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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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The Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 1996
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 1996
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 1996
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 1996
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 1996
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 1996
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 1996
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 1996
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 1996
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 1996
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 1996
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 1996
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An algorithm for the restoration of images based on chain codes description using y-axis partition of the starting and ending points
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3025~3032
A fast algorithm for the restoration of an images based on chain codes description using y-axis partition of the starting and ending ponts. The algorithm is to convert the chain codes description into the two y-axis partitions by proposed look-up table. It reduces the size of column elements as a half in y-axis partition. this technique is computationally faster than Shih's methods. comparision of the proposed method and Shih method is also provided.
Object-oriented coder using pyramid structure and local residual compensation
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3033~3045
In this paper, we propse an object-oriented coding method in low bit-rate channels using pyramid structure and residual image compensation. In the motion estimation step, global motion is estimated using a set of multiresolution images constructed in a pyramid structure. We split an input image into two regions based on the gradient value. Regions with larte motions obtain observation points at low resolution level to guarantee robustness to noise and to satisfy a motion constraint equation whereas regions with local motions such as eye, and lips get observation points at the original resolution level. Local motion variations and intesity variations of an image reconstructed by the golbal motion are compensated additionally by using the previous residual image component. Finally, the model failure (MF) region is compensated by the pyramid mapping of the previous displaced frame difference (DFD). Computer simulation results show that the proposed method gives better performance that the convnetional one in terms of the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), compression ratio (CR), and computational complexity.
The design of gray-scale morphological operators using binarization technique
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3046~3055
In this paper we propose fast real-time hardwares for morphological operators using the method of decomposing gray-scale values into binary. the designed hardware is generalized not to be affected by the maximum values of structuring elements. We also propose a method of designing parallel hardware using the unit morphological hardware to deal with situations of using various sizes of structuring elements. The VHDL simulation results of the unit morphological hardwares are identical to those of theorectical operators.
A study on RDM algorithm for document image and application to digital signature
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3056~3068
This papre presents the RDM algorithm for composition of bit. After this, we propose a digital signature scheme for facsimile document using RDM algorithm. We modify the even-odd feature in distance of changing pel between coding line and multiple reference line which have been scanned before, and run-length in coding line. The time to take in signature is reduced by spreading of signature. Non-repudiation in origin, the 3rd condition of digital signature is realized by proposed digital signature scheme. The transmitter embeds the signature secretly and tensfers it, and the receiver makes a check of any forgery on the signature and the document. This scheme is compatible with the ITU-T.4(G3 or G4 facsimile standard). The total amount of data transmitted and the quality of image are about the same to that of the original document, thus a third party does not notics signature embeded on the document.
Exact analysis for overload of a charge-pump phase-locked loop
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3069~3085
This paper shows an accurate charge-pump PLL model which considers the wave-form distortion in high speed operation of charge-pump PLL, the leakage current in loop filter, and a physical limit in charge-pump. With proposed model of charge-pump PLL, overload and stability are derived theoretically and the results are compared to the conventional model. Unlike the ideal charge-pump PLL that simplifies calculations, it is possible to analyze the transient-state and the steady-state at the same time with proposed accurate model. Thus, charge-pump over load, in the transient-state and the stead-state of charge-pump, is accuragely analyzed and the results are confirmed with simulation.
The network performance management model using path-reconfiguration and bandwidth-control
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3086~3097
Generally, the performance of the computer network may differ according to various parameters like routing, bandwidth and timers. Since the network system requirements may widely very according to specific application, computer network must be tailored at tailored at the design starge by selection of appropriate protocols and assignment of degfault parameter. However, since the condition under which a network actually operates may change from that considered at the design stage, control and managment action are required to adjust the network parameter so that the perforance of network is satisfied.
Overload control of SCP in intelligne netowrk with fairness and priority
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3098~3108
This paper proposed two mechanisms of fixed method and new arrival method. They are all interactive meachanisms in that a SCP and the SSPs exchange load information for overload control. These mechanisms using simple algorithm based on the standard ACG, apply differenct call gapping time on each SSP under the fairness scheme when they allocates SCP capacity to competing demends. Also in the mechanisms, priority scheme is implemented. Two mechanisms show the almost same results on the call throughput. Fairness about the probability of rejection is maintained same value on all SSPs. On Priority scheme, new arrival method has better achievement than fixed method.
