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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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The Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 1996
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 1996
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 1996
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 1996
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 1996
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 1996
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 1996
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 1996
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 1996
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 1996
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 1996
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 1996
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Automatic threshold selection for edge detection using a noise estimation scheme and its application
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 553~563
Detecting edges is one of issues with essentialimprotance in the area of image analysis. An edge in an image is a boundary or contour at which a significant change occurs in image intensity. Edge detection has been studied in many addlications such as imagesegmentation, robot vision, and image compression. In this paper, we propose an automatic threshold selection scheme for edge detection and show its application to noise elimination. The scheme suggested here applied statistical properties of the noise estimated from a noisy image to threshold selection. Since a selected threshold value in the scheme depends on not the characgreistic of an orginal image but the statistical feature of added noise, we can remove ad-hoc manners used for selecting the threshold value as well as decide the value theoretically. Furthermore, that shceme can reduce the number of edge pixels either generated or lost by noise. an application of the scheme to noise elimination is shown here. Noise in the input image can be eliminated with considering the direction of each edge pixedl on the edge map obtained by applying the threshold selection scheme proposed in this paper. Achieving significantly improved results in terms of SNR as well as subjective quality, we can claim that the suggested method works well.
A fast fractal decoding algorithm
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 564~575
Conventional decoding procedures have some problems in order to obtain reconstructed images with high speed. In this paper, the solutions of these are studied and a new fast decoding algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses a convergence criterion that is used to reduce the redundant iteration in the conventional method and to determine continuation of decoding. The initical image similar to roiginal image is estimated firstly in this algorithm. From the simulation resuls, the proposed algorithm is able to achieve the reconstructed image within 3-4 iteration under the objective criterion. Without any increment of the memory, the quality of the image reconstructed by the proposed algorithm has same quality asthe conventional method.
Direct globally minimal skeleton with binary morphological processing
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 576~586
Original binary image can be reconstructed by morphological bymorphological skeleton(MS) image. And then, the information of MS image points can be applied to a pattern recognition andimage communication. But if we apply MS to a pattern recognition and image communication, there are two problems. That is to say, binary MS processing times is long and skeleton points of MS are high redundancy. And then, to solve these problems, this paper proposes DGMS. After simulating by the proposed method to
binary image which is GIRL, we reduce processing time and skeleton points about 1.5~6.5% comparing with the result of GMS method.
Fractal image compression with perceptual distortion measure
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 587~599
In general fractal imge compression, each range block is approximated by a contractive transform of the matching domain block under the mean squared error criterion. In this paper, a distortion measure reflecting the properties of human visual system is defined and applied to a fractal image compression. the perceptual distortion measure is obtained by multiplying the mean square error and the noise sensitivity modeled by using the background brightness and spatial masking. In order to compare the performance of the mean squared error and perceptual distortion measure, a simulation is carried out by using the 512*512 Lena and papper gray image. Compared to the results, 6%-10% compression ratio improvements under improvements under the same image quality are achieved in the perceptual distortion measure.
Creation and labeling of multiple phonotopic maps using a hierarchical self-organizing classifier
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 600~611
Recently, neural network-based speech recognition has been studied to utilize the adaptivity and learnability of neural network models. However, conventional neural network models have difficulty in the co-articulation processing and the boundary detection of similar phonmes of the Korean speech. Also, in case of using one phonotopic map, learning speed may dramatically increase and inaccuracies may be caused because homogeneous learning and recognition method should be applied for heterogenous data. Hence, in this paper, a neural net typewriter has been designed using a hierarchical self-organizing classifier(HSOC), and related algorithms are presented. This HSOC, during its learing stage, distributed phoneme data on hierarchically structured multiple phonotopic maps, using Kohonen's self-organizing feature maps(SOFM). Presented and experimented in this paper were the algorithms for deciding the number of maps, map sizes, the selection of phonemes and their placement per map, an approapriate learning and preprocessing method per map. If maps are divided according to a priorlinguistic knowledge, we would have difficulty in acquiring linguistic knowledge and how to alpply it(e.g., processing extended phonemes). Contrarily, our HSOC has an advantage that multiple phonotopic maps suitable for given input data are self-organizable. The resulting three korean phonotopic maps are optimally labelled and have their own optimal preprocessing schemes, and also confirm to the conventional linguistic knowledge.
