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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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The Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 12C - Dec 2009
Volume 34, Issue 12B - Dec 2009
Volume 34, Issue 12A - Dec 2009
Volume 34, Issue 11C - Nov 2009
Volume 34, Issue 11B - Nov 2009
Volume 34, Issue 11A - Nov 2009
Volume 34, Issue 10C - Oct 2009
Volume 34, Issue 10B - Oct 2009
Volume 34, Issue 10A - Oct 2009
Volume 34, Issue 9C - Sep 2009
Volume 34, Issue 9B - Sep 2009
Volume 34, Issue 9A - Sep 2009
Volume 34, Issue 8C - Aug 2009
Volume 34, Issue 8B - Aug 2009
Volume 34, Issue 8A - Aug 2009
Volume 34, Issue 7C - Jul 2009
Volume 34, Issue 7B - Jul 2009
Volume 34, Issue 7A - Jul 2009
Volume 34, Issue 6C - Jun 2009
Volume 34, Issue 6B - Jun 2009
Volume 34, Issue 6A - Jun 2009
Volume 34, Issue 5C - May 2009
Volume 34, Issue 5B - May 2009
Volume 34, Issue 5A - May 2009
Volume 34, Issue 4C - Apr 2009
Volume 34, Issue 4B - Apr 2009
Volume 34, Issue 4A - Apr 2009
Volume 34, Issue 3C - Mar 2009
Volume 34, Issue 3B - Mar 2009
Volume 34, Issue 3A - Mar 2009
Volume 34, Issue 2C - Feb 2009
Volume 34, Issue 2B - Feb 2009
Volume 34, Issue 2A - Feb 2009
Volume 34, Issue 1C - Jan 2009
Volume 34, Issue 1B - Jan 2009
Volume 34, Issue 1A - Jan 2009
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K-connected, (K+1)-covered Fault-tolerant Topology Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
Park, Jae-Hyun ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1133~1141
In this paper, we present a distributed fault-tolerant topology control protocol that configure a wireless sensor network to achieve k-connectivity and (k+1)-coverage. One fundamental issue in sensor networks is to maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity in order to support different applications and environments, while some least active nodes are on duty. Topology control algorithms have been proposed to maintain network connectivity while improving energy efficiency and increasing network capacity. However, by reducing the number of links in the network, topology control algorithms actually decrease the degree of routing redundancy. Although the protocols for resolving such a problem while maintaining sensing coverage were proposed, they requires accurate location information to check the coverage, and most of active sensors in the constructed topology maintain 2k-connectivity when they keep k-coverage. We propose the fault-tolerant topology control protocol that is based on the theorem that k-connectivity implies (k+1)-coverage when the sensing range is at two times the transmission range. The proposed distributed algorithm does not need accurate location information, the complexity is O(1). We demonstrate the capability of the proposed protocol to provide guaranteed connectivity and coverage, through both geometric analysis and extensive simulation.
Novel Bandwidth Scheduling Algorithm for DOCSIS 3.0 Based Multiple Upstream Channels
Jung, Joon-Young ; Ahn, Jae-Min ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1142~1150
In this paper, we propose an novel bandwidth scheduling algorithm for the MAC protocol employed by the Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications (DOCSIS) 3.0 compliant cable networks. The proposed algorithm statistically improves the chances of request piggybacking to minimize the access delay. It utilizes the piggyback request feature of the segment packets that has been newly specified in DCOSIS 3.0. In DOCSIS 3.0, a bandwidth request can be granted to several upstream channels within an upstream bonding group. The grant on each individual channel is treated as a segment packet. We find the optimal segment placement to minimize the access delay in the proposed algorithm. We also use a self-similar traffic model for simulation and analysis to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Cross-layer Design of Packet Scheduling for Real-Time Multimedia Streaming
Hong, Sung-Woo ; Won, You-Jip ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1151~1168
Improving packet loss does not necessarily coincide with the improvement in user perceivable QoS because each frame carries different degree of importance. We propose Significance-aware packet scheduling (SAPS) to maximize user perceivable QoS. SAPS carries out two fundamental issues of packet scheduling: "What to transmit" and "When to transmit?" To adapt to the available bandwidth, it is necessarily to transmit the subset of the data packets if the entire set of packets can not be transmitted. "Packet Significance" quantifies the importance of the frame by elaborately incorporating frames' dependency. Greedy approach is used in selecting packets and transmission schedule is determined based on the Packet Significance. The proposed scheme is tested using publicly available MPEG-4 video clips. Decoding engine is embedded in the simulation software and user perceivable QoS is exposeed in termstermiSNR. Throughout the simulation based experiment, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared two other schemes: Size-based packet scheduling and Bit-rate based best effort packet scheduling. SAPS successfully incorporates the semantics of a packet and improves user perceivable QoS significantly. It successfully provides unequal protection to more important packets.
