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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Nov 1985
Volume 12, Issue 1 - May 1985
Selecting the target year
Study on the Genetic Correlations of Body Weights and the Growth Rates from 2- to 8-weeks of Age in Broiler Chicken
Ohh, Bong-Kug ; Yang, Young-Whoun ; Sohn, Sea-Hwan ; Lee, Moun-Yeoun ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 53~57
This study was carried out to estimate genetic correlations among broiler body weights for the selection of broiler breeders at early age, and to investigate the difference of growth rates between male and female in mixed-sex population of broiler from 2wks to 8 wks of age. A total of 1109 records were used in this study. the heritability estimates from combined variance components for 2-,4-, 6- and 8- weeks body weights were 0.32, 0.31, 0.35 and 0.29 respectively. Genetic correlations were 0.91 between 4wks and 8wks body weights, 0.94 between 6wks and 8wks body weights. Records obtained on 4wks and 8wks might be useful in a selection program to improve traits in 8wks broiler weight. Growth rates of male and female from nonlinear equations from 2wks to 8wks were shown differently in both linear and quadratic terms, Even though both sexes showed closely equal body weights at 2wks of age, they manifested great difference about 300g at 8wks of age. At all. ages roles were havier, grew at a faster than female. From this result it might be profitable either to select the combination of lines which has little sex effect or to rear male and female broiler separately up to the marketing body weights.
Relationship of Initial Chick Weight to Body Weight in Broiler
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 59~64
The study was carried out to determine if a difference in initial chick weight was still evident in market body weight(6 or 8 week body weight) of broilers. The data of a total of 800 broiler commercial chick raised at Poultry Breeding Farm, Seoul National University from Aug. 6, 1981 to Oct. 1, 1981 were analysed. The results were summarized as follows: 1. Although the initial chick weight was about the same, male chick grew more rapidly than female and sex difference was the most striking factor in growth rate of broiler in this analysis. 2. The relationship between initial chick weight and body weight after hatching was decreased to the increase of weeks of age in both sexes. Though the correlation coefficients of the 6 week and 8 week body weight to the initial chick weight were 0.15 & 0.15 in female and 0.18 & 0.17 in male, the relationship was highly significant in both sexes. 3. Regressions of 6 and 8 week body weight on the initial chick weight in both sexes indicate that, for each increase of one gram in weight of chick at hatching, the average increase in body weight was 8.33 gram ＆ 10.07 gram in female and 7.85 gram ＆ 11.28 gram in male. Results show that the initial chick weight (1 day of age) influence average body weight of commercial broiler at 6 and 8 weeks of age.
Studies on the Hereditary Characters and Some Economical Traits of Korean Native Ogolgye I. Characteristics and Growth of Morphological Traits
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 65~73
More than 1,000 chickens of Korean native Yeonsan Ogolgye (Natural Monument No. 256) were used in this study in order to investigate their various external characteristics. The aims of this study were to define the Ogolgye chicken as a breed, and to provide basal data necessary for the genetic improvement of this breed. The investigated items are as follows : color of feather and toe; presense or absence of shank feather; the number of toes: color of shank and comb; the growth rates of shank, comb and feathers in various feather tracts; and finally, the livability. Data and informations were presented in tabular form in table 1 through 12. In summary, the various external traits of the Korean native Ogolgye breed can be characterized as follows. It has normal feather than silkic one as in the western type, with black color per-dominant. The frquency of white feather color is very low. The color of toes is devided into two categories; black toes in black plumage lines, and white toes in white plumage lines. Both seres have single combs with black color. The shank is gray- black and featherless. The breed has normally four toes. The eye color is black.
Estimation of Heterosis from Strain Crosses of White Crosses and White Plymouth Rock for Certain Economic Traits
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 75~82
This study was carried out to estimate combining abilities and heterosis in White Cornish and White Plymouth Rock. The data were obtained over an 8weeks period from 3rd Oct., 1984 to 28th Nov. 1984 at the Livestock Experiment Station. A total of 810 birds, composed of 369 pure strains, 270 two-way crosses, and 180 fourway crosses were average amount of heterosis expressed as a ratio was 1.63% for livability, 5.47% for body weight at 8 weeks, 5.57% for weight gain from day old to 8 weeks and -5.98% for feed requirement. Specific combining ability were statistically significant for all of the traits examined in this study. Although the general combining ability was not significant for any of the traits, strain A appears to be superior to other strains.
The Study of G- Banding Chromosome in Silkie
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 83~87
This experiment was carried out to identify the chromosomes of silkie. It was many difference from other breeds in morphology and characteristics. In this experiment, chromosomal analysis was used early embryos. In aspect of morphological chromosomes, chromosomal size and shape are similar to other breeds. The chromosomes of silkie were shown to morphlogy as follows. They were identified that chromosome #l and #2 were grouped as submentacentric, ＃3, ＃5 and ＃6 were telocentric ＃4 and ＃7 were acrocentric and ＃8 was metacentric chromosome. Zㆍsex chromosome was shown 5th, W-sex chromosome was 8th to 9th and they were metacentric chromosome, respectively. Each chromosome through the G-banding was shown the 3 dark bands in 1 p2, distinct light band in 1p1, dark band in 2p2, broad light band in 3pl, dark band from centromere and distal part in 4th chromosome and dark band in 5pl. Z-sex chromosome was shown dark at p-arm distal part.
