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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Cartography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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On Estimating Pit-Excavation Volume using Spline Surfaces without Boundary Conditions
Yoo, Jae-Chil ; Mun, Du-Yeoul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 5~12
It is very important to get the accurate calculation of pit-excavation volume in many civil engineering projects. There have been common drawbacks to earlier methods of ground profiling, such dealing with sharp corners or the grid points any two straight lines. There are several papers of using spline surfaces to obtain more accurate calculations of the earthwork. In this paper, we propose an algorithm of finding a spline surface without boundary conditions which interpolates the given data and an appropriate method to calculate the earthwork. We present some computational results showing that our proposed method provides good accuracy.
Accuracy Analysis of Online GPS Data Processing Service
Kong, Joon-Mook ; Park, Joon-Kyu ; Lee, Choi-Gu ; Lee, Young-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 13~20
Currently, GPS data process software appears different results that according to user's skills or software. Also, lots of time and efforts are necessary for using GPS data process software to general user, not a specialist On the other band, on-line GPS data process service have a merit that can cony out GPS data process without technical efforts and time. In this study, permanent GPS site's observation data of NGII(National Geographic Information Institute) was processed by on-line GPS data process service, and utilization assessment of on-line GPS data process service was performed by comparing this result with notified coordinates by the NGII in order to analyze positional accuracy. 10 permanent GPS sites of NGII including Suwon which is registered in IGS(International GNSS Service) were selected and these GPS observation data was processed by AUSPOS and CSRS-PPP.
Forest Fire Damage Analysis Using Satellite Images
Kang, Joon-Mook ; Zhang, Chuan ; Park, Joon-Kyu ; Kim, Min-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 21~28
Forest fire is one of the main factor disturbing the environment of forest, and it influences greatly the structure and function on forest. The process of vegetation recovery could be decided according to the extent of the damage. It is required a lot of man powers and budgets to understand born severity and process of vegetation rehabilitation at the damaged area after large-fire. However, the analysis of born severity in the forest area using satellite imagery can acquire rapidly information and more objective results remotely in the large-fire area. In this study, the space sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires. For classifying fire damaged area and analyzing severity of Cheongyang-Yesan fire in 2002, in this paper we use pre- and post-fire imagery from the Landsat TM and ETM+ to compute the evaluate large-scale patterns of burn severity, use the digital stock map to calculate the damaged condition about the forest fires damaged regions and use the NDVI to monitoring the situation of the revegetation.
Region Growing Method for Calculating Unmeasured Rate of Aerial LiDAR Data
Han, Soung-Man ; Kim, Ji-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 29~38
The airborne LiDAR which was introduced in the early 2000's provides the point data. The new methods for the verification of LiDAR materials with high accuracy which is different from the existing airborne survey are needed. In accordance with the rules of airborne laser survey which were enacted in 2009, the verifications by three methods of Unmeasured Rate and point accuracy, point density have been executed, and Unmeasured Rate is to evaluate the rate for the presence of points within uniform grids except non-reflective areas such as watershed areas. For the calculation of Unmeasured Rate, non-reflective areas should be removed by all means, and in case of normal LiDAR materials, as there are scant points for watershed areas, watershed areas should be divided by additional spatial information. So, in this study, the watershed areas were extracted using domain extension technique from the high resolution CIR images of 0.3m grade. In addition, in order to compare the accuracy of Unmeasured Rate calculated, the comparative analysis of the Unmeasured Rate calculated by digital maps has been done. In conclusion, we found that 1I1e accuracy of Unmeasured Rate extracted by domain extension technique is similar to the value extracted by digitizing technique.
