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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Cartography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 32, Issue spc4_2 - Aug 2014
Volume 32, Issue 4_1 - Aug 2014
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Use of Terrestrial Hyperspectral Sensors for Analyzing Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Concrete
Lee, Jin Duk ; Lee, Sung Soon ; Sim, Jung Bo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 185~190
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.185
The purpose of this research is to extract spectral reflectance characteristics of concretes through basic experiment on concrete specimens and site experiment on actual concrete structures using a field portable spectrometer and a VNIR hyperspectral sensor. A spectrometer (GER-3700) and a VNIR hyperspectral camera (AisaEagle VNIR Hyperspectral Camera) were utilized for extracting spectral characteristics of concrete specimens. Concretes normally show similar patterns that have correlation above 80%, while the high-strengthened concretes display very different results from the normal-strength concretes. We also made a certain conclusion in the laboratory experiment on concrete specimens that both the spectrometer and the VNIR camera vary in spectral reflectance depending on concrete strengths.
Multi-camera System Calibration with Built-in Relative Orientation Constraints (Part 1) Theoretical Principle
Lari, Zahra ; Habib, Ayman ; Mazaheri, Mehdi ; Al-Durgham, Kaleel ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 191~204
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.191
In recent years, multi-camera systems have been recognized as an affordable alternative for the collection of 3D spatial data from physical surfaces. The collected data can be applied for different mapping(e.g., mobile mapping and mapping inaccessible locations)or metrology applications (e.g., industrial, biomedical, and architectural). In order to fully exploit the potential accuracy of these systems and ensure successful manipulation of the involved cameras, a careful system calibration should be performed prior to the data collection procedure. The calibration of a multi-camera system is accomplished when the individual cameras are calibrated and the geometric relationships among the different system components are defined. In this paper, a new single-step approach is introduced for the calibration of a multi-camera system (i.e., individual camera calibration and estimation of the lever-arm and boresight angles among the system components). In this approach, one of the cameras is set as the reference camera and the system mounting parameters are defined relative to that reference camera. The proposed approach is easy to implement and computationally efficient. The major advantage of this method, when compared to available multi-camera system calibration approaches, is the flexibility of being applied for either directly or indirectly geo-referenced multi-camera systems. The feasibility of the proposed approach is verified through experimental results using real data collected by a newly-developed indirectly geo-referenced multi-camera system.
Multi-camera System Calibration with Built-in Relative Orientation Constraints (Part 2) Automation, Implementation, and Experimental Results
Lari, Zahra ; Habib, Ayman ; Mazaheri, Mehdi ; Al-Durgham, Kaleel ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 205~216
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.205
Multi-camera systems have been widely used as cost-effective tools for the collection of geospatial data for various applications. In order to fully achieve the potential accuracy of these systems for object space reconstruction, careful system calibration should be carried out prior to data collection. Since the structural integrity of the involved cameras' components and system mounting parameters cannot be guaranteed over time, multi-camera system should be frequently calibrated to confirm the stability of the estimated parameters. Therefore, automated techniques are needed to facilitate and speed up the system calibration procedure. The automation of the multi-camera system calibration approach, which was proposed in the first part of this paper, is contingent on the automated detection, localization, and identification of the object space signalized targets in the images. In this paper, the automation of the proposed camera calibration procedure through automatic target extraction and labelling approaches will be presented. The introduced automated system calibration procedure is then implemented for a newly-developed multi-camera system while considering the optimum configuration for the data collection. Experimental results from the implemented system calibration procedure are finally presented to verify the feasibility the proposed automated procedure. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the estimated system calibration parameters from two-calibration sessions is also presented to confirm the stability of the cameras' interior orientation and system mounting parameters.