An analysis scheme for protocols specified in SDL using reachability graph
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3109~3120
SDL has been standardized to specify behavioral aspects of communication systems based on the formal description technique, and it is powerful and user friendly in the sense of supporting human communication and understanding, formal analysis andcomparison of behaviors, alternative implementations and design optimization, and its structural decomposition. However, SDL is not sufficient for an efficient handing of entrire system descriptions because the communication systems are generally very complex, and composed from the various interactions among sub-systems. Also, it is very difficult to explicitly verify dynamic views such as liveness and reachability. it leads the demands on analysis scheme to verify dynamic behaviros of specified systems. This paper presents modeling concepts of Petri Nets from SDL and transformation rules to Numerical Petri Nets to provide efficient technqiques for verification of dynamic behaviors, and proposes the reachability garaph that is able to trace all reachable states of a modeled system and reduce an information loss on the reachability tree.
Implementation and performance evaluation of the S-interface card for an ISDN PABX
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3121~3131
In this papre we implemented the ISDN S-interface Card for a PABX that makes it possible to accommodate ISDN terminals. In order to implement this ISDN cand we first designed entire structure and functions of its hardware and software. And then based on this we implemented server and entity, inter-entity communication, ISDN protocols, and call processing interface for realizing ISDN interface functions. Finally we evaluated the performance of the implemented ISDN card by measuring the response time of call setup and release.
Analysis of Dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for ATM/LAN interworking unit
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3132~3143
In the evaluation of Broadband-ISDN, the main issue is to interconnect existing LANs and MANs to B-ISDN based on Asynchrous Transfer Mode. However, LANs provide connectionless services, whereas the ATM network provides connection-oriented services. So some problem arises from accessing ATM switchs to transparently transmit connectionless data via B-ISDN. Two methods then were recommended by ITU-TS to support the connectionaless services. In the paper, we do the numerical analysis, using the stochastic fluid flow method, of dynamic bandwidth allocation sheme with two class traffics in the virtual path established between Interworking Units(JWUS) interconnecting LANs to an ATM network and Connectionless Servers(CLSs). The loss mechanism of each traffic is controlled by the contents of buffer. The vandwidth which the IWU requests the CLS is estimated by the number of On-Off sources in the On state. We use the stochsastic fluide flow method which is to find the steady-state joint probability in each level of the IWU buffer. The length of the IWU buffer as the real random variable is changed by traffics entering the IWU.
Local call processing delay of the control network in ATM switching system
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3144~3153
ATM switching system is made up of transport network and control newrk according to its functions. The control device, basic part of control network must be developed before developing any other functions, and control device must be stable and need high reliability. Out distributed ATM switching system consists of several ALSs that provides variable local call services, and an ACS that interconnect among several ALSs. Eech ALS has CCCP that takes charage of call and connection control functions, and ACS has an OMP that takes charge of OA&M(Operation, Administration and Maintenance) functios. In this paper, we analyzed the performance evaluation of control device that manipulate subscriber's call based on ITU-T Q.2931 standard protocol messages and Interprocessor communication messages. As a result of simulation when the number of ALS is under 22, as the call arrival rate increase the processor utilization of CCCP increase rapidly than that of OMP. When the number of ALS is incremented to 22, the processor utilization of CCCP is balanced with the of OMP, and when the number of ALS exceeds 22, the processor utiliztion of OMP increase rapidly. Also if messary processing time of OMP is 1.35 times that of CCCP, processor utilizations of CCCP and OMP is equal.