A Study on MBES Error Data Removing using Motion Sensor
Kang, Moon-Kwon ; Choi, Yun-Soo ; Chang, Min-Chol ; Yoon, Ha-Su ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 39~46
Sounding data is the essential source for the safety of ships navigation system, and fundamental to the reasonable usage and maintenance of the ocean as well. As IT tech, positioning equipment such as GPS and INS, echo sounder are developed, recently, the precise submarine topography database bas been built by Multi-Beam Echo Sounder. However, MBES data includes some inevitable error caused by several factor, and some data have errors where the terrain is wobble. The error, which causes the
pattern error is the main factor hindering the accuracy of MBES data results, and therefore it is necessary to figure out the main cause of the error for the improvement of the accuracy by removing error data. On this research, the main cause of the error data is studied by analyzing motion sensor value of data including the
pattern error. Thus, as the result of examination, it turns out that the
pattern error is related to the standard deviation of Roll, and error data values are results of the non-correspondence between Swath data and Roll values caused by the drastic change of Roll values. Accordingly, the error data is removed by comparing between the gradient of Swath data and Roll values. Finally, as the result of removing error data, it is expected to be able to estimate the quality of MBES using the standard deviation of Motion sensor's Roll value, and calculate the additive error factor, which minimize non-corresponding data, and also this research must be contributed to improve the accuracy of sounding for small vessels with lots of motion in the bad circumstance for navigation.
LiDAR Data Segmentation Using Aerial Images for Building Modeling
Lee, Jin-Hyung ; Lee, Dong-Cheon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 47~56
The use of airborne LiDAR data obtained by airborne laser scanners has increased in the field of spatial information such as building modeling. LiDAR data consist of irregularly distributed 3D coordinates and lack visual and semantic information. Therefore, LiDAR data processing is complicate. This study suggested a method of LiDAR data segmentation using roof surface patches from aerial images. Each segmented patch was modeled by analyzing geometric characteristics of the LiDAR data. The optimal functions could be determined with segmented data that fits various shapes of the roof surfaces as flat and slanted planes, dome and arch types. However, satisfiable segmentation results were not obtained occasionally due to shadow and tonal variation on the images. Therefore, methods to remove unnecessary edges result in incorrect segmentation are required.
Applying DSLR Camera for Measuring the Deflection of Concrete Beam
Lee, Byoung-Kil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 57~64
Measurements of deflection in load testing of structures are typically obtained with contact instrumentations such as LVDT (Linear-Variable Differential Transformer). LVDT only measure 1-dimensional deformation and in destructive testing is damage to instrumentation, thus prohibiting deflection when the beam is close to failure. Measurements of deflection using non-metric digital cameras are useful for load testing because there are very little cost or beam failure except for cheap targets and measurements in 3-dimensional deflection can obtained rapidly. In this research, deflection of concrete beam was measured using Nikon D80 DSLR camera, and the accuracy was evaluated with comparing the outputs to the LVDT measurements. The results show that the accuracy of terrestrial photogrammetric measurements are
0.6mm for each X, Y, Z directions, and the RMSE of comparison to LVDT is
Accuracy Analysis using Assistant Sensor Integration on Various IMU during GPS Signal Blockage
Lee, Won-Jin ; Kwon, Jay-Hyoun ; Lee, Jong-Ki ; Han, Joong-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 65~72
In this study, the performances of a medium grade IMU which is aimed for Mobile Mapping System and a low grade IMU for pedestrian navigation are analyzed through simulations under GPS signal blockage. In addition, an analysis on the accuracy improvement of barometer, electronic compass, or multi-sensor(combination of barometer and electronic compass) to correct medium grade or low grade IMU errors in the situation of GPS signal blockage is performed. With the medium grade IMU, the three dimensional positioning error from INS exceeds the demanded accuracy of 5m when the block time is over 30 seconds. When we correct IMU with barometer, compass, or multi-sensor, however, the demanded accuracy is maintained up to 60 seconds. In addition, barometer is more effective than the electronic compass when they are combined. In case of low grade IMU like MEMS IMU, the three dimensional positioning error from INS exceeds the demanded accuracy of 20m when the block time is over 15 seconds. When we correct INS with barometer, compass, or multi-sensor, however, the demanded accuracy is maintained up to 15 seconds in simulation results. On the contrary to medium grade IMU, electronic compass is more effective than the barometer in case of low velocity such as pedestrian navigation. It is expected that the analysis suggested a method to decrease position or attitude error using aided sensor integration when MMS or pedestrian navigation is operated under 1he environment of GPS signal blockage.
