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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Cartography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Dec 1998
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jun 1998
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A Study on the Transformation of Two Dimensional Geodetic Coordinates between Bessel and WGS84 Ellipsoids by UTM Projection
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 149~158
The aim of this paper is to propose the technique of the two dimensional geodetic coordinates conversion between WGS84 and Bessel spheroids by the two-dimensional affine transformation modeling based on the UTM plane coordinates without the local geoid model which is essential to three dimensional coordinates conversion. Area of approximately
square km in the city of Inchon was selected as the test area. The transformation parameters were determined using the eleven triangulation control points in test area. And then, those paraneters were applied to the fifteen cadastral control points which selected as checking points for precision checking of transformation parameters. The average and standard deviations of the absolute values of the conversion residuals of checking points in latitude/longitude and N/E(UTM) and/or x/y(TM) are
respectively. Also, coefficients for 7-parameters, 3-parameters and UTM model transformation computed according as sizes of transformed area, and then the transformed characteristics of checking points according to transformation methods analyzed synthetically.hetically.
The Development of Data Transformation Program for Establishing the Real-Time Database in Underground Utility
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 159~168
In traditional method, the establishment of database for current data of underground utilities would frequently occur a lot of losses in the time, economic effect and problems of accuracy because the procedure for the generations of transverse and vertical section mapping would be composed of many steps and the establishment of underground utility is inefficiently accomplished. The goals of this study are 1) to obtain digital information and data aquisition simultaneously by realtime in the field, 2) to develop the computer program of generation of transverse and vertical section mapping based on the plan for data transformation. As a result of this study, the establishment of database for underground utilities is able to save the time and improve economic effect and accuracy while minimizing errors in rewriting and acquiring data.
Building of Road Information Management System using GSIS
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 169~176
Recently, the volume of transportatin is higher by increasing rapid development and human or material interchange among districts. So, the importance of maintenance and management on existing road is come to the fore. In this study, we'd like to build prototypic Road Information Management System to keep road scientifically and efficiently on general road. We built the database of information about a drawing and register on ex-siting road using GSIS. So, we can offer information rapidly and accurately in road maintenance and management service through the query, update and statistic analysis function on road facility as well as AM.
Building Extraction and Digital Surface Models Generation from Stereo pairs of Aerial Images
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 177~185
There is an increasing request for 3D data and outlines on building for urban planning and design. This paper describes an approach to extract building using Digital Surface Models(DSM) and stereo pairs of aerial images. DSM contain informations not only about the topographic surface like Digital Elevation Models(DEM), but also about buildings and other objects higher than the surrounding topographic surface, e.g. tees. We therefore describe our approach consisting of two step procedures. The first step of the approach is to generate DSM by stereo matching using Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Dynamic Programming. The proposed stereo matching is using the cost function for finding the disparity between the left and right image, and the Dynamic Programming for solving the stereo matching problem. The second step is to detect building outlines using the DSM and the edge informations extracted from a digital aerial image by Sobel Operator. The overlay analysis of the DSM and the edge information by Sobel Operator was efficient to detect building outlines.
An Analysis of the Landuse Classification Accuracy Using IHS Merged Images from IRS-1C PAN Data and Landsat TM Data
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 187~194
In this study, effective multispectral Landsat TM band combinations for a merging with the high resolution IRS-1C PAN data using the IHS method to improve landuse accuracy is discussed. From the pre-classified image using the merged images with TM all six band images(with the exception of band 6 image) and PAN image, a sample data which has ten classes was generated. An evaluation of the overall classification accuracy for the representative seven merged images which were merged using each TM three-band images and IRS-1C PAN image by IHS method for the sample area. The increase in classification accuracy is most significant with the inclusion of two of TM4, TM5 and TM7 infrared band images. Especially, the largest increase(11.8 percent) in landuse classification accuracy were investigated when Landsat TM247 bands were merged with IRS-1C PAN data. The classification accuracy when TM three band image and PAN image were used without merging is higher than result of the case of using the merged images.