Optimal design of mobile cellular communication systems by channel power control
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3154~3164
A major concern in a cellular mobile communication system is how to efficiently utilize the limited amount of frequencies. Various channel assignment methods and traffic sharing schemes have been proposed to improve system performance. However, these approaches suffer from complicated software and hardware requirements due to increased amount of traffic control In this paper, we propose a new method for improving system performance by controlling the powers of the set-up and voice channels of each cell site. We first show that the average number of blocked calls in a system is minimized when the traffic reates are made identical for all cell sites in a system. This result, together with the relationship between the channel powers and the service area, is used to determine the appropriate channel powers of each cell site. We also determine the upper limit on the channel power of each cell site considering co-channel interference and numerically show that the proposed method is effective in reducing the number of blocked calls without an excessive increase in the amount of system control.
Dynamic simultiaon of infrared reticle seekers and an efficient counter-countermeasure algorithm
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3165~3173
The existing modeling of infrared reticle seekers is perfored in a static sitic situation. Inthis paper, we develop the dynamic simulator of the reticle seekers and propose an efficient signal processing algorithm in multiple targets, especially flares. the developed simuator is essential to analyze the performance of the infrared reticle seekers in various conditions and study effective signal procesing techniques. Simulations show that the proposed counter-countermeasure algorithm is simple and efficient.
Design and analysis of OFDM receiver employing LMLE algorithm
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3174~3182
In this paper, a new receiver is proposed for the detection of the OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) signals in the time-selective multipath fading channel. For the optimal detection, we estimate the transmitted symbols from OFDM demultiplexing signal using the LMLE(linear masimum likelihold estimation) algorithm. Also, in this paper, the lowerbound for BER(bit error rate) using Taylor series approximation is provided. If the matched filter is used for the OFDM receiver in the time-selectivemultipath fading channel, it is known that the SER(symbol error rate) is always greater than
, due to the cross-talk between adjacent channels. But, the proposed receiver provides of SER with 15dB SNR. Also, it is found that for the receiver implemented using the LMLE algorithm, the performance is shown to be not affected by the increase of th enumber of subchannel and channel path.
Preformance evaluation for optimal power assignment and frequency plan of carrier groups
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3183~3195
As a method for effective utilization of the limited power and frequency resources in satellite communications, this paper develops software which can assigns the optimal power of input carrier groups inthe multi-level SCPC systems and performs evaluation to a various satellite link environment. Using the developed software, the paper presents performance according to the frequency plan of carrier groups and suggest a frequency play method for performance improvement of satellite link. A various interference and noise caused by satellite link are analyzed for reliable performance evaluation. The performance criteria for evaluation is classified into 2 categories according to the CNR of destination receiver earth station.
The effectof the multiple nakagami faded AMPS interferers on the capacity of the imperfect power controlled DS/CDMA system
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3196~3204
We analyze the capacity of the imperfect power controlled DS/CDMA system with the Nakagami faded AMPS interferers by means of the analytical approach. Unlike the theoretical aassumption, the power control of the DS/CDMA system is not perfect. Therefore in this analysis we consider various parameters which cause the capacityreduction of the DS/CDMA system, the imperfect power control, the Nakagami fading index, he processing gain, and the number of AMPS interferers. The analytical results are compared with the Prasad's results which are considered only the imperfect power control of the DS/CDMA system. It is shown that the DS/CDMA capacity is decreased according to the increase of the deviation of the imperfect power control, to icrease the number pf the analog interfering users, and to decrease the processing gain.
A design of the microstrip phased array antenna with the slot-coupled structure for the base station of mobile communication
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3205~3214
In this paper, the microstrip phased array antennas with coupling-slots for the base station of mobile communication is proposed and anlyzed with accurate analysis method which is based on both reciprocity principle and full-wave analysis. The basis functions used for the numerical analysis are determined depending upon the accuracy, convergence properties of the solution, and the computation time. The patch uses 3 EB mode and the slot uses IPWS mode. The designed phased array antenna has 8 slot-coupled microstrip patch array elements and the beam scanning capability is obtained by using the 4-bit PIN-diode phase shifters as switching devices which are consisted of the loaded line phase shifters for 30.deg. and 60.deg. and the reflection type phase shifters for 90.deg. and 180.deg. repectively. The 4-bits phase shifters which aremade by connecting each phase shifter have about 2.deg.-3.deg. phase errors and their insertion loss are about 3dB for each phase state. The fabricated 8-element phased array antenna with 4-bits phase shifters provides 12.deg.-14.deg. beamwidths depending on the scanning angle and is capable of scanning its beam to .+-.45.deg. with 9.deg. intervals, and the gain 12dBi. The overall results show that the slot-coupled phased array antenna has great advantages of wideband, high gain and reduced spurious radiation. Also, the antenna can be made small and thin. Furthermore, the scanning property of this antenna allows for its application in several areas, such as mobile communication system and PCS.
