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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Dec 2000
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Aug 2000
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Apr 2000
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Nutritional Values and Variations of Food Wastes according to Seasons and Sources
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~6
An experiment was conducted to determine the nutritional values and variations of food wastes according to seasons and sources. Food wastes were sampled monthly from Feb. to Aug. at gathering sites from home kitchens, school restaurants and Korean food restaurants. chemical analyses revealed that crude fiber and NaCl contents were in the range of 5.41∼10.36 and 3.67∼5.40%, respectively, and the variations were especially high in summer. Ash content was highest in spring. With regard to the sources, the wastes from Korean food restaurants was highest in ash, calcium and phosphorus. On the other hand, crude fiber and fat were highest in the waste from house kitchens and NaCl in those from school restaurants.
The Effects of Feeding Fermented Food waste on the Egg Production and Egg Quality in Laying Hen
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 7~12
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding fermented food waste on the egg production and egg qualities in laying hens. A lot of 30 commercial layer(ISA Brown) at the age 58 weeks were placed in individual of 80% commercial feed and 20% fermented food waste(C80%+F20%), a mixture of 50% commercial feed and 50% fermented food waste (C50%+F50%), and a mixture of 20% commercial feed and 80% fermented food waste (C20%+F80%). Daily measurements were made on feed intake, egg production rate, egg weight, yolk color, Haugh unit, shell color during the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, body weight change and egg cholesterol contents were determined. The results indicate that up to 50% of basal diet could be supplied by fermented food waste with little depression in feed intake and efficiency in egg production (p＜0.01). Egg weight, egg shell thickness and Haugh units were not significant different between the treatments and the control. Egg color quality improved with increasing the proportion of the fermented food waste in the diet.
Utilization of food and Organic Wastes for Duck Feeds and Evaluation of Their Feeding Values
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 13~18
An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding values of food and other organic wastes, and to determine their dietary effects on performance and carcass yield in ducks. A total of 156 meat type ducklings at the age of 25 days were housed in 12 pens and assigned to 4 treatments, in which the birds were fed for 21 days. One of 4 diets, commercial duck feed, raw food waste (RFW), fermented food waste(FFW) and mixture of 50% RFW and 50% FFW (R+FFW). Feed consumption was significantly higher (p＜0.05) in the RFW groups. Body weight gain showed no significant differences between the control and other treatments. The feed consumption ratio was significantly higher in the RFW groups (p＜0.05) than that of the other groups. Carcass yield was significantly higher in the R+FFW groups (p＜0.05) than the other groups. The weight of liver per live body weight showed significant differences among the treatment groups (p＜0.05). The length of intestine was significantly different from those of the treated groups(p＜0.05).
Efficacy of Supplemental Microbial Phytase on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization I. Effect of Microbial Phytase at Different Phosphorus Levels on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 19~23
The effects of microbial phutase on laying performance and phosphorus utilization were examined at different levels of dietary nonphosphorus(NPP) in 320 23-week-old Hy-line brown hens for 12weeks. Diets were formulated 0.275%(T1), 0.220%(T2), 0.165%(T3) of NPP levels, and supplemental microbial phytase was 300DPU/kg diet constantly. Conventional diet(C) was formulated 0.275% NPP level without microbial phytase. Egg production and egg mass were higher in T2 than the others (p<0.05), and average egg weight was higher in T1 than the other (p<0.05). Egg productivity was tended to increase with supplemental phytase compared to conventional diet. Daily feed intake a hen also increased in T2 (p<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was improved slightly without significant difference. Eggshell breaking strength and thickness were not different significantly among the treatments. Haugh unit and yolk color were also not different. Calcium and phosphorus retention in body increased in T2 (p<0.05), but dry matter and nitrogen retention were not different significantly. Differences in nitrogen and calcium excretions were not found among the treatments. But phosphorus excretion decreased in order of dietary phosphorus levels with supplement phytase compared to C (p<0.05). Tibial ash, calcium and phosphorus were similar among the treatments. In conclusion, supplemental microbial phytase in laying diet may help to utilize phytase phosphorus, and could decrease NPP intake.