Accuracy Assessment for GPS Aerial Triangulation
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 195~202
In this study, we utilized various type of GPS observation measurements to get a camera projection center of the aerial triangulation and consequently to determine which type is acceptable. For the accuracy and the error analysis, comparison between a projection center from the conventional model adjustment and the result determined by the kinematic DGPS positioning which is fitted to the conventional model adjustment using 3D conformal transformation method has been made. The camera projection center is located within a
for C/A code range measurements,
for L1 phase measurements and
for L1/L2 phase measurements with
. In this way, the accuracy of the camera projection center by the bundle block adjustment can be predicted.
A Study on the Generation of Three Dimensional Orthophoto Map from Aerial Photograph by Digital Photogrammetry
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 203~211
A traditional method to produce three dimensional orthophoto map has been studied by digital photogrammetry which decides a height by digitally searching conjugate points on the stereo image. Many researches in digital photogrammetric field are still in progress to determine conjugate points automatically. In this study, we analyze the effect of accuracy of area-based image matching with changing eight types of target area size using four types of image pyramid. The result of image matching to each method compared with 1/5,000 digital mapping data. We decided a optimal size of target area on a percentage of image matching. Digital elevation model is generated by matching results and bundle method. As a result, three dimensional orthophoto map is made in terms of digital elevation model and orthophoto.
Development of the Geoid Model in Korean Peninsula referred to Bessel Ellipsoid
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 213~223
This paper deals with the geoid modelling in and around Korean peninsula referred to Bessel ellipsoid. Several useful data were used to compute precise geoidal heights referred to GRS80 by remove and restore technique and FFT technique was used to evaluate Stokes' integral. All grid point elevations extracted from GTOPO 30 and Bessel coordinates of all grid point were computed through coordinates transformation by applying three transformation parameters. Finally, geoidal heights referred to Bessel ellipsoid were calculated by geometric method. As the results of this study, a precise gravimetric geoid model referred to GRS80 (KOGGDM33) and geoid model referred to Bessel ellipsoid(KOBGDM33) in and around Korean peninsula were developed. KOBGDM33 shows the gradual distribution of geoidal heights from -91.8 m in Yongampo to -39.0 m in the straits of Korea.
Water Quality Elements Extraction of Lake by the Landsat TM Images
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 225~233
It is necessary to check the water quality of the lake on a continuous basis to determine the appearance of water pollution; however, it not only takes much time and expenses but it is considerably difficult to investigate the wide range of the area. If we use the remote sensing technique through the use of satellites, the status of water quality can be checked covering many wide areas simultaneously; and because the same area can be measured on a periodic basis, it is extremely effective in investigating the water quality. Furthermore, as some of the Landsat sensors carry characteristics which sense objects according to wave length, the distribution of water quality can be checked relatively accurately within a short period of time, while its image can be displayed in color. Hence, this research has attempted to extract water quality elements, such as transparency, water depth, and surface water temperature by utilizing the satellite data, and has prepared the water quality distribution image map of the Lake Hwajinpo by presenting the related empirical formula of the water quality elements. If the water quality distribution image map is prepared after extracting the water quality elements from the DN of the Landsat TM image and then carrying out TIN analysis through the use of GIS, relatively more accurate pattern can be learned covering a wide rage of area than the pattern presented based on the value obtained from actual observation.
Detection of GPS Multipath Errors Using 4-Receivers
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 235~242
This study aims to detect and to reduce the multipath errors which are main errors source in high precious surveying such as GPS-aided aerial triangulation and Car Navigation. which reference receivers being fixed, when kinematic receivers move continuously, multipath is performed using smoothed code measurement and pure code measurement in the network. Through this methods, 3D RMS errors are reduced into about 30% in the single differential code solution to the kinematic receiver. This is based on the fact that the network adjustment are performed at multiple reference receivers, but positioning is carried out by the single differential methods between a reference receiver and a kinematic receiver. So it was supposed that this methods reduced the correlation errors including the atmospheric errors using the nearest receivers and can be mixed with another methods.