A study on the design of a K-band harmonic oscillator using voltage controlled dielectric resonance
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3215~3226
In this paper a K-band harmonic oscillator competitive to ordinary Push-Push type oscillators is introduced. This oscillator is composed of two-X-band dielectric resonance circuits. To favor its harmonic generation, the load effect and the bias effect are studied to allow the maximum harmonic distortion. As results, the dielectric resonated load and the class A bias are used for the 2nd harmonic generation. analytical study for modelling of voltage controlled dielectric resonator is carried out with theoretical background. The performance of the circuit is evaluated by simulation using harmonic balanced method. The novel structure has ont only a voltage tuning circuit but also an output port at fundamental frequency as the function of prescaler for phase lockede loop application on the just single oscillation structure. In experimentation, the output freqneyc of the 2nd harmonic signal is 20.5GHz and the maximum power level of output is +5.5dBm without additional post amplifiers. the harmonic oscillator exhibits -30dBc of high fundamental frequency rejection without added extra filters. The phase noise of -90dBc/Hz at 100kHz off-carrier has been achieved under free running condition, that satisfies phase noise requirement of IESS 308. The proposed oscillator may be utilized as the clean and stable fixed local oscillator in Transmit Block Upconvertor(TBU) or Low oise Block downconvertor(LNB) for K/Ka-band digital communications and satellite broadcastings.
A new absorbing boundary condition for the FDTD simulation of waveguides
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3227~3234
This paper proposes a new absorbing boundary condition(ABC) for the FDTD simulation of waveguide problems. It is based on the exact analytic expression for the time domain EM wave propatation in the waveguide. The ABC derived from the expression has a convolution form whose kernel (the discrete Green's function) has a simple, closed form formula. Also, it is applicable to the wide variety of waveguide types with conducting boundaries and complex cross-sectional shapes.
A practial design of direct digital frequency synthesizer with multi-ROM configuration
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3235~3245
A DDFS(Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer) used in spread spectrum communication systems must need fast switching speed, high resolution(the step size of the synthesizer), small size and low power. The chip has been designed with four parallel sine look-up table to achieve four times throughput of a single DDFS. To achieve a high processing speed DDFS chip, a 24-bit pipelined CMOS technique has been applied to the phase accumulator design. To reduce the size of the ROM, each sine ROM of the DDFS is stored 0-.pi./2 sine wave data by taking advantage of the fact that only one quadrant of the sine needs to be stored, since the sine the sine has symmetric property. And the 8 bit of phase accumulator's output are used as ROM addresses, and the 2 MSBs control the quadrants to synthesis the sine wave. To compensate the spectrum purity ty phase truncation, the DDFS use a noise shaper that structure like a phase accumlator. The system input clock is divided clock, 1/2*clock, and 1/4*clock. and the system use a low frequency(1/4*clock) except MUX block, so reduce the power consumption. A 107MHz DDFS(Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer) implemented using 0.8.mu.m CMOS gate array technologies is presented. The synthesizer covers a bandwidth from DC to 26.5MHz in steps of 1.48Hz with a switching speed of 0.5.mu.s and a turing latency of 55 clock cycles. The DDFS synthesizes 10 bit sine waveforms with a spectral purity of -65dBc. Power consumption is 276.5mW at 40MHz and 5V.