Generation of Simulated Geospatial Images from Global Elevation Model and SPOT Ortho-Image
Park, Wan Yong ; Eo, Yang Dam ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 217~223
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.217
With precise sensor position, attitude element, and imaging resolution, a simulated geospatial image can be generated. In this study, a satellite image is simulated using SPOT ortho-image and global elevation data, and the geometric similarity between original and simulated images is analyzed. Using a SPOT panchromatic image and high-density elevation data from a 1/5K digital topographic map data an ortho-image with 10-meter resolution was produced. The simulated image was then generated by exterior orientation parameters and global elevation data (SRTM1, GDEM2). Experimental results showed that (1) the agreement of the image simulation between pixel location from the SRTM1/GDEM2 and high-resolution elevation data is above 99% within one pixel; (2) SRTM1 is closer than GDEM2 to high-resolution elevation data; (3) the location of error occurrence is caused by the elevation difference of topographical objects between high-density elevation data generated from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and Digital Surface Model (DSM)-based global elevation data. Error occurrences were typically found at river boundaries, in urban areas, and in forests. In conclusion, this study showed that global elevation data are of practical use in generating simulated images with 10-meter resolution.
Selection of Spatial Regression Model Using Point Pattern Analysis
Shin, Hyun Su ; Lee, Sang-Kyeong ; Lee, Byoungkil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 225~231
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.225
When a spatial regression model that uses kernel density values as a dependent variable is applied to retail business data, a unique model cannot be selected because kernel density values change following kernel bandwidths. To overcome this problem, this paper suggests how to use the point pattern analysis, especially the L-index to select a unique spatial regression model. In this study, kernel density values of retail business are computed by the bandwidth, the distance of the maximum L-index and used as the dependent variable of spatial regression model. To test this procedure, we apply it to meeting room business data in Seoul, Korea. As a result, a spatial error model (SEM) is selected between two popular spatial regression models, a spatial lag model and a spatial error model. Also, a unique SEM based on the real distribution of retail business is selected. We confirm that there is a trade-off between the goodness of fit of the SEM and the real distribution of meeting room business over the bandwidth of maximum L-index.
Investigating the Impact of Random and Systematic Errors on GPS Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution
Han, Joong-Hee ; Liu, Zhizhao ; Kwon, Jay Hyoun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 233~244
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.233
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is an increasingly recognized precisely the GPS/GNSS positioning technique. In order to improve the accuracy of PPP, the error sources in PPP measurements should be reduced as much as possible and the ambiguities should be correctly resolved. The correct ambiguity resolution requires a careful control of residual errors that are normally categorized into random and systematic errors. To understand effects from two categorized errors on the PPP ambiguity resolution, those two GPS datasets are simulated by generating in locations in South Korea (denoted as SUWN) and Hong Kong (PolyU). Both simulation cases are studied for each dataset; the first case is that all the satellites are affected by systematic and random errors, and the second case is that only a few satellites are affected. In the first case with random errors only, when the magnitude of random errors is increased, L1 ambiguities have a much higher chance to be incorrectly fixed. However, the size of ambiguity error is not exactly proportional to the magnitude of random error. Satellite geometry has more impacts on the L1 ambiguity resolution than the magnitude of random errors. In the first case when all the satellites have both random and systematic errors, the accuracy of fixed ambiguities is considerably affected by the systematic error. A pseudorange systematic error of 5 cm is the much more detrimental to ambiguity resolutions than carrier phase systematic error of 2 mm. In the
case when only a portion of satellites have systematic and random errors, the L1 ambiguity resolution in PPP can be still corrected. The number of allowable satellites varies from stations to stations, depending on the geometry of satellites. Through extensive simulation tests under different schemes, this paper sheds light on how the PPP ambiguity resolution (more precisely L1 ambiguity resolution) is affected by the characteristics of the residual errors in PPP observations. The numerical examples recall the PPP data analysts that how accurate the error correction models must achieve in order to get all the ambiguities resolved correctly.