Terrain Referenced Navigation Simulation using Area-based Matching Method and TERCOM
Lee, Bo-Mi ; Kwon, Jay-Hyoun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 73~82
TERCOM(TERrain COntour Matching), which is the one of the Terrain Referenced Navigation and used in the cruise missile navigation system, is still under development. In this study, the TERCOM based on area-based matching algorithm and extended Kalman filter is analysed through simulation. In area-based matching, the mean square difference (MSD) and cross-correlation matching algorithms are applied. The simulation supposes that the barometric altimeter, radar altimeter and SRTM DTM loaded on board. Also, it navigates along the square track for 545 seconds with the velocity of 1000km per hour. The MSD and cross-correlation matching algorithms show the standard deviation of position error of 99.6m and 34.3m, respectively. The correlation matching algorithm is appeared to be less sensitive than the MSD algorithm to the topographic undulation and the position accuracy of the both algorithms is extremely depends on the terrain. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an algorithm that is more sensitive to less terrain undulation for reliable terrain referenced navigation. Furthermore, studies on the determination of proper matching window size in long-term flight and the determination of the best terrain database resolution needed by the flight velocity and area should be conducted.
Patch-Based Processing and Occlusion Area Recovery for True Orthoimage Generation
Yoo, Eun-Jin ; Lee, Dong-Cheon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 83~92
Emergence of high-resolution digital aerial cameras and airborne laser scanners have made innovative progress in photogrammetry and spatial information technology. The purpose of this study is to generate true orthoimage by recovering occlusion areas. The orthoimages were generated patch-based transformation. The occlusion areas were mutually corrected by using multiple aerial images. This study proposed a novel method of building roof based orthoimage generation and an effective method of occlusion area detection and recovery. The proposed methods could be efficient to generate true orthoimages in urban areas where occlusion areas are problematic.
The Change of Interior Orientation Parameters in Zoom Lens Digital Cameras
Kim, Gi-Hong ; Jeong, Soo ; Kim, Baek-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 93~98
Recently, as digital photogrammetry bas been widely used in various fields including construction, it is also being applied to several industries. It is essential for interior orientation to determine accurate focal length of camera, lens distortion, location of principal point in order to apply high quality digital camera to digital photogrammetry. In this study we conducted interior orientation for zoom lens camera with regular time and zoom factors and analyzed change of radial distortion parameters and location of principal point to evaluate interior orientation stability. As a result, radial distortion parameters(
) are converged into zero by increasing zoom factors. There are correlation between the change of location of point and zoom factors. The displacement of
increase as zoom factors rise high.
The Determination of Orthometric Height based on Gravity in Korea
Lee, Yoo-Jung ; Choi, Yun-Soo ; Kwon, Jay-Hyoun ; Lee, Ji-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 99~106
A vertical datum requires an origin, which is a point on the Earth's surface where the height of the point is a defined value(26.6871m). From this origin point, heights (height differences) can be measured to any other point using standard leveling and gravity measurement procedures. However, the leveling network over the Korea bas been established by using the normal gravity instead of the actual gravity values, and the heights for the points are published by National Geographic Information Institute (NGII). This may cause height for especially in the area where high-relief mountains are dominant. Therefore, the height errors caused by using normal gravity instead of actual gravity values are analyzed in this study. Then, the differences between the orthometric heights and the published heights, i.e., normal orthometric height are analyzed.
Development of Cadastral Record Model for Introduction of 3D-Cadastre
An, Byeong-Gu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 107~116
The existing cadastral record cannot meet various and changing demands on land information, improve user convenience, and raise administrative efficiency. In addition, three-dimensional parcels, or spatial objects about three-dimensional space cannot be registered in the conventional cadastral record. The limitation of cadastral information based on two dimensions is quite stressing the necessity of three-dimensional cadastral record. The purpose of this study is to develop new limns of cadastral record model in order. In register three-dimensional positions and right relations of land and buildings. This study examined land cases where space was being three-dimensionally used. As the result, cadastral record models both separated by steps and integrated were developed, which can contain matters of land, buildings, and right registration about three-dimensional land parcels. Also, this study suggested a method where a building can be separately registered according to it's the superficies division.