Design of Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Delay Sensitive Application over Wireless Sensor Network
Oh, Hyung-Rai ; Song, Hwang-Jun ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1169~1177
This paper presents an energy efficient MAC protocol for delay-sensitive data transmission over wireless sensor network. In general, energy consumption and delay depend on Channel Monitoring Interval and data sensing period at each sensor node. Based on this fact, we propose a new preamble structure to effectively advertise Channel Monitoring Interval and avoid the overhearing problem. In order to pursue an effective tradeoff between energy consumption and delay, we also develop a Channel Monitoring Interval determining algorithm that searches for a sub-optimal solution with a low computational complexity. Finally, experimental results are provided to compare the proposed MAC protocol with existing sensor MAC protocols.
Dual Token Bucket based HCCA Scheduler for IEEE 802.11e
Lee, Dong-Yul ; Lee, Chae-Woo ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1178~1190
IEEE 802.11e proposed by IEEE 802.11 working group to guarantee QoS has contention based EDCA and contention free based HCCA. HCCA, a centralized polling based mechanism of 802.11e, needs a scheduling algorithm to allocate the network resource efficiently. The existing standard scheduler, however, is inefficient to support for QoS guarantee for real-time service having VBR traffic. To efficiently assign resource for VBR traffic, in this paper, we propose TXOP algorithm based on dual leaky bucket using average resource allocation and peak resource allocation. The minimum TXOP of each station is obtained by using statistical approach to maximize number of stations of which performance satisfy QoS target. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has much higher performance compared with reference scheduler in terms of throughput and delay.
Optimal Packet Price for Differentiated Internet Services
Lee, Hoon ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1191~1199
As the Internet service evolves from the best effort data service to a multimedia service such as a mix of voice, data and video, a need for the guarantee of the quality of service to network services became one of the hot issues for the network operators. On the other hand, the introduction of the multimedia services over the IP network requires a managed differentiated service that adopts a prioritized treatment of packets. This incurs a need for a differentiated pricing scheme for the packets that receive different level of quality of service. This work proposes an analytic framework about packet pricing scheme for these services, and investigate the effect of service differentiation to the packet price for each class. Via numerical experiment, we validate our argument and illustrate the implication of the work.
CASMAC(Context Aware Sensor MAC Protocol) : An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Ubiquitous Sensor Network Environments
Joo, Young-Sun ; Jung, Min-A ; Lee, Seong-Ro ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1200~1206
In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient MAC(Medium Access Control) protocol for processing context information in ubiquitous sensor network environments. CASMAC(Context Aware Sensor MAC) use context information for energy-efficient operation and its operation principle is as follows. First, we make scenarios with possible prediction for CASMAC. And then we save setted context information in server. When event occur at specific sensor node, and then it send three times sample data to server. According to context information, server process sample data. If server process sample data with event, it receive continuous data from event occur node by a transmission request signal. And then server send data transmission stop signal to event occur node when it do not need to data. If server process sample data with no event, it have not reply. Through we make energy consumption tables and an energy consumption model, we simulate analysis of CASMAC performance. In a result, we gains about 5.7 percents energy reduction compared to SMAC.
