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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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The Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 1997
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 1997
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 1997
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 1997
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 1997
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 1997
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 1997
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 1997
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 1997
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 1997
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 1997
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 1997
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Experiments of bragg and off-bragg blazing phenomena by strip grating over a grounded dielectric slab for TM polarization Case
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 605~610
An analysis method for the electromagnetic scattering of a Tm polarized plane wave from a periodic strip grating over a grounded dielectric slab is considered from the viewpoint of reflection grating problem. The parameters of strip gratings showing Bargg and Off-Bragg blazing phenomena at the frequency of 10GHz are derived teoretically. The strip grating structure is implemented using Aluminum plate(groung conductor), paraffin(dielectric material.epsilon.
=2.24), and copper(strip conductor0.08m thickness). The experimental results(reflection power) of Bragg as well as Off-Bragg blazing phenomenon for TM polarized plane wave have been compared with the theoretical results and fairly good agreements between theory and experiment have been observed.d.
A spatially and temporally correlatedfading channel model for smart antenna applications
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 611~617
In this paper a new fading model is proposed, which is well consistent with the real environment of smart antenna applications since it is spatially and temporally correlated simultaneously. The new model(STCFM: Spatially and Temporally Correlated Fading Model) is derived statistically in spatio-temporal domain so that it can provide high accuracy in the evaluation of the smart antenna system. As will be seen, the simulation results agree well with the theory.
A study on improving fairness and congestion control of DQDB using buffer threshold value
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 618~636
DQDB(Distributed Queue Dual Bus) protocol, the IEEE 802.6 standard protocol for metropolitan area networks, does not fully take advantage of the capabilities of dual bus architecture. Although fairness in bandwidth distribution among nodes is improved when using so called the bandwidth balancing mechanism, the protocol requires a considerable amount of time to adjust to changes in the network load. Additionally, the bandwidth balancing mechanism leaves a portion of the available bandwidth unused. In a high-speed backbone network, each node may act as a bridge/ router which connects several LANs as well as hosts. However, Because the existence of high speed LANs becomes commonplace, the congestionmay occur on a node because of the limitation on access rate to the backbone network and on available buffer spaces. to release the congestion, it is desirable to install some congestion control algorithm in the node. In this paper, we propose an efficient congestion control mechanism and fair and waster-free MAC protocol for dual bus network. In this protocol, all the buffers in the network can be shared in such a way that the transmission rate of each node can be set proportional to its load. In other words, a heavily loaded node obtains a larger bandwidth to send the sements so tht the congestion can be avoided while the uncongested nodes slow down their transmission rate and store the incoming segments into thier buffers. this implies that the buffers on the network can be shared dynamically. Simulation results show that the proposed probotol significantly reduces the segment queueing delay of a heavily loaded node and segment loss rate when compared with original DQDB. And it enables an attractive high throughput in the backbone network. Because in the proposed protocol, each node does not send a requet by the segment but send a request one time in the meaning of having segments, the frequency of sending requests is very low in the proposed protocol. so the proposed protocol signigificantly reduces the segment queuing dely. and In the proposed protocol, each node uses bandwidth in proportion to its load. so In case of limitation of available buffer spaces, the proposed protocol reduces segment loss rate of a heavily loaded node. Bandwidth balancing DQDB requires the wastage of bandwidth to be fair bandwidth allocation. But the proposed DQDB MAC protocol enables fair bandwidth without wasting bandwidth by using bandwidth one after another among active nodes.
Design of Format Conversion Filters for MPEG-4
Jo, Nam Ik ; Kim, Gi Cheol ; Yu, Ha Yeong ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 637~637
In this paper, format conversion filters are proposed, which have advantages in hardware implementation compared to the ones proposed in MPEG-4 Video Verification Model. since each coefficients of the proposed filters is constrained to have less than two non-zero digits in minimal signed digit representation, multiplication of input and the coefficient can be implemented by a single adder. As a result, the proposed filters have advantages in hardware complexity and speed, compared to the filters which are usually implemented by integer multiplier or carry save adders. Six kinds of filters are proposed in MPEG-4 Video Verification Model for size conversion of 2:1, 4:1, 5:3 and 5:6. We design 5 filters for the same purpose and compare the performance. The remaining one is very simple to implement. For comparing the filtering performance, we first compare the results of sine wave frequency conversion as an indirect but meaningful comparison. Second. We compute the PSNR of the images obtained from the proposed filters and the ones proposed by MPEG, with reference to the images obtained by using double precision arithmetic and high order filter. The results show that the performance of the proposed filters is almost the same as that of the filters proposed by MPEG. In conclusion, the peroformance of the proposed filters is comparable to that of the ones in MPEG-4, while requiring lower hardware complexity and providing high operating speed.