The Effect of Antibiotics on the Performance of Broiler Chicks
J. W. Han ; J. S. Chung ; I. K. Paik ; Lee, S. H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 89~95
Two experiments were undertaken to study the growth promoting effect of Spiramycin and Virginiamycin at the level of 5ppm each. In the first experiment, 180 day - old male broiler chickens (Maniker parent stock) were divided into 18 groups of 10 birds each. Six groups were placed on one of the three experimental diets (Nonmedicated control, Spiramycin supplemented diet and Virginiamycin supplemented diet). Basal diet of Experiment 1 contained 21.9% crude protein and 3159kcal /kg diet. Second experiment employed same treatments as were used in the Experiment 1. Ninety male and 90 female day-old broiler chickens(Maniker commercial) were grouped by 10 birds of sane sex in each and assigned to 3
2 factorial design. Basal diet of Experiment 2 contained 19.95% crude protein and 2931kcal/kg diet. Chicks were fed for six weeks in battery with raised floor and kept further for metabolic trials. The results of feeding trials showed that there were no statistically significant differences between treatments in weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and mortality. However, birds fed Antibiotic B supplemented diet grew approximately 3% more than the control in Experiment 1 and than those fed Antibiotic A supplemented diet in Experiment 2. Feed efficiency was also improved by supplementing Antibiotic B in both experiments. There were significant(P〈0.01) differences between sexes in growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency. Birds fed Antibiotic B supplemented diet of Experiment 1 showed significantly (P〈0.01) greater availability for crude fat than those fed other diets. Birds fed Antiobiotic A supplemented diet in Experiment 1 showed significantly (P〈0.05) lower availability of crude fiber than those of other treatments. Weight of small intestine of birds fed Antibiotic B tended to be heavier than those fed other diets.
Studies on the Water and Na Metabolism of Roosters Fed Various Sources of Dietary Fiber
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 97~105
Fifteen 1-yr old roosters were employed in order to investigate the influence of various dietary fibers on the water and Na metabolism of chicken. Wheat bran, pure cellulose and ground rice straw replaced corn in the control diet at 10% level; Pectin replaced corn at 8% level. Three roosters were allotted per dietary treatment and one rooster per replicate. The limit of probability accepted as being significant was P
.05. The dry matter metabolizabilities of cellulose and rice straw diets were significantly lower, and those of control and pectin diets were significantly higher than that of the wheat bran diet. Pectin fed roosters seemed to drink more water than did the other birds. Also, excreta from roosters fed the pectin diet were significantly wetter than those from other treatments. However, no difference in water intake and fecal moisture were found when !he roosters were colostomized. It was also found that the colostomized birds drank more water than did intact ones. Data of water holding capacity and bulk density of dried excreta showed that cellulose, rice straw and wheat bran in decreasing order were strong in fibrous property. There were no significant differences in C
, Cosm and C
among all treatments. When the values of urine volume, urine osmolality and C
were put together, it can be concluded that 11 out of 15 roosters developed diuresis. More severe diuretic symptoms were developed in roosters when they were fed more fibrous diets. In conclusion, when the four dietary fibers were graded in terms of fibrous property, it turned out to be pectin, cellulose, rice straw and wheat bran in decreasing order.
Studies on the Marketing of Broilers
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 107~111
This studies were carried out to obtain the information on the establishment of marketing of broilers. The data for these studies were collected from 16 whole sale traders, 25 retail stores, 12 supermarkets and 3 direct-sales stall located at the suburbs of Seoul, Daejon, Gwangju and Busan. 1. Chickens were generally sold and named for a Spring chicken(0.6-0.9kg), a Boiled chicken of ginseng (1.0-l.3kg), a Semi-bro (1.3-l.7kg) or High-bro(1.8-2.1kg) by their body weight, However, those names were not uniform. 2. Since 47.5% of High-bro chickens, 60.0% of Spring chickens and 16.7% of Semibro chickens were used for domestic use and 66.7% of Semi-bro chickens was taken by butchers, it seemed that most chickens except Highbro and Spring chicken were distributed via butchers. 3. In most cases(75%) when the carcasses were sold a exact measurement was taken, but in some cases(18.8%) eye measurement was still used. 4. For the standardization of carcasses, 37.5% of the answered were for that and 50% of them wanted a gradual standardization and 66.5% of the answered wanted chicks sold by parts.
