemetry system. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average daily rumination time of respective animals were 438,447 and 433 min. with small daily variation both within and among animal. But the rumination time per DM kg of hay consumed varied from 66 to 138 min., and calf spent longer than older calf. 2. Actural chewing time showed small variation, and percentage of actural chewing time spent in rumination time was from 88 to 93% on individual average. 3. The daily number of chewing in rumination was approximately 25,000 to 30,000 with large individual differences. The chews per DM kg intake varied from 3,800 to 9,600, and calf chewed more than older calf. 4. The average rate of chewing per 100 sec. (chewing speed), there was a large difference between animals i.e. 104, 114, 131 respectively, but very little variance between days in individual. 5. No relation between day to day variations in eating time and rumination behavior, but significantly positive correlation was observed in the relation among rumination time, chewing time, No. of boluses and No. of chews. 6. Active time of day in rumination altered considerably day to day, but variation in the amount of rumination per day as expressed by the rumination time was relatively small.
Vegetational Structure of Orchargrass Sward I. Changes of dry matter production by the times of year and its relation both morphoiogical and structual chracteristics
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 77~84
This experiment was conducted to investigate the morphological and structual characters and the dry weight of plant (DW/pl.) concerned vegetational structure of orchardgrass pastures by the times of year, from 1 year to 7 year previous, 1986 through 1980, alternately. This experiment was carried out on the experimental fields of Yonsei University. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Population density (PD) was extremely decreased by the times of year. 2. Pasture productivity was highest at 3 year old pasture, was lowest at 5 year old pasture and was recovered at 7 year old pasture. 3. Recovery of pasture productivity was followed the increase of dry weight of plant (DW/pl.) and number of tillers per plant (NT/pl.). 4. The population density of 7 year old pasture was 14 plants per square meter. 5. The number of tillers per plant (NT/pl.), dry weight of plant (DW/pl.) piant length (PL), and plant size (PS) was frequently showed the highest values by the times of established year. 6. The stubble diameter (DIA), stubble area (SB), plant size (PS), distance between neibour plant (DIS) and leaf alea index (LAI) was increased according to the times of year. 7. The dry weight of plant (DW/pl.) was positively significant correlations with the number of tillers per plant (NT/pl.) all of the established pastures, but the dry weight of a tiller (WT) was tended to increase of correlations with the dry weight of plant (DW/pl.) by the times of year. 8. Differences between morphological and structual characters was recognized according to the times of year.
Studies on the Grassland Development in the Forest VIII. Effect of shading degrees on the quality, digestibility and nitrate nitrogen concentration of main grasses
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 85~91
A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of shading degrees (0: full sunlight, 25, 50 and 75%) on the proximate components, cell wall constituents (CWC), digestibility, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and nitrate nitrogen (
-N) concentration of grasses grown in forest. For the test different artificial shading houses were established and pasture species used were orchardgrass, timothy, perennial ryegrass and ladino clover. The experiment was performed at LES in Suwon. 1985. 1. Considering proximate components, CWC and digestibility of grasses, ladino clover showed the best quality, and then perennial ryegrass. 2. The contents of crude protein, crude ash, and digestibility of grasses were increased with shading, regardless of pasture species. As the shading degrees are increased, the contents of crude fiber in orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass and timothy were decreased, while that in ladino clover was increased with shading. 3. Grasses grown in spring showed higher digestibility than those grown in summer season. 4. The content of WSC was the highest in perennial ryegrass, and then ladino clover, orchardgrass, and timothy, in that order. Also WSC was decreased as the shading degrees are increased. 5.The content of
-N was the highest in perennial ryegrass, and then orchardgrass, ladino clover and timothy, in that order. Also the
-N was significantly increased with higher shading level. In the regression equation between shading degrees and
=0.90**, TEX>$r^2$=0.95**), shading degree of 43 to 44% was critical level, causing nitrate poisoning to animal. 6 Considering grass quality, dry matter yield and
-N, less than 40% of shading degree (over 60% of full sunlight) was desirable for better grassland improvement, management and utilization in the forest.