On Post-Processing of Coded Images by Using the Narrow Quantization Constraint
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 648~661
This paper presents a new method for post-processing of coded images based upon the low-pass filtering followed by the projection onto the NQCS (narrow quantization constraint set). We also investigate how the proposed method works on JPEG-coded real images. The starting point of the QCS-based post-processing techniques is the centroid of the QCS, where the original image belongs. The low-pass filtering followed by the projection onto the QCS makes the images lie on the boundary of the QCS. It is likely that, however, the original image is inside the QCS. Hence projection onto the NQCS gives a lower MSE (mean square error) than does the projection onto the QCS. Simulation results show that setting the narrowing coefficients of the NQCS to be 0.2 yields the best performance in most cases. Even though the JPEG-coded image is low-pass filtered and projected onto the NQCS repeatedly, there is no guarantee that the resultant image has a lower MSE and goes closer to the original image. Thus only one iteration is sufficient for the post-processing of the coded images. This is interesting because the main drawback of the iterative post-processing techniques is the heavy computational burden. The single iteration method reduces the computational burden and gives us an easy way to implement the real time VLSI post-processor.
Post-processing of vector quantized images using the projection onto quantization constraint set
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 662~674
In order to post process the vector-quantized images employing the theory of projections onto convex sets or the constrained minimization technique, the the projector onto QCS(quantization constraint set) as well as the filter that smoothes the lock boundaries should be investigated theoretically. The basic idea behind the projection onto QCS is to prevent the processed data from diverging from the original quantization region in order to reduce the blurring artifacts caused by a filtering operation. However, since the Voronoi regions in order to reduce the blurring artifacts caused by a filtering operation. However, since the Voronoi regions in the vector quantization are arbitrarilly shaped unless the vector quantization has a structural code book, the implementation of the projection onto QCS is very complicate. This paper mathematically analyzes the projection onto QCS from the viewpoit of minimizing the mean square error. Through the analysis, it has been revealed that the projection onto a subset of the QCS yields lower distortion than the projection onto QCS does. Searching for an optimal constraint set is not easy and the operation of the projector is complicate, since the shape of optimal constraint set is dependent on the statistical characteristics between the filtered and original images. Therefore, we proposed a hyper-cube as a constraint set that enables a simple projection. It sill be also shown that a proper filtering technique followed by the projection onto the hyper-cube can reduce the quantization distortion by theory and experiment.
Scence Change Adaptive Bit Rate Control Using Local Variance
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 675~684
The bit rate control algorithm which is capable of handing scene change is proposed. In MPEG-2 TM5, block variance is used to measure block activity. But block variance is not consistent with human visual system and does not differenciate the distribution of pixel values within the block. In target bit allocation process of TM5, global complexity, obtained by results of previous coded pictures, is used. Since I pictures are spaced relatively far apart, their complexity estimate is not very accurate. In the proposed algorithm local variance is used to measure block activity and detect scene change. Local variance, using deviation from the mean of neighboring pixels, well represents the distribution of pixel values within the block. If scene change is detected, the local variance information is used for target bit allocation process. Allocating target bits for I picture, the average local variance difference between previous and current I picture is considered. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect scene change very precisely and gives better picture quality and higher PSNR values than MPEG-2 TM5.
Design of A 3V CMOS Lowpass Filter Using the Improved Continuous-Time Fully-Differential Current-Mode Integrator
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 685~695
In this paper, a new CMOS continuous-time fully-differential current-mode integrator is proposed as a basic building block of the low-voltage high frequency current-mode active filter. The proposed integrator is composed of the CMOS complementary circuit which can extend transconductance of an integrator. Therefore, the unity gain frequency which is determined by a small-signal transconductance and a MOSFET gate capacitance can be expanded by the complementary transconductance of the proposed integrator. And also the magnitude of pole and zero are increased. The unity gain frequency of the proposed integrator is increased about two times larger than that of the conventional continuous-time fully-differential integrator with NMOS-gm. These results are verified by the small signal analysis and the SPICE simulation. As an application circuit of the proposed fully-differential current-mode integrator, the three-pole Chebyshev lowpass filter is designed using 0.8.
m CMOS processing parameters. SPICE simulation predicts a 3-dB bandwidth of 148MHz and power dissipation of 4.3mW/pole for the three-pole filter with 3-V power supply.