3D Image Restitution of Weolmido by using Old Maps and Photos
Park, Kyeong-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 117~124
Lots of changes in Weolmido have occurred in the historical and cultural aspects owing w the geographical features. This study aims at restoring Weolmido to the past shape three-dimensionally and analyzing its changes. For achieving this goal, I made use of paper maps made in 1918, 1928, and 1969, a digital map produced in 2008, and aerial photos photographed in 1954. And I attempted to grasp the architectural shape and the topographical limn by using photos in those times and put them to practical use for restitution. Image restitution was carried out under the method of mapping and photogrammetry. As the result of restitution, I could restore each shape of Weolmido for those past times to the original condition three-dimensionally and catch its changes according to the difference of times.
Automatic Co-registration of Existing Building Models and Digital Image
Jung, Jae-Wook ; Sohn, Gun-Ho ; Armenakis, Costas ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 125~132
With recent advancement of remote sensing technology, a variety of data acquisition over the same area is achievable. An automated co-registration of heterogeneous airborne images is a critical step for change detection. This paper describes an automatic method for co-registration between digital image and existing building model. Optimal building models for co-registration purpose are extracted as primitives from existing building model database. A set of homologous features between straight lines extracted from aerial digital image and model primitive are computed based on geometric similarity function. With obtained homologous features, EO parameter is recomputed using least square method. The result shows that die suggested method automatically co-register two data set in a reliable manner.
A Topographical Classifier Development Support System Cooperating with Data Mining Tool WEKA from Airborne LiDAR Data
Lee, Sung-Gyu ; Lee, Ho-Jun ; Sung, Chul-Woong ; Park, Chang-Hoo ; Cho, Woo-Sug ; Kim, Yoo-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 133~142
To monitor composition and change of the national land, intelligent topographical classifier which enables accurate classification of land-cover types from airborne LiDAR data is highly required. We developed a topographical classifier development support system cooperating with da1a mining tool WEKA to help users to construct accurate topographical classification systems. The topographical classifier development support system has the following functions; superposing LiDAR data upon corresponding aerial images, dividing LiDAR data into tiles for efficient processing, 3D visualization of partial LiDAR data, feature from tiles, automatic WEKA input generation, and automatic C++ program generation from the classification rule set. In addition, with dam mining tool WEKA, we can choose highly distinguishable features by attribute selection function and choose the best classification model as the result topographical classifier. Therefore, users can easily develop intelligent topographical classifier which is well fitted to the developing objectives by using the topographical classifier development support system.
An Evaluation of Accuracy of Overlays Using Cadastral Maps and Google Earth Images
Kim, Suk-Jong ; Kim, Jun-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 143~152
These days, we can't confirm cadastre information about stereoscopic digital map that was consist of 2 dimensions and more difficult to understand of detailed parcel boundary, area, land using for 3 dimensions. An each local government providing three-dimensional that are connected to an aerial photograph with cadastre maps. Satisfaction is high for citizens but, this service additional cost for purchase of an aerial photograph order to provide of it. So far, in various ways are under study about three dimensions using Google Earth which is possible to provides 3 dimensional information by real time for individual parcel situation. The purpose of this study was analyzed an accuracy of overlapping between cadstre maps and an image on Google Earth Web in the each different coordinates system. Also, this paper could be provided for use possibility of 3 dimensions information service with an indicator of using or a guideline of direction for local government which provide 3 dimensions information oneday.