Studies on Application of Organic-Compound Fertilizer on Hilly Mixed Sward I. Effect of organic-compound fertilizer application on dry matter yield and botanical composition of grass-clover mixtures
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 92~98
With a purpose of finding out the effects of magnesium and boron enriched organic-compound fertilizer application on the dry matter yield, yield components and changes in the botanical composition on the hilly pasture, a field experiment was arranged with five different treatments as a randomized block design and lasted from September, 1984 to the end of growing season in 1986. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. As a early plant growth and development, winter hardiness, growth vigour and coverage of grasses at the plots with organic-compound fertilizer application were better comparing to single dressing. 2. Average dry matter yields for two years were shown significantly high due to increasing amount of fertilizer. This trend was same both single and organic-compound fertilizer. And dry matter yields with organic-compound fertilizer application of low (8, 693.1 kg/ha) and conventional level (12, 758.7 kg/ha) were appeared to increase by 10 and 15% than those of single dressing of Low (7, 930.6 kg/ha) and conventional level (11, 122.6 kg/ha), respectively. But it was not significant difference. 3. Dry matter yield of grasses was significantly gained by increasing amount of fertilizer. The yield of legumes at the plot without fertilization was significant higher comparing to fertilizing plots, but it was not different between low and conventional dressing levels. However, at the plots with organic-compound fertilizer application the yields of grasses were a little more increased by 8-14%, and legumes were much more gained by 26-29% than those of the same species groups with single dressing, but it was not significant between the different kinds of fertilizer in the same fertilizing level. 4. At the grassland management, the rate of legumes tended to dominate at the plot without fertilization gradually. On the other hand, the botanical compositions and the rates of grasses were much better maintained at the plots with fertilization. But the rates of legumes with organic-compound fertilizer application tended to increase a little more than those of single dressing gradually.
Studies on Application of Organic-Compound Fertilizer on Hilly Mixed Sward I. Effect of organic-compound fertilizer application on qualities of grasses
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 99~103
With a purpose of finding out the effects of magnesium and boron enriched organic-compound fertilizer application on qualities of grasses on the hilly pasture, a field experiment was arranged with five dilferent treatments as a randomized block design and lasted from September, 1984 to the end of growing season in 1986. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Mean chemical components except NFE of grasses at the plots with organic-compound fertilizer application were appeared to contain slightly high comparing to single dressing. 2. Production of DCP with organic-compound fertilizer (1,170.2 kg/ha) was significanty increased by 20% comparing to single dressing (975.7 kg/ha) in the conventional fertilization level (P<0.05), but it was not significantly different between them in the low dressing level. 3. Production of energies (TDN, StE and NEL) with organiccompound fertilizer of low and conventional dressing level were appeared to increase by 10 and 13 to 15% than those of single dressing of the same levels, respectively. But it was not significant difference. 4. Like single dressing nutrient productions with organic-compound fertilizer were appeared significantly high due to increasing of dressing gradually (P<0.05-0.01). 5. Mineral contents of P and Mg at the plots with organic-compound fertilizer were a little higher, on the other hand, K, C/P and K/Ca + Mg equivalent ratio were slightly lower than those of single dressing, but the content of Ca tended to similar between them.
Leaf Growth and Forage Yield in Three Cultivars of Orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata L. ) over Cutting Stages I. Seasonal regrowth and anatomy of leaves
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 104~109
A field experiment was conducted in order to investigate the seasonal changes of leaf growth and related characteristics in three cultivars of orchardgrass; Potomac, Kay and Sumas. The results were summarized as follows: 1. Leaf elongation was increased in a nearly linear phase during first and third cutting stages. It was increased slowly in early 10 days to 15 days after cutting and increased rapidly thereafter during the rest cutting stages. In cultivars, Potomac was showed hlgher leaf elongation than other cultivars during all cutting stages. There was no difference of leaf width within cutting stages, but the leaf width of fall regrowth was narrow. Sumas had relatively short and wide leaves. 2. Leaf dry weight and leaf area in first cutting stage were larger than others. Leaf area was increased rapidly from 15 days after cutting and leaf
was increased rapidly from 20 days over all cutting stages. The increase in leaf area and dry weight were slow down after 30 days. 3. Number of epidermal cells was increased rapidly after cutting and the rate of increase was slow down after 30 days. In a cross section of leaf tissue, the part of mesophyll was occupied with about 60% of total area and larger area than other tissues. Leaf tissue had a large vacancy at early growth period after harvest and was filled gradually with mesophyll. This result was related to the increase of leaf dry matter.