Low sidelobe digital doppler filter bank synthesis algorithm for coherent pulse doppler radar
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 612~621
In this paper, we propose the low sidelobe digital FIR doppler filter bank synthesis algorithm through the Gradient Descent method and it can be practially appliable to coherent pulse doppler radar signal processing. This algorithm shows the appropriate calculation of tap coefficients or zeros for FIR transversal fiter which has been employed in radar signal processor. The span of the filters in the filter bank be selected at the desired position the designer want to locate, and the lower sidelobe level that has equal ripple property is achieved than one for which the conventional weithtedwindow is used. Especially, when we implemented filter zeros as design parameters it is possible to make null filter gain at zero frequency intensionally that would be very efficient for the eliminatio of ground clutter. For the example of 10 tap filter synthesis, when filter coefficients or zeros are selected as design parameters the corresponding sidelobelevel is reducedto -70db or -100db respectively and it has good convergent characteristics to the desired sidelobe reference value. The accuracy ofapproach to the reference value and the speed of convergence that show the performance measure of this algorithm are tuned out with some superiority and the fact that the bandwidth of filter appears small with respect to one which is made by conventional weighted window method is convinced. Since the filter which is synthesized by this algorithm can remove the clutter without loss of target signal it strongly contributes performance improvement with which detection capability would be concerned.
Serial interface system of HDTV signal in coaxial cable
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 622~628
This paper describes a new serial interface system which uses conventional 75 ohm coaxial cable. Typically parallel 25 pin cable and connectors are used to transfer and receive the data between digital systems such as HDVCR, D3 VTR and HDTV Receiver. The coaxial cable is more desirable for consumer product applications and also for studio applications where long signal paths and switching are required. This serial data transfer technique is thoroughly tested and utilied in the data transmission/reception between systems more than 200 feet apart. It is also cost effective because it does not require RF PLL, SCRAMBLING, and NRZI hardware.
Performance analysis of priority control mechanism with cell transfer ratio and discard threshold in ATM switch
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 629~642
ATM switch handles the traffic for a wide range of appliations with different QOS(Quality-of-Service) requirements. In ATM switch, the priority control mechanism is needed to improve effectively the required QOS requirements. In this paper, we propose a priority control mechanism using the cell transfer ratio type and discard threshold in order to archive the cell loss probability requirement and the delay requirement of each service class. The service classes of our concern are the service class with high time priority(class 1) and the service class with high loss priority control mechanism, cells for two kind of service classes are stored and processed within one buffer. In case cells are stored in the buffer, cells for class 2 are allocated in the stored and processed within one buffer. In case cells are stored in the buffer, cells for class 2 are allocated in the shole range of the buffer and cells for class 1 are allocated up to discard threshold of the buffer. In case cells in the buffer are transmitted, one cell for class 1 is transmitted whenever the maximum K cells for class 2 are transmitted consecutively. We analyze the time delay and the loss probability for each class of traffic using Markov chain. The results show that the characteristics of the mean cell delay about cells for class 1 becomes better and that of the cell loss probability about cells for class 2 becomes better by selecting properly discard threshold of the buffer and the cell transfer ratio according to the condition of input traffic.
Design and implementation of centralized collaborative works through the service node on the NISDN
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 643~651
In this paper, to provide the possibility of various multimedia services, especially the collaborative work using the centralized control feature of the Service Node, is studied. We focused on the telewriting as the upper layer application to confirm the basic functions of the collaborative work. For this, we implement and add telewriting collaborative work function to the Service Node emulator, and terminals operating in the Windows environment are also developed. Through the tests on the system, we verify the basic functions related to the collaborative work are performed adequately, and confirm the concept of Service Node can support various type of multimedia conference services.