The Generation of Accurate Digital Orthophoto by DTM Accuracy Improvement
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 243~250
From early plane-table photogrammetry through the analog and analytical stages, photogrammetry has now reached the digital photogrammetry stage using the image stored at computers. Digital Photogrammetry using aerial photograph generates the DTM and digital orthophoto. Expecially, DTM is important for improving the accuracy of digital ortho photo. so Many experimental are required. In this study, therefore deals with the generation process of digital orthophotos using DTM with breakline and without breakline.
Development of District-level Planning Support System by using GIS
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 251~258
The purpose of this study is to develop the District-level Planning Support System (DPSS) by using GIS. The district-level planning which is related for district-level control of city, needs the various parcel-level information which is composing the urban physical environment. The information has to be stored and analyzed for recognizing the study area, then the district-level planning will be efficiently managed. The use of GIS in the process of district-level planning is restricted for the creation of thematic map. GIS is not used for the analysis of spatial patterns and planning process. This study evaluates the characteristics of current district-level planning and the basic components of urban physical environment. And the database model is built. The topology among components is defined by using the spatial relationship. Then the spatial query machine for district-level planing is developed by using ArcView 3.1, Avenue and Dialog Extension. This spatial query machine is applied for case study. This study shows 1) the possibility of the district-level planning support system for analyzing spatial relationship, 2) the needs of the up-to-date topographic map showing current building's footlines and the complete integration with cadastral maps, it will reduce the uncertainty in the spatial decision making process, 3) the methodology for the construction of spatial decision making rules, 4) the further study for the using of raster, network, image and three dimension data.
The Formation and Curriculum Development of Geomatics/Geoinformatics
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 259~270
The purpose of this study is to develop the model curriculum for Geomatics/Geoinformatics. Geomatics/Geoinformatics are emerging discipline for spatial data acquisition and processing. They have multidisciplinary characteristics which include surveying, computer sciences, spatial data processing-related disciplines. This study carried out with the in-depth study to the related department's the academic characteristics and curriculums. Generally, the curriculum consists of surveying and information technology. They basically require mathematics, physics as prerequisites. The related-departments belong to the engineering or science part. So, We can conclude that the academic characteristics have to belong In engineering sides. Modern disciplines usually require balanced knowledge, and Geomatics/Geoinformatics have to the multidisciplinary approaches. This study shows 1) the model curriculum of Geomatics/Geoinformatics for the 21st century by analyzing the related departments' curriculum, it consist of surveying, computer/information sciences, sustainable urban management and related laws, etc., 2) the needs of the good cooperation among the related disciplines and industry for the development of standardized texts and curriculums, 3) the needs of new certification for Geomatics/Geoinformatics, etc.
Development of Earth Fill Management System using Real-Time Kinematic GPS
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 271~279
This paper discusses the development of compaction management system using Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology for the efficient management or compaction. The use or RTK provides the land surveyors with a graphical display of his/her corrected position on the ground at that moment in time. In this work, we intended to improve the efficiency of compaction management showing the route of rollers and the total number of compaction obtained from management software (GPSROLL v.1.0) developed in this study. The RTK GPS system installed on the roller. To improve the efficiency of field management, GPSROLL software provides also data processing module for the field soil test and the field surveying data. GPSROLL system is based on the Korean GUI for user-friendly data input and output.
Feasibility on Generating Topographic Map Using KOMPSAT
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 281~289
Korea is developing a Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite I (KOMPSAT-1) as one of Korea National Space Program, which will be launched in 1999. The EOC (Electro-Optical Camera) is the primary payload for KOMP-SAT-1. The main mission of EOC is to provide the images for the production of scale maps of Korean territory. This research is focused on methodology and possibility for the production of topographic maps using EOC sensor. Since the imagery from EOC is not yet available, SPOT Level 1A image data which are quite similar to those of EOC, and Intergraph Imagestation (Digital Photogrammetric Workstation) are implemented in the process of sample digital map generation. The sample digital maps generated from SPOT stereoimages were compared and analyzed with the existing 1:50,000 scale digital map produced by National Geography Institute. The feasibility and problem encountered in 1:50,000 scale digital mapping using SPOT stereoimages were presented. Based on results, the feasibility and further research areas for KOMPSAT-EOC in the line of 1:25,000 and 1;50,000 digital mapping were discussed.