On Compensating Nonlinear Distortions of an OFDM System Using an Efficient Adaptive Predistorter
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 696~705
This paper presents an efficient adaptive predistortion technique compensating linear and nonlinear distortions caused by high-power amplifier (HPA) with memory in OFDM systems. The efficient adaptive data predistortion techniques proposed for compensation of HPA with memory in single carrier systems cannot be applied to OFDM systems since the possible input levels for HPA is infinite in OFDM systems. Also, previous adaptive predistortion techniques, based on Volterra series modeling, are not suitable for real-time implementation due to high computational burden and slow convergence rate. In the proposed approach, the memoryless HPA preceded by a linear filter in OFDM systems is modeled by the Wiener system which is then precompensated by the proposed adaptive predistorter with a minimum number of filter taps. An adaptive algorithm for adjusting the proposed adaptive predistorter is derived using the stochastic gradient method. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that the performance of OFDM system suffering from nonlinear distortion can be greatly improved by the proposed efficient adaptive predistorter using a small number of filter taps.
Pre-filtering of Images Considering Human Visual Perception
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 706~713
In this paper, we propose a band stop filter(BSF) for reducing drag-like effect of the low pass filter(LPF), a block by block adaptive filtering method, and a motion adaptive filtering method, which show better results in terms of PSNR or human visual perception compared to the conventional method using LPF. The BSF improves the draglike effects of the low pass filter by passing temporal high frequency components of video sequences which correspond to objects with large motion. The proposed adaptive methods also improve the conventional adaptive filtering by modifying the conventional algorithm and applying the algorithms for small blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed filtering methods show better results in terms of PSNR and subjective tests in most cases. Also in case of block by block adaptive filtering, it is verified that the application of the algorithm for smaller block gives better results.
Image Coding Using Bit-Planes of Wavelet Coefficients
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 714~725
This paper proposes an image compression method using the wavelet transform and bit-plane coding of wavelet coefficients. The hierarchical application of wavelet transform to an image produces one low resoluation(the subband with lowest frequency) image and several high frequency subbands. In the proposed method, the low resolution image is compressed by a lossless method at 8 bits per each coefficient. However, the high frequency subbands are decomposed into 8 bit planes. With an adptive block coding method, the decomposed bit planes are effectively compressed using localized edge information in each bit plane. In addition, the propsoed method can control bit rates by selectively eliminating lessimportant subbands of low significant bit planes. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has better performance in the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and compression rate than conventional image coding methods using the wavelet transform and vector quantization.
The Study on Lossy and Lossless Compression of Binary Hangul Textual Images by Pattern Matching
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 726~736
The textual image compression by pattern matching is a coding scheme that exploits the correlations between patterns. When we compress the Hangul (Korean character) text by patern matching, the collerations between patterns may decrease due to randoem contacts between phonemes. Therefore in this paper we separate connected phonemes to exploit effectively the corrlation between patterns by inducting the amtch. In the process of sequation, we decide whether the patterns have vowel component or not, and then vowels connected with consonant ae separated. When we compare the proposed algorithm with the existing algorith, the compression ratio is increased by 1.3%-3.0% than PMS in lossy mode, by 3.4%-9.1% in lossless mode than that of SPM which is submitted to standard committe for second generation binary compression algorithm.
Performance analysis of cellular CDMA system with power control and narrowband interference suppression filter
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 737~747
performance of the cellular CDMA overlay system is analyzed which shares the same band with existing microwave narrowband system to enhance the spectral efficiency. To suppress the interfreence from narrowband system, we used a linear predicition filter that adopts the adaptive least mean square algorithm. Alalyzing the performance in the Personal Communication Services channel, characterized as a multipath Rician fadng channels, we considered the power control to solve the near-far problem, and-off and multipath diversity. We also considered interleaving and channel coding to improve BER performance of the CDMA system.
Analysis of Velocity Adaptive Handoff Algorithm
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 748~760
The handoff failure probability has to be enhanced efficiently to enhance the performance of PCS system. In this paper a new scheme called velocity adaptive handoff algorithm for reducing handoff failure probability and maintaining the carried traffic constantly in PCS systems, by assigning low handoff threshold value for high mobility calls, and assigning high handoff threshold value for low mobility calls, is presented. The performance of evaluation of this new scheme is carried out in terms of tranffic characteristics. Also velocity estimation algorithm for this new scheme is presented. According to the result, the handoff failure probability of velocity adaptive handoff algorithm is enhanced about 60%.
