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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
Editor in Chief :
Kyung-Hi Chang / Song Chong / Jong-Taek Oh / Jae-Jin Lee / Myung-Sik Yoo
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 12C - Dec 2001
Volume 26, Issue 12B - Dec 2001
Volume 26, Issue 12A - Dec 2001
Volume 26, Issue 11C - Nov 2001
Volume 26, Issue 11B - Nov 2001
Volume 26, Issue 11A - Nov 2001
Volume 26, Issue 10B - Oct 2001
Volume 26, Issue 10A - Oct 2001
Volume 26, Issue 9B - Sep 2001
Volume 26, Issue 9A - Sep 2001
Volume 26, Issue 8B - Aug 2001
Volume 26, Issue 8A - Aug 2001
Volume 26, Issue 7B - Jul 2001
Volume 26, Issue 7A - Jul 2001
Volume 26, Issue 6B - Jun 2001
Volume 26, Issue 6A - Jun 2001
Volume 26, Issue 5B - May 2001
Volume 26, Issue 5A - May 2001
Volume 26, Issue 4B - Apr 2001
Volume 26, Issue 3B - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Optimum Selection of Equalizer Taps Losing Noise Power Estimation
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 1971~1977
Multipath Rayleigh fading channels for mobile radio transmission can be represented by the linear filter model, and depending on the delay path characteristics, only a selected number of taps may have significance in the receiver structure design. By using tap-selective equalization, reduction in both processing complexity and power consumption can be obtained. In this paper, we present an optimal tap selection method for a given channel model, and demonstrate the performance improvement over an existing method. We show the method performs the CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) detection when the noise power information is available, and derive exact expressions of the error probability for the case of noise power estimation. Using the derived formulas and simulation results, it is demonstrated that the error probability quickly approaches to the optimal performance as the number samples used for the noise power estimation increases.
A Study on the Algorithm of Time Domain MMSE Equalization Using Newton Method
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 1978~1982
In a Multi-carrier modulation system, CP (Cyclic prefix) is inserted in the transmit tame in order to eliminate the ISI (Intersymbol Interference) and ICI (Interchannel Interference) caused by delay spread of a received signal, which in rum degrades the throughput of the system. TEQ (Time-domain equalizer) improves the system throughput by shortening the CIR (Channel Impulse Response) time and maintaining the CP length to the minimum regardless of the channel condition. In this paper, a new MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) TEQ algorithm is proposed and its performance is analyzed in order to speed up computing the optimum tap coefficients of the equalizer by employing Newton method.
A Two-Step Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm with Algebraic Structure
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 1983~1989
A new two-step soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) for turbo decoder is proposed and analyzed in 7his paper. Due to the algebraic structure of the proposed algorithm, slate and branch metrics can be obtained wish parallel processing using matrix arithmetic. As a result, the number of multiplications to calculate state metrics of each stage and total memory size can be decreased tremendously. Therefore, it can be expected that the proposed algebraic two-step SOVA is suitable for applications in which low computational complexity and memory size are essential.
Simulation of 2-color Concentric Annular Ring Reticle Seeker and Counter-countermeasure using LMS Algorithm
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 1990~1999
This paper presents a dynamic simulation loop that gives tracking results of 2-color concentric annular ring (CAR) reticle seeker. Our simulation tool includes the target/flare model and a proportional navigation guidance (PNG) loop. The CAR reticle system performances and the flare effects are analyzed in various scenarios. When a flare is present in the field of view (FOV), the simulation results show that the reticle seeker cannot keep a precise target tracking. In this paper, we propose 2-color counter-countermeasure (CCM) using the least mean square (LMS) method to cope with a presence of IR flare. The proposed method makes a simultaneous process in two infrared (IR) wavelength bands: MWIR add SWIR. The simulation results have shown that our adaptive IRCCM algorithm can achieve an effective cancellation of the flare signal with a relatively high intensity.