Efficacy of Supplemental Microbial Phytase on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization II. Effect of Microbial Phytase at Different Phosphorus Levels and High Calcium Content on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 25~30
Present study was conducted to investigate effects of microbial phytase in laying hen diets on utilization of non-phytate phosphorus(NPP) whose levels were adjusted to be adequate or lower than that of NRC requirements. Birds of control roup were fed a diet containing 0.275% NPP and 3.4% Ca, satisfying the NRC(1994) feeding standard. bird on T1, T2 and T3 were allowed to eat diets containing NPP at 100, 80 and 60%, respectively, of Control group, and 4.0% Ca level along with a microbial phytase added at a level of 300 DPU. Three hundred and sixty, ISA Brown layers, 23-week-old, divided into four treatment groups with three replications per treatment and 30 layers per replication were fed the diets for 12 weeks. Levels of feed intake were not different among the groups, The egg mass/feed intake ratio appeared better in T2 group by about 8%, though without a statistical significance, compared to that of control. Egg production fate tended to be improved over the control group by feeding the 100%(T1) and 80%(T2) NPP diets added with phytase, with a significant difference for T2(p<0.05). Mean egg weight and egg shell quality, measured by breaking strength and thickness of the egg shell, of the T2 group tended to show numerically better, without a significance than those of control. Furthermore, birds of the T2 group showed higher calcium and phosphorus contents in tibia by about 9%(p<0.05) than the control. Overall performances of birds in T1 appeared better than those of control, but tended to be lower than those of the T2. The birds in T3 performed similar to the those of the other dietary groups except the relatively low tibia calcium level. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that supplementation of microbial phytase at a level of 300 DPU was effective to spare about 20% of NPP in laying hen diets without any adverse effects on production performances and bone quality.
Study on Growth Characteristics of Lactobacillus Isolated from Broiler Cecum
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 31~35
This study was investigated to observe Lactobacillus spp. population of poultry digestive organ, duodenum, ilium, cecum and colon by growing steps and to select of valuable lactobacilli as probiotics. Two strains of male broiler commercial chickens, Hybrid and Ross, were used to evaluate population of Lactobacillus spp. in intestinal tracts. Three strains of Lactobacillus were identified, and bile salts environment. The number of lactovacilli was the lowest in duodenum compared to other intestinal tracts which had similar population. Population of Lactobacillus was maintained constantly regardless growing steps after one week of age. Identification of Lactobacillus from cecum resulted in L.reuteri BC5, L. crispatus BC7, L.reuteri BC9. All strains was depressed in pH 1 and 2, although two strains could survive for one hour at pH 2. And they could survive at pH 4 for 4hours. In bile salts tolerance, L.reuteri BC5, L.crispatus BC7 were maintained for 2 hours, but the growth reduced from 2hours. Growth of L.reuteri BC9 was increased continuously. In conclusion, Lactobacillus of intestinal tracts were established at first week, and maintained constant population. They were influenced on severe acidic condition and bile salts. Cecal Lactobacillus has different growth charcteristics by strains.
Effects of Supplemental Lactobacillus spp. on Performance and Cecum Microflora in Broiler
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 37~41
This study was carried out to examine the effects of Lactobacillus spp. on performance and cecal microflora in broiler chicks. Eight diets consisting of basal diet(C), C+Lactobacillus crispatus BC7 (T2), C+Lactobacillus reuteri BC9 (T3), C+L.reuteri BC5+L.crispatus BC9 (T4), C+L. reuteri BC5 (T1)+L.reuteri BC9 (T5), C+L.crispatus BC7+L.reuteri BC9 (T6) and C+L.reuteri BC5+L.crispatus BC7+L.reuteri BC9 (T7), were fed to Ross male broiler chicks for 5 weeks. The level of supplemented Lactobacillus spp. was 107 cfu/g diet. Body weight and feed intake were measured every week, and cecal microfla was counted at 1 and 5 weeks for Lactobacillus and yeast. Body weight increased signigicantly in supplemental Lactobacillus treatments from 2 weeks of age (p<0.05). Chicks in T2, T5 and T5 of treatments were heavier than those of other treatments at 5 weeks of age(p<0.05). Viability was not different significantly. Feed intake and feed conversion also were not different, although feed conversion improved slightly in supplemental Lactobacillus treatments. Lactobacillus spp. of cecal content was increased in supplemental Lactobacillus treatments at 1 week, but no significance was found. The number of yeast in cecum was not different from that of supplemental Lactobacillus. In conclusion, Lactobacillus, L.crispatus BC7 and L.reuteri BC9 from broiler cecum could contribute to the increase in body weight with supplemented mono-or mixing of di-lactobacilli. The results indicate that Lactobacillus feeding can benefit to intestinal lactobacillus at early growing broiler.