Wavelength Integration Transmission Method for Hybrid-PON
Kim, Jin-Hee ; Cheong, Ki-Tae ; Chung, Hae ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1207~1215
The FTTH is known as an optimal solution to provide broadband services like IPTV and the W-PON is a good alternative to implement the FTTH. It is firstly commercialized in Korea but not widely deployed because of it's high price. In this paper, we suggest a wavelength integration method to drop the price and enhance the utilization of the W-PON. The method makes one logical channel with multiple wavelengths when the W-PON system has to accommodate a signal of which transmission rate is greater than the rate of a single wavelength. Accordingly, the system can accommodate any signal rate. We introduce a frame structure, suggest synchronization and clock recovery methods, and finally show actual applications for the Ethernet and the G-PON.
Cross-layer based Transmission Scheme for Multimedia Service over Mobile Ad Hoc Network
An, Ki-Jin ; Joo, Hyun-Chul ; Song, Hwang-Jun ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1216~1224
This paper presents cross-layer based packet scheduling and routing algorithm to effectively transmit delay-sensitive multimedia data over mobile ad hoc network. At first, packet urgency, node urgency, and route urgency are defined based on the end-to-end delay requirement of each packet and the number of hops over a route. Based on the urgency metric, the proposed transmission scheme is that packet scheduling algorithm at the MAC layer and routing algorithm at the network layer are tightly-coupled to improve the transmission performance for delay-sensitive multimedia. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the performance of proposed transmission scheme.
On the Performance Degradation Characteristics of High-Speed Enterprise Network
Ju, Hong-Taek ; Hong, Seong-Cheol ; Hong, James Won-Ki ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1225~1233
ISPs and Enterprises are equipping their networks with sufficiently high speed facilities and provide large bandwidths members. However the high speed enterprise network does not have satisfying end-to-end network performance within the network in spite of under utilization. The root cause of this performance degradation is a micro-congestion, which is a short-live event of traffic congestion. A micro-congestion causes packet loss, delay and packet reodering, and finally results in end-to-end network performance degradation. In this paper, we propose a micro-congestion detection method and find out the characteristics of performance degradation by analyzing traffic archives which is collected from a network link when a micro-congestion occurs.
Statistic Signature based Application Traffic Classification
Park, Jin-Wan ; Yoon, Sung-Ho ; Park, Jun-Sang ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Myung-Sup ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1234~1244
Nowadays, the traffic type and behavior are extremely diverse due to the appearance of various services and applications on Internet, which makes the need of application-level traffic classification important for the efficient management and control of network resources. Although lots of methods for traffic classification have been introduced in literature, they have some limitations to achieve an acceptable level of performance in terms of accuracy and completeness. In this paper we propose an application traffic classification method using statistic signatures, defined as a directional sequence of packet size in a flow, which is unique for each application. The statistic signatures of each application are collected by our automatic grouping and extracting mechanism which is mainly described in this paper. By matching to the statistic signatures we can easily and quickly identify the application name of traffic flows with high accuracy, which is also shown by comprehensive excrement with our campus traffic data.
Performance Analysis and Architecture Proposal of IMS based OMA BCAST for 3Screens Service
Hwang, Sung-Oh ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Lee, Jai-Yong ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1245~1253
Since 2000, the demand for multimedia content consumption has been continuously increasing. The research and standardization for the mobile broadcast service has been done to deliver multimedia contents to the huge number of users with the minimum cost. A few commercial services started after the related standards were released. We call this mobile broadcast service the 1st generation service. Now, many experts are researching and developing the technologies for 3Screens(TV, PC, and Mobile) Services that an user can enjoy multimedia contents at every place with the various networks and devices. To enable this service, two main technical areas exist. The first is a core network technology that can support the various access network and the second is a common application layer technology. To resolve these technical areas, we propose IMS(IP Multimedia Subsystem) based OMA BCAST(Open Mobile Alliance Mobile Broadcast Service Enabler Suite) as the technical solution for 3 Screen Services in the paper. In addition, we propose application layer multicast that is enable to implement IMS based OMA BCAST to the existing network with the minimum cost. Finally, we show how we can save the implementation cost of IMS based OMA BCAST with the simulation results.