Design of Digital PLL with Asymmetry Compensator in High Speed DVD Systems
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2000~2011
In this Paper, we convert conventional low speed(1x, 6x) DVD systems designed by analog PLL(Phase Locked Loop) into digital PLL to operate at high speed systems flexibly, and present optimal DPLL model in high speed(20x) DVD systems. Especially, we focused on the design of DPLL that can overcome channel effects such as bulk delay, sampling clock frequency offset and asymmetry phenomenon in high speed DVD systems. First, the modified Early-Late timing error detector as digital timing recovery scheme is proposed. And the four-sampled compensation algorithm using zero crossing point as asymmetry compensator is designed to achieve high speed operation and strong reliability. We show that the proposed timing recovery algorithm provides enhanced performances in jitter valiance and SNR margin by 4 times and 3dB respectively. Also, the new four-sampled zero crossing asymmetry compensation algorithm provides 34% improvement of jitter performance, 50% reduction of compensation time and 2.0dB gain of SNR compared with other algorithms. Finally, the proposed systems combined with asymmetry compensator and DPLL are shown to provide improved performance of about 0.4dB, 2dB over the existing schemes by BER evaluation.
Multi-carriers PAPR Reduction Method using Adaptive Sub-optimal PTS with Threshold
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2012~2018
This paper proposes the adaptive suboptimal iterative algorithm using threshold to reduce system complexity in the PTS\`s. Performance of the proposed adaptive suboptimal iteration algorithm is represented in terms of iteration number and CDF. In the case of the number of sub-block is 4, the 10-3 PAPR of the proposed method and P S improved this by 0.4dB compared to Cimini\`s. And the complexity of the proposed method was reduced to nearly 22% for the PTS\`s and 44% for the Cimini\`s for 8dB threshold. For the 8 sub-blocks, the 10
-3/ PAPR of the proposed method reduced by 0.7dB compared to PTS\`s, but improved by 0.4dB compared to Cimini\`s. And the complexity of the proposed method was reduced to nearly 2.4% for the PTS\`s and 39% for the Cimini\`s.
A Study on Recognition of Car License Plate using Dynamical Thresholding Method and Kohonen Algorithm
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2019~2026
In this paper, we proposed the car license plate extraction and recognition algorithm using both the dynamical thresholding method and the kohonen algorithm. In general, the areas of car license plate in the car images have distinguishing characteristics, such as the differences in intensity between the areas of characters and the background of the plates, the fixed ratio of width to height of the plates, and the higher dynamical thresholded density rate 7han the other areas, etc. Taking advantage of the characteristics, the thresholded images were created from the original images, and also the density rates were computed. A candidate area was selected, whose density rate was corresponding to the properties of the car license plate obtained from the car license plate. The contour tracking method by utilizing the Kohonen algorithm was applied to extract the specific area which included characters and numbers from an extracted plate area. The characters and numbers of the license place were recognized by using Kohonen algorithm. Kohonen algorithm was very effective o? suppressing noises scattered around the contour. In this study, 80 car images were tested. The result indicate that we proposed is superior in performance.
Audio Stream Delivery Using AMR(Adaptive Multi-Rate) Coder with Forward Error Correction in the Internet
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2027~2035
In this paper, we present an audio stream delivery using the AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) coder that was adopted by ETSI and 3GPP as a standard vocoder for next generation IMT-2000 service in which includes combined sender (FEC) and receiver reconstruction technique in the Internet. By use of the media-specific FEC scheme, the possibility to recover lost packets can be much increased due to the addition of repair data to a main data stream, by which the contents of lost packets can be recovered. The AMR codec is based on the code-excited linear predictive (CELP) coding model. So we use a frame erasure concealment for CELP-based coders. The proposed scheme is evaluated with ITU-T G.729 (CS-ACELP) coder and AMR - 12.2 kbit/s through the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) and the MOS (Mean Opinion Score) test. The proposed scheme provides 1.1 higher in Mean Opinion Score value and 5.61 dB higher than AMR - 12.2 kbit/s in terms of SNR in 10% packet loss, and maintains the communicab1e quality speech at frame erasure rates lop to 20%.