Leaf Growth and Forage Yield in Three Cultivars of Orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata L. ) over Cutting Stages II. Relationship between forage yield and growth indices
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 110~116
The response of forage yield was studied with various growth indices to develop yield model and to determine optimum cutting time in three cultivars of orchardgrass 1. Number of tiller per plant was the highest at 3rd cutting stage. But, it was decreased rapidly at 4th cutting stage. Leaf Area Index (LAI) was the highest at 3rd cutting stage. LA1 was increased slowly during 15 days to 20 days after cutting and thereafter increased rapidly. 2. In dry matter yield over cutting stages, 1st cutting and 3rd cutting stages were higher yield than others. Change of dry matter yield was similar to that of LA1 in all cutting stages. 3. Leaf Elongation Rate (LER) and Specific Leaf Weight (SLW) were reached to maximum at 20 to 25 days and 25 to 30 days after cutting, respectively, 4. Dry matter yield was highly correlated with LA1 (r=0.905)and with CGR (r=0.962) over three cultivars. Also, LA1 was significantly with LER. The best-fit yield model was obtained in multiple regression equation which included both dependent variables of LA1 and CGR. 5. Optimum cutting times which were determined by the relationships between D.M. yield and LAI, and between D.M. yield and CGR, were ranged from 32 days t o 36 days depend on each cutting stages.
Spatial Distribution of Growth and Cell Elongation in the Elongation Zone of Perennial Ryegrass Leaves as Affected by Growth Condition and N Fertilization
Sung Seo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 117~122
Some Characteristics of Interspecific and intergeneric Hybrid in Herbage Grasses
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 123~127
Even though grass species are one of major importance in livestock industry, the response of intergeneric hybridization of Lolium and Festuca and interspecific hybridization of Lolium m.X Lolium p. to Korean climatic condition has not been adequately documented. This reasearch was conducted to examine the growth characteristics and dry matter yield of Festulolium, cv. Felopa and C-Stamm N 66 and hybrid ryegrass, cv. Maja and Tetilelite. 1. The early growth of Italian ryegrass was better than that of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium. The plant length and helght of Italian ryegrass were longerltaller than those of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium, but the number of tillers of Italian ryegrass was less than that of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium. 2. Festulolium and hybrid ryegrass were more tolerant than Italian xyegrass to winter killing, 70-80% of tillers was survived. 3. After wintering, early spring growth of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium were better than that of Italian ryegrass. Dry matter yield of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium were more than that of Italian ryegrass. 4. Spikes of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium (C-Stamm N66) were more than those of Italian ryegrass. Seed yield per
of hybrid ryegrass and Italian ryegrass were almost same, but that of Festulolium was lower.
Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System II. Effect of corn-cowpea intercropping system on chemical composition and yield
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 128~134
This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition of corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping plants at different harvesting time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the contents of crude fat and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.01), while that of crude protein, crude fiber and crude ash were decreased (P<0.01) with each harvesting time. 2. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude fiber contents were decreased same patterns in growing period, however, according to maturing of corn ears the difference between ADF and crude fiber contents reduced. 3. At mature stage, crude protein yields per 10a in corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 127.6kg and 152.lkg, respectively. The difference of crude protein content between corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping system was 19.2%. 4. TDN yields of each cropping system, at mature stage, obtained similar results and TDN yields per 10a of corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 1006.lkg and 990.1, respectively. 5. Conseqently, corncowpea intercropping system could be increased protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system.