Performance analysis of PC communication networks with two-phase service connection
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 652~663
In this paper, we analyze the blocking probability of a call in a PC communication network. In a PC communication network, a call generated from the PSTN (public switched telephone network) requests the connection to the ICPS(information communication processing system) which interconnects the the PSTN and the PSDN(packet switched data network). Then, as a second step, a packet call is requested to the specific service database attached in the PSDN. The call blocking probabilies are analyzed for these two interface points, the PSTN interface ports of the ICPS and the PSDN interface link of the database. We also present some numerical results to show the effects of the system parameters on the performance of the network. The results show the effects of the capacity of each interface point on the performance point.
WDMA protocol with collision avidance for high speed optical networks
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 664~674
In high speed multi-wavelength networks, retransmission overhead due to desination conflict or control packet collision is one factor of performance degration because signal prpagation delay is much larger than the transmission time of data packet. In this paper, an efficient WDMA protocol with a collision avoidance mechanism is proposed for high speed WDM single-hop network with a passive star topology. In proposed protocol, each node has cource queues and routing table to store souting informatio. This architecture makes is possible to avoid any kind of collision when a node reserves the channel to transmit a data packet. High system thoughput and channel utilization can be achieved by proposed protocol since there are no discarded packets caused by any collision at transmission time. The performance of proposed protocol is evaluated in term of throughput and delay with variations in offered load. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol has superior performance to convertional protocols under nonuniform traffic as well as uniform traffic.
Performance analysis of call admission control in ATM networks considering bulk arrivals services
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 675~683
CAC, UPC, NPC, cell level QoS and congestion control is required to assign efficiently channels's BW and to prevent networks from congestion. In the CAC algorithm, each user defines characteristics of input traffic when channels are set up and network based on this parameters determines the acception or rejection of the required BW. The CAC control mechanism is classified into the centralized BW allocation mechanism and the distributed BW Allocation mechanism according to the function and position of CAC processor allocating BW. In this paper, in contrast with esisted the distributed BW allocation mechanism which assumes the required BW of input traffic as constant, we assume input traffic & serices as bulk probability distribution in order to analyze performance more precisely.
Improvement of code acquisition time in DS/SS systems using a hybrid scheme
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 684~691
Since the period of a spreading code in DS/SS communication systems is generally long, it is necessary to make the code acquisition as fast as possible. The code acquisition time can be sued as a measure to evaluate the performance of code acquisition systems. The search rate of serial search codee acquisition system used in the coventional CDMA cellular system is lower than that of the matched filter technique. In order to reduce the code acquisition time, this paper proposes hybrid code acquisition system composed filters combined with serial search blocks. In the proposed system, the matched filter sweeps possible code phases fast and the acquired phase information is verified by the serial search block. The mean and the variance of its acquisition time are calculated and compared with those of double dwell serial search system. The results indicate better performance of the proposed system by yielding its small vaues of the mean and the variance of code acquisition time.
A study on data security in CDMA system
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 692~697
In this paper, we measure data security in CDMA system. If we know the [42/4]
bits of output sequences of key stream generator, we can find log code mask bits and orthogonal output sequences. So this paper showes us the necessity of data security algorithm in CDMA system.
Security planning for digital modbile communications
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 698~712
This paper deals with the security planning for digital mobile communications provided in CDMA and GSM security standards and the public key crytosystem security methods. In this paper, we provide a comparison of these methods with repect to security services and key managment. Based upon this analysis, we also present a secunity planning which is applicable to the domestic digital mobile communications.