Effects of Dietary Supplemental Lincomycin and Food Waste on Performance and Blood Components of Broiler Chicks
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 43~50
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplemental lincomycin at different food waste supplements on performance of broiler chicks. Diets were based corn, soybean meal and contained 3,078, 3,089 ㎉/kg ME, 21% CP for the first three weeks and 3,116 ㎉/kg and 19% CP for the rest two weeks. Three levels of lincomycin(LM; 0, 2.2, 4.4mg/kg) and food waste (FW;0, 5, 10%) were differently used for both experiments. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio were weekly measured for five weeks. Blood components, liver and abdominal fat were sampled at the end of experiments. In experiment, 1 weight gain of birds fed 4.4mg/kg LM was significantly higher than that of no LM treatments (p<0.05). It was tended to decrease in 10% food waste treatment compared to that of control but was not significantly different. FCR of chocks fed LM supplement tended to improve as dietary LM level increased. It was not superior in 10% food waste treatment to that of control, but tended to improve compared to that of other treatments. Weight gain and FCR of birds fed 2.2mg/kg LM without food waste tended to improve compared to those of other treatments, but were not significantly different. Liver to body weight ratio birds fed LM supplements regardless of FW decreased significantly compared to that of control (p<0.05), but was not consistency in FW treatments. There was no significance in blood components except blood protein. In experiment 2, weight gain of chicks fed no FW showed quadratic, but increased as dietary supplemental LM increased. Birds fed 5% FW was not superior weight gain to that of other FW treatments. It also decreased in no LM treatment with 10% FW compared to that of control. However, the birds fed 4.4 mg/kg LM with 10% FW exhibited significantly higher weight gain the trend of weight gain. It tended to increase up to 10% FW combined with 4.4 mg/kg LM, but was not significantly different. Liver to body weight ratio of chicks fed LM was significantly decreased more than the control(p<0.05).The results of these experiments indicated that chicks fed 10% FW with 4.4 mg/kg LM supplements maximized growth rate of all treatments, but was not improve FCR in both experiments.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Economic Traits in Korean Native Chicken Using Multiple Trait Animal Model
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 51~61
This study was conducted to estimate the general production performance, heritabilities, and genetic phenotypic correlations on several economic traits by multiple trait animal model in Korean native chicken. The data were collected from the records of 5,192 pullets produced from 2,029 dams and 250 sires in Daejon Branch, National Livestock Research Institute from April 10. 1994 to February 10. 1997. Body weights of Red Brown (RB), Yellow Brown (YB), Grey Brown (GB) and Black (B) strains were 1,649.9, 1,439.6, 1,455.6 and 1,575.3g at age of 150 days and 1,923.5, 1,689.6, 1,812.4 and 1,924.0g at age of 270 days, respectively. The ranges of coefficient of variation for body weight were 11.52 to 14.02 at age of 150 days and 12.82 to 14.59% at age of 270 days, respectively. The first eggs of RB, YB, GB and B strains were produced at 147.4, 146.5, 151.1 and 152.1 days, respectively and the coefficients of variation were 7.80 to 8.41%. Egg weight at 270 days were 49.7, 47.6, 48.8 and 48.7 g for RB, YB, GB nd B strains, and coefficients of variation were 6.99 to 7.94% . The number of eggs at age of 270days were 75.8, 78.0, 76.7 and 68.8 for RB, YB, GB and B strains, respectively, and coefficient of variations were 23.87 to 29.89%. On heritability estimates in RB, YB, GB and strains body weight were 0.40, 0.10, 0.09 and 0.57 for RB, YB, GB and B strains at age of 150 days, and 0.23, 0.09, 0.38 and 0.24 at age of 270 days were 0.39, 0.47, 0.60 and 0.62, and egg weights at 270 days and age at 1st egg were 0.36, 0.12, 0.38 and 0.26, number of egg production at 270 days were 0.44, 0.36, 0.58 and 0.49, respectively. The genetic correlation coefficients of body weight with the age of first egg, egg weight and number of egg production at 270days were -0.07∼0.67, -0.24∼0.70 and 0.12∼0.41, respectively ; age of first egg with number of egg production at 270days and egg weight were -0.75∼0.91 and 0.34∼0.97 ; and egg weight with number of egg production at 270days were 0.18∼0.68. The phenotypic correlation coefficients of body weight with at age of first egg, egg weight and number of egg production at 270days were -0.01∼0.74, -0.04∼0.72 and 0.25∼0.57 ; age of first egg with number of egg production at 270days and egg weight were 0.26∼0.52 and 0.52∼0.92, respectively ; and egg weight with number of egg production at 270days were 0.34∼0.91.