Studies on the Grassland Development in the Forest IX. Effect of cutting times and cutting heights on growth and dry matter yield of grasses, and botanical compowition on woodland pasture
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 135~140
This field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of cutting times (3,4 and 5 times
) and cutting heights (3, 6 and 9 cm) on the growth and dry matter(DM) yield of grasses grown under pine trees, and botanical composition of woodland pasture. The conditions of the experimental field was south direction with 30% of shade (ca. 70% of full sunlight). Annual DM yield was higher in the plots cut 4 times (6,097 kg) and 3 times (5,953 kg) than in 5 times (5,305 kg
). However, it ip considered that total nutrient yields may be not different among 3 treatments. The yield was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with higher cutting height, regardless of cutting time. The 9 cm of stubble height was very effective on both increasing DM production and seasonal distribution of DM. In botanical composition, 3 cm and 6 cm of cutting height accelerated the percentages of bareland and weeds, regardless of cutting time, particularly in summer season. However, 9 cm of stubble height maintained 80-85% of pasture grasses in all cutting times. In this experiment, therefore, cutting height was more important factor than annual cutting times for forage production and pasture longevity, and it is desirable to harvest 4-5 times per year (under this experimental field condition) with 9 cm of stubble height on woodland pasture.
Studies on the Grassland Managementin Late-Autumn and Early-Spring II. Effect of fertilization application time in spring on growth, crude protein content and yield of grasses for grazing
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 141~146
This field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of fertilizer application time in spring on the growth, crude protein (CP) content and dry matter (DM) yield of gasses for grazing Application times of fertilizer were on March 10, March 20, March 30, April 9 and April 19, and control (non-fertilized) plot was involved. All fertilized plots were also treated with single and compound fertilizer. The first harvesting date for grazing was on April 30, and the regrowth soiling yield was investigated on June 9, 1988. In all fertilized plots, the growth, DM yield, CP, CP yield and nigrogen recovery of grasses were significantly increased compared with control, especially on the plot of March 30. The regrowth yield on March 30, April 9 and April 19 were shghtly hig!!a than those of the others. And there were not significant differences of grass growth, CP content, and DM yield between single-and compound fertilizer treatment. On March 30 which was the best time of fertilizer application in spring, the accumulated temperature was
and the subsoil temperature at 10 cm depth was 8.1 -
. Considering the average meteorological condition in Suwon area, the optimum application time of spring fertilizer for grazing may be recommended on March 30-April 3 (accumulated temp.; 100-
, subsoil temp.; 8-
A Comparison of Herbage Utilization by Sheep on Native and Improved Pastures
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 147~151
The preference, chemical composition, intake, digestibility and chewing efficiency of collected herbage sample from sheep using esophageal fistula and fecal collection method were compared to those of offered herbage samples on the native and improved pastures at the 3rd flush stage(25 cm grass height). Experimental field was treated by one plot design and the begining of September 1987, at Chungnam National University, Daejon. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Preference indices were not different among herbage species on improved pasture, while those on in native pasture were markedly different and this difference seemed to depend on diet selection. 2. Chemical compositions of collected herbage samples were different from those of offered herbage samples. Crude protein content was significantly high on native pasture, but NDF, cellulose and lignin content were significantly low on improved pasture (p < 0.01). 3. DM intake, digestibility and herbage utilization percent on improved pasture were significantly higher than those on native pasture (P < 0.01). 4. Eating rate, ruminating and chewing efficiency were influenced by the amounts of NDF intake. Therefore, eating rate, ruminating and chewing efficiency on improved pasture tended to be higher than those on native pasture (p <0.01).
The Effect of the Gypsum Application on the Composition of Nitrogen and Sulfur Compounds in Mixed Pasture and on the Sulfur Balance in Soil
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 152~157
The effect of gypsum application was tested on dry matter yield, sulfur uptaken, composition of Ritrogen compound and sulhr compound and sulfur balance in mixed pasture. Total dry matter yields and sulfur uptake by grasses increased with the increasing of gypsum application rates. The ratios between total nitrogen and total sulfur in masses decreased with the increase of sulfur uptake at 2nd and 3rd cutting times. Cysteine content was little affected by gypsum while methionine content slightly increased an 4.0, 6.0 kg3 per 10a levels at 2nd and 3rd cutting times. The uptake of nitrate nitrogen decreased with gypsum application and dry matter digestibility increased about 1.1 to 3.3%. The soil pHs after experiment become high in surface and subsoil till 6.0 kg.S per 10a, but low at 10.0 kg.S per 10a. The content of sulfur in surface soil was 19.9 ppm after experiment, but very high in subsoi1,ranging from 94 to 143 ppm.S. Sulfur leached from the surface soil by 0.69, 2.39, and 6.24 kg.S per 10a in the plots of 4.0, 6.0, and 10.0 kg.S per 10a, respectively.
Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System III. Growth charateristics, dry matter and organic matter yield in corn(Zea mays L.) and soybean(Glycine max L. Merr) intercropping
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 158~164
The growth characteristics and yield per unit area of two cropping systems, corn monoculture and 'wrnsoybean intercropping, were compared and the obtained results were as follows; 1.The two cultivation systems were not significantly different in leaf length, leaf width and length of internode at harvesting time. 2.The weight of stalk and the leaves of a plant were decreased with maturity, while the weight of ear was markedly increased. The patterns of relative ratio of each components were essentialy same in each cultivation systems. In corn monoculture, the percentages of stalk, leaf, and ear at final harvesting stage were 22.9, 13.7, and 63.4 and in corn-soybean intercropping, they were 21.8, 10.9, and 67.3 respectively. 3.Dry matter yield per unit area (kg/lOa) of intercropped corn at yellow stage was similar to that of monocultured corn (1, 483 kg/ 10a vs 1, 509 kg/ 10a). At ripe stage, however, the dry matter yield of intercropped plant was more than that of monocultured (1, 679 vs 1, 660 kg/ 10a). 4.The same pattern was observed in organic matter yield.
Studies of Cultivation Model of Rye (Secale cereale L.) as a Forage Crop I. Effects of harvesting time on forage production and quality of rye(Secale cereale L.) silage on paddies
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 165~168
This study was conducted at the rice field of Livestock Experiment station, Suweon to investigate the effects of harvesting time on forage production and quality of rye (Secale cereale L.) on paddies. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. Fresh matter yield was peaked at the 10 days (May 10) after heading, however, dry matter yield was increased in proportion to maturity. 2. Digestibility (in vitro) showed the 83-77% by heading stage (Apr. 25-30) but decreased to 66-58% after heading stage. 3. Digestible yield reached to maximum level, 619.2 kg/lOa at the 10 days after heading (May 10). 4. The content of crude protein and crude fat in forage rye was decreased with advancing the maturity. 5. The lactic acid content of rye silage ranged from 1.3% to 2.0%.
Studies on the Quality of Silage from Domestic Herbage II. Comparative experiment of feeding value of Arundinella hirta silage on additives.
Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 169~174
An experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of Arundinella hirat silage making by different methods ie., added starch 3%, formic acid 1% (FA), anhydrous ammonia (
) 3%, and dried poultry waste (DPW) 3%. The samples were analyzed organic acid, cell wall constituent (NDF), cell contents (NDS), lignincutin-silica (ADL), hemicellulose (H: CHO) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) by pepsin-cellulase technique. The feeding value of silages were compared with corn siiage. The results are summarized as follows; 1.Formic acid treated to silage was lower pH(4.0), but anhydrous ammonia (8.37) and DPW added silage (8.72) were higher than that of the other treatment silages. 2.Fermentative quality of corn silage, starch, DPW,
, control and FA treated silage were marked 100,81, 77,63,62 and 58, respectively. 3.Silage with
, (23.57%) and DPW (10.42%) of content of protein were higher than that of other treated silages. 4.Silage with
, was significantly lower contents of NDF, but did not ADF of among the treated silages. 5.In the contents of ADL, starch added silage was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), but did not the other treatment. 6.DMD of in vitro by pepsin-cellulase of silage with starch was increased three folds as equal to corn silage but did not increased the other treated silages. 7.Correlationship of latic acid an total acid, and NDS were a positive but lactic acid and NDF was a negative correlation.