Analysis of Multicarrier DS/DPSK Systems with Single Tone Interference Rejection
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 761~770
Narrowband signals can be treated like a single tone interference at the receiver which demodulates wideband signals spectrum overlaid at the same frequency band. In this paper, the single tone interference is effectively suppressed by the use of a multicarrier DPSK direct-sequence(DS) spread spectrum(SS) with maximal-ratio(MR) combining instead of notch filter, which is hard to implement. A noncoherent DPSK system is considered because it is more realizable and does not require any complicate phase tracking, compared with a single carrier system subject to a constraint system bandwidth, and their performance comparisons are validated through simulation. We also propose a suboptimal-ratio(SR) combining which yields uniform and tight low bound on the performance of the MR combining, and then system parameters re optimized by theoretically evaluating the low bound, since an exact analysis appears intractable.
Very Low Bit Rate Video Coding Algorithm Using Uncovered Region Prediction
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 771~781
In order to solve the problem of uncovered background region due to the region-due to the region-based motion estimation, this paper presents a new method which generates the uncovered region memory using motion estimation and shows the application of the algorithm for very low bit rate video coding. The proposed algorithm can be briefly described as follows it detects the changed region by using the information of FD(frame difference) and segmentation, and then as for only that region the backward motion estimation without transmission of shape information is done. Therefore, from only motion information the uncovered background region memory is generated and updated. The contents stored in the uncovered background region memory are referred whenever the uncovered region comes into existence. The regions with large prediction error are transformed and coded by using DCT. As results of simulation, the proposed algorithm shows the superior improvement in the subjective and objective image quality due to the remarkable reduction of transmission bits for prediction error.
A Study on Butter Managment Mechanism for Efficient Cell Transmission in ATM Network
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 782~792
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) provides the means to support with variety of multimedia serivices in broadband network. For the support of multimedia services, various data traffic with priortes should be controlled errectively and congestion function is required in the network to carry out the control operation. To accomplish this in a flexible and effective manner, priorty classes for the different services are commonly used. In this paper, we suggested a buffer managment algorithm in ATM network to improve overall network performance with separated buffer which consists of existing buffer with threshold andauxiliary buffer whose input consists of superposition of voice and data traffic. To evaluate the proposed buffer managment algorithms, simulations are excuted with two proiorities and the results are provied that network throughput is improved better than the existing parital buffer method.
A Sharing Scheme for Connection Mamagement Objects in Different Distributed Processing Environments
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 793~803
Open networking architecture is required to support new multimedia services as integrated functions of network management and service architecture. In this paper, we propose the methodology of building block modeling using object grouping concepts and the sharing scheme of different distributed processing environments based on open networking architecture. The building block has the functions of object management, security object instance registry and object mapping in object group. It is necessary for the connection management information to be shared on the interworking between two domains. We implemented and validated connection management functions using computational object modeling and building block modeling in different distributed processing environments.
Analysis of OPEN LOOP Power Control in CDMA Reverse Link
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 804~811
In the CDMA mobile communication system, reverse power control can be used to minimize the interference level for a good quality of the voice channel, and used to maxmize the system capacity. In this paper, we have analyed the environment of the K-parameter and the access procedure for the mobile station, and proposed a new algorithm for the access probe procedure of the station. K-parameter is determined according to the environment of the base station and access probe can adaptively control the power according to the position changes of the mobile station or the rapid and various state changes of the channel. Simulation results in the limited test environment show that it can increase the system capacity and decrease the power comsumption of the mobile station while maintaining the good and stable quality of the voice channel.
Design and Performance Analysis of an Asynchronous Shared-Bus Type Switch with Priority and Fairness Schemes
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 812~822
In this paper, we propose an architecture of the asynchronous shared-bus type switch with priority and fairness schemes. The switch architecture is an input and output queueing system, and the priority scheme is implemented in both input and output queues. We analyze packet delay of both input and output queues. In the analysis, we consider to stations with asymmetric arrival rates. Although we make some approximations in the analysis, the numerical results show good agreements with the simulation results.
An Integration Architecture for the ATM Customer Network Management
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 823~832
As enterprises use ATM networks for their private networks and as these private networks use public ATM networks for wide area communication, the need for the customers to be able to manage both private and public networks. Currently, some standardization work is being done towards providing this capability to customers. In this paper, we propose a new customer network management (CNM) system architecture for the management of both ATM a private network and a public network in a uniform way. The particular features of the proposed architecture lies in the efficient support of the complex hierarchial TMN manager-agent relationships at M3 and M4 interfaces, and the support of SNMP and CMIP integration which is necessary for the implementation of a CNM system. The TMN hierarchical many-to-many manager-agent relationships are realized by the utilization of CORBA-Based SMK (Shared Management Knowledge) implementation. We have also implemented the prototype of a ATM CNM system, and measures the performance for the demonstration of the suitability of the proposed architecture.