Morphometric Study of Seminiferous Tubules in Pigeon, Pheasant, and Chicken
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 63~71
The testis is an extremely heterogeneous organ, containing numerous compartments types. Morphometric studies were performed of 3 avian species (pigeon, pheasant and chicken) to determine volume density absolute volume, numerical density, total number of serminiferous tubule components, and sperm production, especially those related to the Sertoli cell, and to make comparisons among the species. Volume density of seminiferous tubule components per testis was determined by point counting method. Testis volume and sperm production were measured by routine techniques. Numerical density (the number of cells per unit volume of testis) of seminiferous tubule components per testis was determined by morphometry (Floderus method). The volume density of seminiferous tubules per testis was 91.58, 92.18 and 94.21% in pigeon, pheasant, and chicken, respectively. The volume density of spermatogonium, spermatocyte, spermatid, spermatozoon, and Sertoli cell did not produce significant changes in the three species. The absolute volume of spermatogonium, spermatocyte, spermatid, and Sertoli cell showed significant changes in the three species (p<0.05). The average volume of Sertoli cell ranged from 758.34(pheasant) to 1,212.9 ㎛
(chicken) and was not significantoy different in the three species(p>0.05). The number of Sertoli cells per testis showed significant differences in the three species : 34.52
10(sup)6 in pigeon, pheasant, and chicken, respectively(p<0.05). The sperm production was significantly different in the three species : 3,018
10(sup)6, and 8.9
10(sup)6 in chicken, pheasant, and pigeon, respectively(p<0.05). These results suggest that number of Sertoli cells may be more important than Sertoli cell size in explaining the difference in sperm production among the three species.
Identification of Putative Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from Embryonic Blastodermal Cells of Fertilized Hen′s Eggs
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 73~78
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cell lines, which derived from preimplantation embryo. These cells have been used as a vehicle of foreign DNA for production of transgenic mammals. this experiment was performed to examined the possible use of blastodermal cells derived from hen's egg for germline manipulation. Stage X blsdtodermal cells isolated from fertilized eggs were cultured in DMEM containing 15% fetal calf serum. Blastodermal cells wre co-cultured on the chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or mouse embryonic fibroblast(MEF) cells. to examine the effects of growth factors on stem cell growth, bFGF and LIF were added. There was no significant difference in colony formation of putative ES cells between CEF and MEF as a feederlayer, but the addition of growth factors enhanced the proliferation and inhibited differentiation of blastodermal cells. To characterize the cell colonies as a putative ES cells, putative embryonic cell colonies were stained by periodic acid Schiffs (PAS) reagent. The putative ES cell colonies showed intensive positive reaction similar to the property of undifferentiated PGC upto 20days in vitro, but not in other cell types. this result demonstrates that PAS-positive cell colonies may be used for the study of establishment of chicken ES cell lines for the production of transgenic chicken.
Effects of Semen Characteristics and Egg Storage Period on Hatchability in Korean Native Chickens
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2000, Pages 79~84
This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of semen and egg storage period on hatchability of Korean native chicken(KNC, 44-wk old). The body weight, volume of semen, concentration of spermatozoa, total sperm of an ejaculate, motility of sperm and percentage of fertile eggs were 2,555.89g, 0.473
10(sup)8 cells, 3.58 and 91.69%, respectively, in KNC. The percentage of fertile eggs were 87.9∼96.0% on storage period in KNC. The viability and hatchability were 80.2%. 74.6%, respectively, in storage period for 22 days in storage temperature of 11∼14
. The results of the trial show that viability can be get more than 80% in storage period for 3 weeks in storage temperature of about 13