Studies on the Carcass Rates, Natrient Contents and Optimum Prices of Broilers and Old Layers as Related to Body Weight
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 113~118
This study was conducted to determine the carcass rates, partcarcass production percentages, nutrient contents and optimum prices of broilers and old layers as related to the body weight. Total 240 birds were used and results obtained are summarized as follows. 1.The carcass rates were 61.41% in young chickens (0.6-0.8kg), 65.07% in semi-bros(1.2-1.4kg) and 66.39% in high- bros (1.7-2.1kg), showing a trend of increased carcass rate as the body weight increased. The carcass rates of old layers were lower than those of broilers, being 62.68% in white old lavers (1.8-2.0kg) and 63.07% in colored old layers (2.1- 2.4 kg) 2. Although there was little difference in part-carcass production percentages between breeds or body weights of broilers, most of the part-carcass was produced from legs, breast, back, wings and neck in order. 3. As the body weight increased, the moisture content of deboned carcass of broilers decreased (71.27% in young chickens, 62.66% in semi-bros and 60.39% in high-bros), while the fat content increased (11.47% in young chickens, 17.60% in semi-bros and 19.87% in high-bros). The protein content of semi-bros (17.21%) was higher than that of young chickens (14.75%) or high-bros (16.93%), but no difference was noted in old layers whether they were white or colored. 4. When compared on the basis of protein or Protein plus fat content in grams per kilogram body weight, the market price of semi-bros per kilogram body weight was more expensive and that of old layers was cheaper than that of high- bros.
Evolutional Process of Economic Integration In The U. S. Broiler Industry
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 119~126
The purpose of the study is to review the evolutional process of the U.S. broiler industry into the integrated production and marketing systems and to examine the factors influenced such a structural change over the Past half a century. The study is also carried out under the consideration that the experience gained by the integrated U.S. broiler industry could be utilized in applying the system to any non-integrated broiler industries like one in Korea. The U.S. broiler industry has been prevailed in the typical independent operation of all stages, from factor supply through growing to dressing and marketing until such time as growers began to suffer from financial difficulties right after the end of the World Wat II due mainly to lowered price of broilers stemmed from whopping decrease of the demand, which eventually reflected to the allied agribusiness sectors. The feed business field was the first reactor to this situation so that a kind of measures was taken to cope with the problems faced in such a way to provide extended credit on feeds first and help obtain chicks or sell broilers later. This trend has been practiced for broiler related agribusiness through late 1940's to work together with growers by coordinating its function between two or more stages involved in broiler production and marketing process as a means of spreading risk and sharing profit between stages Participated. The integrated system and contract farming thus became Popular across the country through mid 1950's.
Studies on the Anticoccidial Efficacy of an Unique Polyether Ionophorous Antibiotic, Maduramicin Ammonium in Comparison with Salinomycin Sodium and Monensin Sodium for Broiler Chicks
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 127~134
Battery trial with 240 broiler chicks of Hubbard strain was conducted for a period of 2 weeks in order to compare the anticoccidical efficacy of polyether ionophorous antibiotics ; Maduramicin ammonium, Monensin and Salinomyc in sodium. The criteria used in these anticoccidial efficacy studies were anticoccidial index, growth rate, feed efficiency, mortality, lesion score and the number of oocysts produced after artificial inoculation with 70,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella(90%) and E.necatrix (10%) to each bird. The result obtained are summarized as follow: 1. All groups medicated anticoccidial feed additives improved body weight gain and feed efficiency. However, it was found that the group medicated with Maduramicin showed better body weight gain (352.5 and 648.8 g) and feed efficiency(1.603 and 1.680) during the first and the second week experiments, 2. The mortality rate(4.2%) and lesion scores (1.72) of Maduramicin medicated group, from artificial coccidiosis were comparatively lower than those of other two medicated groups, 3. It was also found that oocyst output (0.25
) in Maduramicin medicated group were lower than those of other two groups. 4. Anticoccidial indexes during the first week were 177.9 in Maduramicin medica-group, 158.7 in Salinomycin medicated group, 141.6 in Monensin medicated group and 78.0 in infected, nonmedicated group as compared with 200.0 in noninfected, nonmedicated group (NNC) 5. Anticoccidial indexes during the second week were 201.1 in Maduramicin group 184.0 in infected, nonmedicated group as compared with 200.0 in noninfected, nonmedicated group (NNC).
Isolation and Characterization of Avian Reoviruses from Chickens with Arthritis or Stunted Growth
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1985, Pages 135~143
A total of eight strains of avian reoviruses were isolated from chickens with arthritis or stunted growth. The isolations were made from broilers or broiler breeders under 12 weeks of age. The viruses had a typical morphology of reoviruses with double capsid layers and 81nm of diameter. In agar gel precipitation tests, the isolates reacted with antisera prepared against S-1133 or R-1 strains of avian reoviruses and cross reacted with S-1133 antigen. They did not agglutinated RBC's from day-old chicks, adult chickens, guinea pigs, and horses. The isolates showed strong resistance against the treatments of chloroform, IUdR, and heat, When infectivities of the viruses were titrated in cell cultures of chicken embryo fibroblast, chicken embryo liver, and Vero cells, similar end points reached four to five days after inoculation, regardless of tell types and virus inoculation time, either inoculated simultaneously at the time of cell seeding or on confluency. Mean times of mortality of chicken embryos inoculated with the isolates via the chorioallantoic membrane ranged from 54 to 59 hours and that of S-1133 strain was 73 hours.