Performance analysis of multiple access mechanism based on error adaptation in CDMA cellular system
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 713~720
In recent, the demand of mobile communication system is increasing rapidly. However, since wireless resources is limitted, the protocol to utilize wireless resource efficiently is needed. Up to now, Slotted CDMA_ALOHA(S_CDMA_ALOHA) and Mini-Slotted CDMA_ALOHA(MS_CDMA_ALOHA) methods are proposed as a CDMA_ALOHA mechanism, and it is turned out that MS_CDMA_ALOHA offers betterperformance than S_CDMA_ALOHA mechanism. Also, IS-95 multiple access mechanism has been proposed as common air interface(CAI) protocol of CDMA digital cellular system. However, in former study, the performance evaluations were made without considertion of chnnel characteristics of wireless communication environment. In this paper, a new access mechanism for improring the performance in the DS/CDMA digital cellular environment is suggested. This mechanism is adaptive to the channel condition and based on the conventional MS_CDMA_ALOHA mechanism. Also, the performance of new access mechanism is compared with that of conventional mechanisms, through computer simulation. According tot h simulation results, it is shown that the proposed NA_CDMA_ALOHA(Noise-Adaptation CDMA_ALOHA) mechanism offers better performance than conventional three CDMA_ALOHA mechanisms in view of mean delay time and system throughput characteristics. This phenomenon is due to the fast that NA_CDMA_ALOHA mechanism controls the access attempts efficiently based on the channel condition in heavy traffic environments.
Testing of hypotheses and detection of known signals under the integrated power the integrated power criterion
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 721~730
In this paper, a new test criterion for binary decision problems is proposed. The integrated power flunction over a parameter interval is first itroduced as an extension of the power function. The concept of the most integrated powerful (MIP) test based on the integrated power function is then introduced. The MIP criterion is to masimize the value of the integrated power function in any paricular parameter interval. As an applicationof the MIP test, the known signal detection problem is considered. The test statistic of the MIP detector for known signals is obtained and an approximation to the MIP test statistic is also considered.
Performance Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Systems Using Shortened Reed-Solomon Codes over Rayleigh Fading Channel
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 731~736
In this paper, we propose a modified Type-II HARQ system having adaptive power to channel and analyze its performance in terms of throughput and reliability. Its performance is also compared with Typd-I and Type-II HARQ ystems and is verified using computer simulations over AWGN and frequenyc-nonselective, slowly Rayleigh fading channels.
Under the fading channel environment, performance evaluation of AF CR loop Due to the quantization effect
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 737~746
In this paper, we present simulation result of quantization effects about a new Angular From Carrier Recovery Loop(AF CR loop) for PSK modulation technique. AF CR loop includes detected angle symbol and Multi Level hardimiter. In general, detected angle is used in dtermining symbol. Because detected angle is used to make an error signal of phase detector output, hardware implementation of AF CR loop is simpler than that of other loops. Before hardware implementation of AF CR loop, the result due to quantization effect should be investigated. In order to confirm quntization effect of AF CR loop, we evaluate performance of this loop by Monte-Carlosimulation method. Under both in the AWGN and Jake's fading noise channel environments, we confirmed the characteristics of AF CR loop in terms of RMS jitter due to quntization effect. Differential APSK modulation schemeis used in this paper. Especially, Jake's fading channel is used as a channel model and also AGC(Automatic Gain Control) is used in the overall process of performance evaluation. We obtained the resonable result of quantization effect about AF CR loop. With the result of performanceevaluation based on quantization effects, we can expect to operate AF CRloop under the fading channel environments reasonably well.
New soft-output MLSE equalization algorithm for GSM digital cellular systems
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 747~752
In this paper, we propose a new SO-MLSE(soft-output maximum likelihood sequence estimation) equalizer, which can be used in GSM digital cellular system) it uses complex correlation of training sequence to obtain the channel information and the equalization is performed by MLSE using Viterbi algorithm. In order to generate a soft-decision input to channel decoder (Viterbi decoder), the soft-output equalization algorithm is needed. The adopted algorithm doesn't require to modify the structure of HO-MLSE(hard output MLSE) equalizer, that is, SO-MLSE equalizer can be implemented by adding soft-output generation block to HO-MLSE equalizer. This algorithm uses the outputs of matched filter and HO-MLSE equalizer. It turns out that the complexity of proposed SO-MLSE equalizer is simpler than those of other SO-MLSE equalizer and its perforance is almost the same as those of others. Finally, the proposed SO-MLSE equalizer is also implemented s a prototype with ADSP-2101 16-bits fixed point digital signal processing chip.