A Study on Hybrid LB-TJW Algorithm for Multimedia Traffic Control
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 833~841
In this paper, the hybrid LB-TJW(Leaky Bucket-Triggered Jumping Window) algorithm for multimedia traffic control is proposed and its performance is evaluated and analyzed. Its architecture is composed of the peak bit rate controller and the average bit rate controller. Generally, the cell which violates the peak bit rate is discraded in LBalgorithm, and the average bit rate of JW or TJW algorithm is better than that of LB algorithm. However, the hybrid LB-TJW algorithm passes it though the network if the cell does not violate the peak bit rate. If the cell violates the peak bit rate, the hybrid LB-TJW algorithm passes it to the average bit rate controller which perforithm to monitor the average bit rate of input traffic. The TJW algorithm monitors the cell that violates the average bit rate. If the cell does not violate the average bit rare, the LB-TJW algorithm passes it through the network. As simulation results, the cell loss rate and the buffer size of the LB-TJW algorithm is reduced to half as much as those of LB algortihm.
The DLB Method for Multimedia Synchronization in the ATM Networks
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 842~854
In this paper, the improved Dual Leaky-Bucket(DLB) algorithm is proposed to reduce the synchronous cell loss rate. The conventional DLB algorithm does not support synchronous cells, but the proposed algorithm gives higher priority to synchronous cells. To reduce synchronous cell loss rate, the synchronous cell detector is used in the proposed algorithm. Synchronous cell detector detects synchronous cells, and passes them cells to the 2nd Leaky-Bucket. So it is similar to give higher priority to synchronous cells. In this paper, the proposed algorithm used audio/videl traffic modeled by On/Off and Two-state MMPP, and simulated by SLAM II package. As simulation results, the proposed algorithm gets lower synchronous cell loss rate than the conventional DLB algorithms. The improved DLB algorithm for multimedia synchronization can be extended to any other cells which require higher priority.
Performance Analysis of ATM Switch Using Dynamic Priority Control Mechanisms
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 855~869
In this paper, we proposed two kids of dynamic priority control mechanisms controlling the cell service ratio in order to improve the QOS(Quality of Service). We also analyse theoretically the characteristics of cell loss probability and mean cell delay time by applying the proposed priority control mechanisms to ATM switch with output buffer. The proposed priority control mechanisms have the same principles of storing cells into buffer but the different principles of serving cells from buffer. The one is the control mechanism controlling the cell service ratio according to the relative cell occupancy ratio of buffer, the other is the control mechanism controlling the cell service ratio according to both the relative cell occupancy ratio of buffer and the average arrival rate. The two service classes of our concern are the delay sensitive class and the loss sensitive class. The analytical results show that the proposed control mechanisms are able to improve the QOS, the characteristics of cell loss probability and mean cell delay time, by selecting properly the relative cell occupancy ratio of buffer and the average arrival rate. conventional DLB algorithm does not support synchronous cells, but the proposed algorithm gives higher priority to synchronous cells. To reduce synchronous cell loss rate, the synchronous cell detector is used in the proposed algorithm. Synchronous cell detector detects synchronous cells, and passes them cells to the 2nd Leaky-Bucket. So it is similar to give higher priority to synchronous cells. In this paper, the proposed algorithm used audio/video traffic modeled by On/Off and Two-state MMPP, and simulated by SLAM II package. As simulation results, the proposed algorithm gets lower synchronous cell loss rate than the conventional DLB algorithms. The improved DLB algorithm for multimedia synchronization can be extended to any other cells which require higher priority.
A Study on the Integrated Digital Signature System for Smart Card
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 22, issue 4, 1997, Pages 870~879
At crypto'89 meeting, D. chaum suggested an undeniable signature scheme. Undeniable signatures are verified via a protocol between the signer and verifier, so the cooperation of the signer is necessary. So far, ther have been several variants of undeniable signatures to obtain a signature scheme, which can control the abous of ordinary digital signatures. In this paper we integrate these variants into a generalized undeniable-type signature scheme. Also, it will be pointed out, that undeniable signature schemes but its first realization are vulnerable in full view of eavesdropping third party. Moreover, to solve this problem, we propose a new type of digital signature, called "result-indisting-uishable undeniable signature" and construct a practical protocol that implements it.