Design of a high-precision MOSFET threshold voltage extractor
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3246~3255
A threshold voltage extraction scheme which does not need matched replica of the MOSFET under test is proposed. In contrast to alternative methods, the accuracy of the proposed scheme does not depend on the matching of the test transistors. The proposed scheme has been implemented in a matching-free way using a switched-capacitor subtracting ampliier and a dynmic current mirror. Nonideal effects associated with these circuits, such as non-zero offset voltages and finite gains of op-amps, capcitor mismateches, and charge injection of MOS switches, are investigated and compensated. The circuit has been designed using ISRC 1.5.mu.m CMOS process parameters andfabricated at Inter-University semiconductor Research Center, and its performance has been evaluated.
An efficient VLSI architecture for high speed matrix transpositio
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3256~3264
This paper presents an efficient VLSI architecture for transposing matris in high speed. In the case of transposing N*N matrix, N
numbers of transposition cells are configured as regular and spuare shaped structure, and pipeline structure for operating each transposition cell in paralle. Transposition cell consists of register and input data selector. The characteristic of this architecture is that the data to be transposed are divided into several bundles of bits, then processed serially. Using the serial transposition of divided input data, hardware complexity of transpositioncell can be reduced, and routing between adjacent transposition cells can be simple. the proposed architecture is designed and implemented with 0.5 .mu.m VLSI library. As a result, it shows stable operation in 200 MHz and less hardware complexity than conventional architectures.
An implementation of the mixed type character recognition system using combNET
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3265~3276
The studies of document recongnition have been focused mainly on Korean documents. But most of documents composed of Korean and other characters. So, in this paper, we propose the document recognition system that can recognize the multi-size, multi font and mixed type characters. We have utilized a large scale network model, "CombNET" which consists of a 4 layered network with combstructure. And we propose recognition method that can recognize characters without discrimination of character type. The first layer constitutes a Kohonen's SOFM network which quantizes an input feature vector space into several sub-spaces and the following 2-4 layers constitutes BP network modules which classify input data in each sub-space into specified catagories. An experimental result demonstrated the usefulness of this approach with the recognition rates of 95.6% for the training data. For the mixed type character documents we obtained the recognition rates of 92.6% and recognition speed of 10.3 characters per second.
A study on the fabrication of Y-branch for optical power distribution and its coupling properties with optical fiber
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3277~3285
In this paper, w designed an opical power distribution device for application to an optical switching and an optical subscriber loop. We fabricated PSG thin film by LPCVD. Based on the measured index of fabricted thin film, rib-type waveguide was transformed to two-dimension by the effective index method and we simulated dispersion property to find asingle-mode condition. We found that the optimum design parameters of rib-type waveguide are:cladding layer of 3.mu.m, core layer of 3.mu.m, buffer layer of 10.mu.m, and core width of 4.mu.m. Each side of the guiding region was etched down to 4.mu.m to shape the core. We used these optimum parameters of the rib-type waveguide with branching angle of 0.5.deg. and simulted the Y-branch waveguide by the BPM simulation. Numerical loss in branching area was claculated to be 0.1581dB and equal to the total loss of the Y-branch. The loss of the fabricated Y-branch waveguide on PSG film ws 1.6dB at .lambda.=1.3.mu.m before annealing but was 1.2dB after annealing at 1000.deg. C for 10 minutes. Consequently, the loss of branching area from 3000.mu.m to 6000.mu.m in the z-direction was 0.8dB, and single-mode propagation was confirmed by measuring the near field pattern. For coupling the fabricated Y-branch waveguide with an optical fiber, we fabricated V-groove which was used as the upholder of optical fiber. An etching angle was 54.deg. and the width and depth of guiding groove was 150.mu.m, 70.mu.m, respectively. The optical fiber is inserted onto V-groove. Both the Y-branch and V-groove were connected through the index matching oil. Coupling loss after connecting Y-branch and the optical fiber on V-groove was 0.34dB and that after injecting index mateching oil was 0.14dB.
Optical frequency locked loop using quadricorrelator
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 1996, Pages 3286~3292
An experimental results of optical requency locked loop with DFB semiconductor laser as VCO are presented. Using quadricorrelator as frequency difference detector and frequency off-set locking technique with 1GHz reference frequency, frequency locking range of 140MHz was achieved. This paper reports the design and realization details of the loop.