The Analysis of Positional Accuracy with Input/Output Instruments in Digital Mapping of National Base Map
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 291~297
In order to accomplish the digital map production I/O devices should be used which are used for data input procedure to convert original paper map(hardcopy) data into computer compatible digital map data, and for the mapsheet output procedure of worked out data. For the input device, digitizer and scanner are most frequently used. Digitizer has possibility of direct production of digital data, and are mainly used for input procedure of partly plotted source map. In contrary, scanner is rather easy to operate the instrument, so that is widely used for the input procedure of original sheet map. In this study, to extract the input device characteristics, some kinds of digitizers and scanners were cheesed and used for the positional error analysis through the operational method and types of instruments. Also for the output device characteristics, some kinds of plotter and materials are used and compared to analyze the positional error through the instrumental types and output sheet materials.
The National Grid Systems for Digital Mapping and GIS/LIS
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 299~309
The national coordinate system is an essential component for a geographic/land information system, since it provides the spatial reference for expressing position information. The national mapping of Korea has been based on 3-different meridians on the Gauss-Schreiber projection in year 1910s, later this was changed to the Gauss-Kruger projection. Existing map coordinate systems maintaining the national land survey project on 1910s, have some structural shortcomings of unknown computational procedures and projection methods. In this paper, the problems of the map coordinates usage and of longitudes origin shift(10.405") and their solutions are investigated. Also, this study discusses the issues involved in choosing coordinate system for digital mapping and their applications as a basis for spatial data management. The foreign country's coordinate systems are reviewed and the elements to realize a new unified grid coordinate system is proposed. The Transverse Mercator projection with a central meridian of
, scale factor 0.9996, and GRS80 ellipsoid, is selected in Korean peninsula.sula.
A Development of Pipe Safety Management System by GIS
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 311~317
GIS is the system that has ability of integrating, managing, and analyzing the voluminous graphic and text data, which is adequate system to manage complex network of the underground utilities of urban area. A development of pipe safety management system is accomplished to construct efficiently a database of pipe line network and topographic data, create safety managing model, and estimate openly its safety by GIS. This system is constructed to evaluate easily pipe deterioration by the establishment of the geographic output system on it, search damaged objectives near surrounding area in a situation of destruction, and offer the information by which one can take quickly emergency. And also, it is constructed to prevent from accident occurring under work by presenting underground utilities and states of work.
A Study on the Accuracy Assessment of Digital Map
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 319~326
In this study, it was tried to experimentally judge the positional accuracy of digital maps, which are being constructed with a vast of investment and national endeavor. Using GPS and Total Station, field surveying to assess the positional accuracy of 1：5,000 digital maps was conducted. According to these results, the digital maps were compared to the real field test. And in order to check the positional accuracy standard of digital maps, theoretical positional accuracy of 1：5,000 digital maps are compared with that from field test data to propose research activities for hereafter positional accuracy standard of digital map.
A Study on Map Projection and Distortion
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 327~335
Many kinds of map projection have been used, since this cannot be done without a distortion and seemless representation of the globe. To overcome the continues representation of large digital terrain information by the global coordinate system , to find out the sources of projection error and optimizing method, and to increase the map accuracy, specific map projection researches are needed. In this study, improvements of map projections are suggested for small scale mapping which covering entire Korean peninsula based on theoretical evaluation and limits of current map projection. Furthermore, distortion factors, positional errors, and accuracy increasing method are evaluated.
A Study on Gauss Conformal Double and Gauss-Kruger's Map Projection
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 16, issue 2, 1998, Pages 337~343
In Korea, map coordinates has been confused in use since the map projection system has been complicated by using two different methods i.e., Gauss conformal double projection and Gauss-Kruger projection which are com-plicated in using through history. So, we have to understand the two projections' characteristics and differences. In this study, we would find out a fact that the maximum difference occurred in longitude and latitude is about 15cm at the Korean peninsular. This shift is accepted as proper in GIS and cartographic application but should be considered carefully in converting of the geodetic control point coordinates.