Analysis of the GPS-derived Control Point Errors for Quality Assurance of 3D Digital Maps
Bae, Tae-Suk ; Lee, Dong-Cheon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 153~160
It is necessary to determine accurate 3-dimensional coordinates of the building corner points that could be control or check points in order to verify the accuracy of 3D digital maps in the near future. The usual process of obtaining the coordinates of the building corner points is to set up the ground control points with a GPS and then to practice terrestrial survey such as distance or angle measurements. However, since an error in the ground control points can be propagated through the terrestrial survey into the final coordinates of the buildings, accurately should be considered as much as possible. The actual effect of the GPS-derived ground control point error on the estimates of the unknowns through the terrestrial survey is mathematically analyzed, and the simulation data is tested numerically. The error of the ground control points is tested in the cases of 1-4 cm for the horizontal components and 2-8 cm for the vertical component. The vertical component error is assigned twice the horizontal ones because of the characteristics of the GPS survey. The distance measurement is assumed for convenience and the precision of the estimated coordinates of the building corner points is almost linearly increased according to the errors of the ground control points. In addition, the final estimates themselves can vary by the simulated random errors depending on the precision of the survey instrument, but the precision of the estimates is almost independent of survey accuracy.
Acquisition of 3D Spatial Information using UAV Photogrammetric Method
Jung, Sung-Heuk ; Lim, Hyeong-Min ; Lee, Jae-Kee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 161~168
This study aims to propose a method that shall rapidly acquire 3D information of the fast and frequently changing city areas by using the images taken by the UAV photogrammetric method, and to develop the process of the acquired data. For this study's proposed UAV photogrammetric method, low-cost UAV and non-metric digital camera were used. The elements of interior orientation were acquired through camera calibration. The artificial 3D model of the artificial structures was constructed using the image data photographed at the target area and the results of the ground control point survey. The digital surface model was created for areas that were changed due to a number of civil works. This study also analyzes the proposed method's application possibility by comparing a 1/1,000 scale digital map and the results of the ground control point survey. Through the above studies, the possibilities of constructing a 3D virtual city model renewal of 3D GIS database, abstraction of changed information in geographic features and on-demand updating of the digital map were suggested.
Accuracy Evaluation of ASTER DEM, SRTM DEM using Digital Topographic Map
Kang, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Jae ; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo ; Lee, Won-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 169~178
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and the accuracy of ASTER DEM and SRTM DEM covering 99% of the earth surface using large-scale Digital Topographic Map in mountainous area(Sokcho), mixed area(Jinan, mountainous area and even land area) and even land area(Anyang). We made DEM using contour lines of 1:5,000 Digital Topographic Map of study area and also acquired ASTER DEM and SRTM DEM of their corresponding area. In order to verify accuracy of DEM, this study compared ASTER DEM and SRTM DEM data using 15m resolution DEM generated from contour lines of Digital Topographic Map as basis for each study area. To evaluate the accuracy of ASTER and SRTM DEM data, statistical such as RMSE and correlation were calculated and histogram and scatter plot were drawn. The analysis result shows that, both ASTER DEM and SRTM DEM have high accuracy but in aspects of future availability, ASTER DEM covering larger areas bas relatively more potential than SRTM data.
A Study on Determining Control Points and Surveying Feature Points for Geo-Referencing of Terrestrial LiDAR Data in Urban Areas
Park, Hyo-Keun ; Han, Soo-Hee ; Cho, Hyung-Sig ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo ; Heo, Joon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 28, issue 1, 2010, Pages 179~186
In this research, an effective method for absolute positioning of feature points is proposed, which is applicable to geo-referencing of terrestrial LiDAR data scanned in dense urban areas. GPS positioning, common in absolute positioning, is apt to fail in the presence of signal disturbancein dense urban circumstances, while traditional surveying methods, including traversing and leveling, are generally more costly for wider areas. The idea is that reference points, marked on top of buildings, are surveyed by GPS positioning and then feature points are relatively positioned from the reference points. The present method, if laser scanning is accompanied, gets two advantages; one is that less feature points need to be surveyed because they can be substituredby reference points, and the other is that laser scanning can be more stably carried out. The present method was shown, from the experiments, to be cost-effective against traditional ones.