Application of the L-index to the Delineation of Market Areas of Retail Businesses
Lee, Sang-Kyeong ; Lee, Byoungkil ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 245~251
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.245
As delineating market areas of retail businesses has become an interesting topic in marketing field, Lee and Lee recently suggested a noteworthy method, which applied the hydrological analysis of geographical information system (GIS), based on Christaller's central place theory. They used a digital elevation model (DEM) which inverted the kernel density of retail businesses, which was measured by using bandwidths of pre-determined 500, 1000 and 5000 m, respectively. In fact, their method is not a fully data-based approach in that they used pre-determined kernel bandwidths, however, this paper has been planned to improve Lee and Lee's method by using a kind of data-based approach of the L-index that describes clustering level of point feature distribution. The case study is implemented to automobile-related retail businesses in Seoul, Korea with selected Kernel bandwidths, 1211.5, 2120.2 and 7067.2 m from L-index analysis. Subsequently, the kernel density is measured, the density DEM is created by inverting it, and boundaries of market areas are extracted. Following the study, analysis results are summarized as follows. Firstly, the L-index can be a useful tool to complement the Lee and Lee's market area analysis method. At next, the kernel bandwidths, pre-determined by Lee and Lee, cannot be uniformly applied to all kinds of retail businesses. Lastly, the L-index method can be useful for analyzing the space structure of market areas of retail businesses, based on Christaller's central place theory.
Development of Positioning System Based on Auto VRS-GPS Surveying
Choi, Hyun ; Kim, Young-Jong ; Park, Woo-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.253
There has been a need for replacing human labors with a robot in such dangerous and hard jobs of various construction sites. For that reason, many researches have been made about the high quality robot, which performs its duty instead of human labors. This study is about auto surveying system development based on VRS-GPS which enables autodriving in dangerous areas where it's difficult for humans to measure directly. This study is about the auto-surveying system development, based on VRS-GPS, which enables auto-drive in dangerous areas, whereas difficult for humans to measure directly. The GPS is made with GRXI and SHC250 controllers of the SOKKIA company. The auto surveying system is composed of DPS module, geomagnetism sensor, bluetooth, gimbals, IMU, etc to automatic drive via enter into a route of position. The developed auto surveying system has installed the carmeras for front and vertical axis as well as systems to grasp situation of surveying with smartphone in real time. The result from analysed RMSE of auto surveying system and VRS-GPS surveying is 0.0169m of X-axis and 0.0246m of Y-axis.
GIS Based Analysis of Landslide Effecting Factors in the Pyeongchang Area
Kim, Gihong ; Won, Sangyeon ; Kim, Dongmin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 261~269
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.261
Most areas in Gangwon-do are mountainous regions where causes heavy damages due to landslides. It is important to analyze basic factors influencing the cause of landslides in order to prevent such landslides. For this study, a landslide occurring site is extracted from aerial images taken after the landslide caused by typhoon 'Ewiniar' in Pyeongchang area 2006. Also, the overlay analysis with the topographic, forest, and soil maps in this area is performed using GIS based methods. In addition, the topographic, forest, and soil characteristics relating to the landslide factors are analyzed. As a result, large numbers of landslides occurred at a slope angle of
. In the case of the forest factors, there are close relationships between the artificial pine and larch forests and the frequency of landslides. The low forest density represents a weakness in landslides. In the case of the soil factors, a higher level in the surface soil with a type of sandy loam soil, a higher gravel content in subsoil, and a higher degree of acid rocks in soil parent materials cause higher frequencies in landslides.
Performance Analysis of a Gravity Gradient Referenced Navigation System
Lee, Jisun ; Kwon, Jay Hyoun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography, volume 32, issue 3, 2014, Pages 271~279
DOI : 10.7848/ksgpc.2014.32.3.271
As an alternative way to overcome the weakness of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in hostile situation, a gravity gradient referenced navigation (GGRN) has been developed. This paper analyzed the performance of GGRN with respect to the initial errors, DB resolution as well as update rates. On the basis of simulations, it was found that the performance of GGRN is getting worse when initial errors exist but the navigation results are rapidly converged. Also, GGRN generates better results when DB resolution is higher and update rates are shorter than 20 seconds. However, it is difficult to deduce the optimal parameters for the navigation because some trajectories show better performance in case low-resolution DB is applied or long update rate is supposed. Therefore, further analysis to derive specific update conditions to improve the performance has been performed. Those update conditions would not be generalized for all cases although maximum improvement rate is over 200% in certain case. In the future, some more developments and tests on the combination of various geophysical data and/or algorithms are necessary to construct more stable and reliable navigation system.