History-Aware RED for Relieving the Bandwidth Monopoly of a Station Employing Multiple Parallel TCP flows
Jun, Kyung-Koo ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1254~1260
This paper proposes history-aware random early detection (HRED), a modified version of RED, to lessen bandwidth monopoly by a few of stations employing multiple parallel TCP flows. Stations running peer-to-peer file sharing applications such as BitTorrent use multiple TCP flows. If those stations share a link with other stations with only a small number of TCP flows, the stations occupy most of link bandwidth leading to undesirable bandwidth monopoly. HRED like RED determines whether to drop incoming packets according to probability which changes based on queue length. However it adjusts the drop probability based on bandwidth occupying ratio of stations, thus able to impose harder drop penalty on monopoly stations. The results of simulations assuming various scenarios show that HRED is at least 60% more effective than RED in supporting the bandwidth fairness among stations and at least 4% in utilization.
Analysis on 3G Mobile Spectrum Charges by International Comparison
Kim, Tae-Sung ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Jun, Hyo-Jung ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1261~1271
Emergence of new mobile communication services has generated new demand for spectrum. Because spectrum is a scarce public resource, demand for spectrum would exceed supply. As the demand for spectrum grows, the spectrum management policy becomes one of the most important issues in mobile telecommunications industry. Huge license charges for spectrum usage may obstruct the growth of mobile telecommunications industry. We analyze spectrum charges by international comparison for the case of 3G mobile telecommunication spectrum assignment. There are mainly two types of methods in spectrum assignment of 3G service, one is the auction and the other is the beauty contest. This article aims to analyze factors which influence on spectrum charges and to study the characteristic of spectrum charges of some selected countries. This study suggests the multiple regression model about spectrum charges.
Dual-Radio Tag System for RFID Tag Mesh Networking
Kim, Jin-Hwan ; Yoo, Young-Hwan ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1272~1282
This paper consists of two parts: the protocol for tag-to-tag mesh network and the implementation of dual-radio RFID system. Recently, RFID has been adopted in ports or warehouse, being attached to containers and palettes for loading/unloading automation. However, the RFID system has encountered one problem - some tags cannot receive any command from reader intermittently due to signal interference by containers or field equipments (e. g. cranes and yard tractors). This area where reader signal cannot reach is called dead-zone. The proposed method for solving the dead-zone problem is as follows. A zone which can be communicated directly between readers and tags communicates in 433MHz frequency band in compliance with ISO/IEC 18000-7 standard. On the other hand, dead-zone communicates in 2.4GHz frequency band by using tag-to-tag mesh network in compliance with IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed method can not only save much cost to install additional readers but also help resolve the dead-zone problem. Furthermore, it can provide the easier, faster, and more economical network infrastructure.
Fast Digital Hologram Generation Using True 3D Object
Kang, Hoon-Jong ; Lee, Gang-Sung ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1283~1288
In general, a 3D computer graphic model is being used to generate a digital hologram as theinput information because the 3D information of an object can be extracted from a 3D model, easily. The 3D information of a real scene can be extracted by using a depth camera. The 3D information, point cloud, corresponding to real scene is extracted from a taken image pair, a gray texture and a depth map, by a depth camera. The extracted point cloud is used to generate a digital hologram as input information. The digital hologram is generated by using the coherent holographic stereogram, which is a fast digital hologram generation algorithm based on segmentation. The generated digital hologram using the taken image pair by a depth camera is reconstructed by the Fresnel approximation. By this method, the digital hologram corresponding to a real scene or a real object could be generated by using the fast digital hologram generation algorithm. Furthermore, experimental results are satisfactory.