Efficient Implementation of Noise Generation System
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2036~2042
The performance of communication systems should be tested against a set of requirements. To this end, noise generation systems are used to generate noise signals with specified characteristics. In this paper, we proposed the area-efficient noise generation system based on DCT method. It is shown that the proposed structure results in area reduction of non-DCT block by 40 ∼ 45%. Also, the proposed structure can reduce power consumption by eliminating unnecessary operations in some blocks of noise generation system.
A New Convergence Behavior of the Least Mean Fourth Adaptive Algorithm for a Multiple Sinusoidal Input
Lee, Kang-Seung ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2043~2049
In this paper we study the convergence behavior of the least mean fourth(LMF) algorithm where the error raised to the power of four is minimized for a multiple sinusoidal input and Gaussian measurement noise. Here we newly obtain the convergence equation for the sum of the mean of the squared weight errors, which indicates that the transient behavior can differ depending on the relative sizes of the Gaussian noise and the convergence constant. It should be noted that no similar results can be expected from the previous analysis by Walach add Widrow.
The Filtered-x Least Mean Fourth Algorithm for Active Noise Cancellation and Its Convergence Behavior
Lee, Kang-Seung ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2050~2058
In this paper, we propose the filtered-x least mean fourth (LMF) algorithm where the error raised to the power of four is minimized and analyze its convergence behavior for a multiple sinusoidal acoustic noise and Gaussian measurement noise. Application of the filtered-x LMF adaptive filter to active noise cancellation (ANC) requires estimating of the transfer characteristic of the acoustic path between the output and error signal of the adaptive controller. The results of 7he convergence analysis of the filtered-x LMF algorithm indicates that the effects of the parameter estimation inaccuracy on the convergence behavior of the algorithm are characterized by two distinct components : Phase estimation error and estimated gain. In particular, the convergence is shown to be strongly affected by the accuracy of the phase response estimate. Also, we newly show that convergence behavior can differ depending on the relative sizes of the Gaussian measurement noise and convergence constant.
Reduction of Input Pins in VLSI Array for High Speed Fractal Image Compression
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2059~2066
In this paper, we proposed a method to reduce the number of input pins in one-dimensional VLSI array for fractal image compression. We use quad-tree partition scheme and can reduce the number of the input pins up to 50% by sharing the domain\`s and the range\`s data input pins in the proposed VLSI array architecture. Also, we can reduce the input pins and simplify the internal operation circuit of the processing elements by eliminating a few number of bits of the least significant bits of the input data. We simulated using the 256
256 and 512
512 Lena images to verify performance of the proposed method. As the result of simulation, we can decompress the original image with about 32dB(PSNR) in spite of elimination of the least significant 2-bit in the original input data, and additionally reduce the number of input pins up to 25% compared to VLSI array sharing input pins of range and domain.
On Pattern Kernel with Multi-Resolution Architecture for a Lip Print Recognition
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2067~2073
Biometric systems are forms of technology that use unique human physical characteristics to automatically identify a person. They have sensors to pick up some physical characteristics, convert them into digital patterns, and compare them with patterns stored for individual identification. However, lip-print recognition has been less developed than recognition of other human physical attributes such as the fingerprint, voice patterns, retinal at blood vessel patterns, or the face. The lip print recognition by a CCD camera has the merit of being linked with other recognition systems such as the retinal/iris eye and the face. A new method using multi-resolution architecture is proposed to recognize a lip print from the pattern kernels. A set of pattern kernels is a function of some local lip print masks. This function converts the information from a lip print into digital data. Recognition in the multi-resolution system is more reliable than recognition in the single-resolution system. The multi-resolution architecture allows us to reduce the false recognition rate from 15% to 4.7%. This paper shows that a lip print is sufficiently used by the measurements of biometric systems.