Analysis of aperture coupled stacked microstrip array antenna
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 753~762
In this paper, aperture coupled stacked microstrip array antennas are proposed and their operating characteristics are analyzed based on analytical. In order to evaluate mutual coupling between slot-coupled microstrip patches in finite array, analysis uses the reciprocity theorem and the spectral domain Green's functions for dielectric slab in a moment method solution for the unknown patches and solts current distrbution. By introducing an N-port equivalent network, the impedance matrix of an affay of N-element slot-coupled patches is evaluated directly from its network current matix of order N
, and it can be programmed to be run on a PC. Numerical results show mutual coupling, radiation pattern, active reflection coefficient versus scan angle, radiation efficiency and active element gain pattern.
The single-stage transmission type injection-locked oscillator was designed and fabricated for the active integrated phased array antenna
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 763~770
In this paper, the Single-stage Transmission type Injectiong-Locked Oscillator(STILO) was designed and fabicated for the Active Integrated Phased Array Antenna(AIPAA) system. The STILO, which was designed and fabricated by injection-locked technique and hair-pin resonator, has the same 210MHz frequency tuning range of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator(VCO) used by varactor. The locking bandwidth of STILO with 11.5MHz bandwidth, is much better than that of the Injection-Locked Dielectric Resonator Oscillator(ILDRO), And the STILO has the improved noise characteristics in AM, FM, and PM. This STILO is useful for the AIPAA, the coupled VCO array, an the MMIC structure.
Study for generation of standard EM field using 8 ports-variable wave impedance generator
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 771~783
A desing technique of 8 ports variable wave impedance generator (8P-VWIG) is described. The design technique employs not only a numerical algorithm to find the structure with arbitrary characteristic impedance, but also a numerical solution to analyze the uniform elementrognentic fields established inside the generator. The 8P-VWIG so obtained is shown to have good performance with the VSWR of less than 1.4 at any frequency of interest below which higher order mode begin to propagate. The measured first resonant frequency is 152.1 MHz. The 8P-VWIG is designed based on the concept of an expanded multi-transmission line(8 channel). It is especially useful for the electronmagnetic interference(EMI) and electronmagnetic susceptibility(EMS) testing since it maximizes usable test crosssectional area, and its is easy change the polarization, vertical or horizontal, of field.
Design and fabrication of the surface mountable VCO operating at 3V for PCS handset
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 784~794
In this papre, the design and the fabrication of the surface mountable voltage controlled oscillator is described for local oscillator in PCS(WACS/TDMA) handset. The VCO employs two silicon bipolar transistors of
of 4 GHz as active devices. These are asembled to form the VCO on the 4 layer PCB of the size
which provides the strip line resonator at the third layer. The fabricated VCO shows tuning rage over 50 MHz, phase noise -100 dBc/Hz at the 100 kHz frequency offset, and 0 dBm output power with the consumption of 22 mA at 3V. It is belived that the size will be more reduced by employing 1005 chip components and that the current consumption will be improved by employing transistors of higher
A realization of up/down-stream transmission on an optical subscriber network with the PON structure
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 1996, Pages 795~806
A structure which transmits and receives 3 subscribers packet data through an optical splitter node in an optical subscriber network of PON wave suggested and realized. All the functions which are necessary to use PON structure such as 155.52Mb/s multiplexer/demultiplexer of down-stream signal, 25.92Mb/s multiplexer/demultiplexer of up-stream signal, frame synchronizer, and phase aligner for aligning phase of the clock and received data have been integrated within 2 ICs using CMOS technonology. TDMAtechnology was suggested for up-stream transmission. In the optical up-stream transmission of the urst signals transmissionquality degradataion by APC and AGC of optical tranceiver was observed. By compensating the degradation, more than 17dB of link budget which is enough to satisfy 11.2dBthat is required in SWAN of PON architecture has been obtained with optical transceiver whose power and sensitivity are -17dBm and -34dBm respectively.