R Wave Detection Algorithm Based Adaptive Variable Threshold and Window for PVC Classification
Cho, Ik-Sung ; Kwon, Hyeog-Soong ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1289~1295
Premature ventricular contractions are the most common of all arrhythmias and may cause more serious situation like ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in some patients. Therefore, the detection of this arrhythmia becomes crucial in the early diagnosis and prevention of possible life threatening cardiac diseases. Particularly, in the healthcare system that must continuously monitor people's situation, it is necessary to process ECG signal in realtime. In other words, design of algorithm that exactly detects R wave using minimal computation and classifies PVC is needed. So, R wave detection algorithm based adaptive threshold and window for the classification of PVC is presented in this paper. For this purpose, ECG signals are first processed by the usual preprocessing method and R wave was detected and adaptive window through R-R interval is used for efficiency of the detection. The performance of R wave detection and PVC classification is evaluated by using MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The achieved scores indicate 99.33%, 88.86% accuracy respectively for R wave detection and PVC classification.
Hologram Compression Technique using Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering
Seo, Young-Ho ; Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1296~1302
We propose an efficient coding method of digital holograms using MCTF and standard compression tools for video. The hologram is generated by a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm with both an object image and its depth information. The proposed coding consists of localization by segmenting a hologram, frequency transform using
segment size, 2-D discrete cosine transform DCT for extracting redundancy, motion compensated temporal filtering (MCTF), segment scanning the segmented hologram to form a video sequence, and video coding, which uses H.264/AVC. The proposed algorithm illustrates that it has better properties for reconstruction, 10% higher compression rate than previous research in case of object.
Fast Multi-View Synthesis Using Duplex Foward Mapping and Parallel Processing
Choi, Ji-Youn ; Ryu, Sae-Woon ; Shin, Hong-Chang ; Park, Jong-Il ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1303~1310
Glassless 3D display requires multiple images taken from different viewpoints to show a scene. The simplest way to get multi-view image is using multiple camera that as number of views are requires. To do that, synchronize between cameras or compute and transmit lots of data comes critical problem. Thus, generating such a large number of viewpoint images effectively is emerging as a key technique in 3D video technology. Image-based view synthesis is an algorithm for generating various virtual viewpoint images using a limited number of views and depth maps. In this paper, because the virtual view image can be express as a transformed image from real view with some depth condition, we propose an algorithm to compute multi-view synthesis from two reference view images and their own depth-map by stepwise duplex forward mapping. And also, because the geometrical relationship between real view and virtual view is repetitively, we apply our algorithm into OpenGL Shading Language which is a programmable Graphic Process Unit that allow parallel processing to improve computation time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm for fast view synthesis through a variety of experiments with real data.
Three-dimensional Display of Microscopic Specimen using Integral Imaging Microscope and Display
Lim, Young-Tae ; Park, Jae-Hyeung ; Kwon, Ki-Chul ; Kim, Nam ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1311~1319
Microscopic specimen was captured by an integral imaging microscope and displayed as a three-dimensional image by an integral imaging display system. We applied the generalized relationship between pickup and display using two different lens arrays to our integral imaging microscope and display system. In order to display three-dimensional microscopic image, scaling of the captured elemental images is required. We analyzed the effect of the scaling coefficient in terms of the distortion of the displayed three-dimensional image and the loss of the captured elemental images. In our experiment, microscopic specimen is picked up by an integral imaging microscope having
elemental lens pitch and displayed as three-dimensional image by an integral imaging display system having 1mm elemental lens pitch. The scaling coefficient was chosen to minimize the elemental image loss.
Analysis on the cause inducing an uncorrected disparity and distorted depth information by the image distance in stereo camera system
Lee, Kwang-Hoon ; Kim, Dong-Wook ; Kwon, Yong-Moo ; Chang, Eun-Young ; Kim, Sung-Kyu ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, volume 34, issue 11B, 2009, Pages 1320~1327
In stereoscopy using stereo camera system, the representative factors inducing stereoscopic depth distortions have been reported such as the inter camera distance, the convergence angle and the depth resolution. The image distance is just known to us as a factor related in optical system. In a point of view of depth distortion, it will be a factor inducing a stereoscopic depth distortion. In this paper, we focused on the proof of our opinion that the image distance is one of the weighted factors inducing depth distortion under orthostereoscopic condition.