Digital image watermarking techniques using multiresolution wavelet transform in Sequency domain
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2074~2084
la this paper, a new digital watermarking algorithm using wavelet transform in frequency domain is suggested. The wavelet coefficients of low frequency subband are utilized to embed the watermark, After the original image is transformed using discrete wavelet transform, their coefficients are transformed into efficient1y in Sequency domain. DCT and FFT transforms are utilized in this processing. Watermark image of general image format is transformed using DCT and the hiding watermark into wavelet coefficients is equally distributed in frequency domain. Next, these wavelet coefficients are performed with inverse transform. The detection process of watermark is performed with reverse direction to insertion process. In this paper, we developed core watermark technologies which are a data hiding technology to hide unique logo mark which symbolizes the copyright and a robust protection technology to protect logo data from external attack like as compression, filtering, resampling, cropping. The experimental results show that two suggested watermarking technologies are invisible and robust.
Performance Improvement Using Mean Compensation of Quantization Noise in Low Bit-rate Video Encoder
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2085~2091
In lossy compression method, the transformed coefficients are quantized. This results in the quantization noise. The video image quality and bit rate is closely related with the quantization step. In this paper, we proposed a new quantization function for the improved performance. The DC value of each macroblock is compensated depending on the magnitude of DC quantization error. It is implemented very low bit-rate video coding, i.e., H.26L. The experimental result is useful when the object motion is not severe.
Stereo Image Coding Using Zerotree
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2092~2099
In the three-dimensional image system using stereoscopic images, efficient coding schemes which can get rid of redundancy between the left and right images are usually used. In this paper, we propose an efficient coding method by using relationship between a reference image and residual image. In the proposed algorithm, zero-tree method which guaranty a good quality in low bit rate is used for encoding the residual image. Zero-tree algorithm gives good coding performance, but it has computational complexity so that we used ADLS method to reduce time for the disparity estimation. Using the wavelet based zero-tree method, it is shown that high quality of image in the limited band-width can be preserved through computer simulation.
Highly Reliable Digital Image Watermarking Based on HVS and DWT
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2100~2108
A digital image watermarking algorithm is proposed that uses human visual system (HVS) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). In this algorithm, an image is decomposed into four-level by DWT which reveals the characteristics of the human eyes and watermark is embedded into DWT coefficients using HVS. For robustness, the lowest level subbands which represent the highest frequency component are excluded in watermark embedding step and watermark is embedded into the perceptually significant coefficients (PSCs) of the rest subbands. PSCs of the baseband are selected according to the amplitude of the coefficients and PSCs of the high frequency subbands are selected by successive subband quantization (SSQ). Watermark is embedded into the PSCs of the baseband and high frequency subbands by Weber\`s law and spatial masking effect, respectively, for the invisibility and robustness. We tested the performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the conventional watermarking algorithm by computer simulation. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm produces a better invisibility and robustness than the conventional algorithm.
Fast information extraction algorithm for object-based MPEG-4 application from MPEG-2 bit-streamaper
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 26, issue 12A, 2001, Pages 2109~2119
In this paper, a fast information extraction algorithm for object-based MPEG-4 application from MPEG-2 bit-steam is proposed. For object-based MPEG-4 conversion, we need to extract such information as object-image, shape-image, macro-block motion vector, and header information from MPEG-2 bit-stream. If we use the extracted information, fast conversion for object-based MPEG-4 is possible. The proposed object extraction algorithm has two important steps, namely the motion vectors extraction from MPEG-2 bit-stream and the watershed algorithm. The algorithm extracts objects using user\`s assistance in the intra frame and tracks then in the following inter frames. If we have an unsatisfactory result for a fast moving object, the user can intervene to correct the segmentation. The proposed algorithm consist of two steps, which are intra frame object extracts processing and inter frame tracking processing. Object extracting process is the step in which user extracts a semantic object directly by using the block classification and watersheds. Object tacking process is the step of the following the object in the subsequent frames. It is based on the boundary fitting method using motion vector, object-mask, and modified watersheds. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve a fast conversion from the MPEG-2 bit-stream to the object-based MPEG-4 input.