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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Dec 2000
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Aug 2000
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Apr 2000
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Molecular and Epidemiological Characteristics of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated in Korea
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2000, Pages 91~98
Phylogenetic tree constructed from the nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene showed that the 15 Korean strains of infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) examined were classified into 2 genetically distinct groups, except one respiratory strain, RB86, which was clustered with Massachusetts group. All the 5 respiratory strains belonged to Korean group I and the rest 9 nephropathogenic strains belonged to Korean group II according to the analysis, based on S1 gene sequences. Like previous classifications corresponded with the geographic origin, Korean stains were discriminated from geographically distinct reference strains of IBV. The nephropathogenic strains within Korean group IIsharing 96% homology were continuously isolated since 1990, and seemed to be genetically stable. Whereas the respiratory strains within Korean group Ⅰ sharing 88% homology were sporadically isolate since 1986m and seemed to be genetically unstable. Because we found putative accumulated point mutation as well as recombination events in Korean group Ⅰ, we discussed why genetic variations have often occurred in respiratory strains rather than nephropathognic strains.
Feed Application of High Oil Corn for Poultry : A Review
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2000, Pages 99~107
Because of the significant genetic improvement in animal performance, the use of high nutrient density diets has become common practice in animal industry. High oil corn(HOC) became available to feed manufacturers about half a decade ago. Current HOC contains approximately 87% higher crude fat, making its energy content 4.5 to 6% higher than that of typical corn. Its protein content is 3.3 to 6.4% higher, and its qualities are at least equal or better than that of typical corn. In addition, there are several non-nutritional benefits which may result from the use of HOC. These nutritional and non-nutritional advantages could be captured by the feed manufacturers in general, and poultry producers in particular.
Attenuation and Protective Effects of a Thermostable Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Korean Pheasants
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2000, Pages 109~114
The objective of these experiments was to develop an attenuated thermostable Newcastle disease virus(NDV), CBP-1 strain isolated from infected pheasants. Safety, pathogenicity and protective effects against velogenic NDV were also investigated to evaluate if the attenuated NDV, CBP-1 strain could be a candidate for a new NDV vaccine strain. CBP-1 strain was passaged up to the 173 times by nine days old embryonated eggs and chicken embryo fibroblast(CEF) cell cultures. Its sensitivitly to lipid solvents and low pH, thermostability, mean death time(MDT), intracerebral pathogenicity index(ICPI) of one day old chicks and intravenous pathogenicity index(IVPI) of four weeks old chicks were examined. Safety, boosting and protective effects were tested by chicks mortality. CBP-1 NDV strain had significant thermostability at 56
for 30 minutes. by hemagglutinin activity and egg infectivity test, but was not resistant to lipid solvent. It showed possibility to use as a feed or water vaccine because of the resistance to low pH. MDT, ICPI and IVPI of CBP-1 were attenuated from 51.5, 1.96, 2.60 to 112.4, 1.12, 1.45. These results implied that the 173rd passages in embryonated egg and CEF cell cultures induced a substantial attenuation of the pathogenicity of the parent virus, changing the virulence from velogenic to intermediate between mesogenic and lentogenic. After vaccination with CBP-1 at one day old by drinking water mortality was 17.5%. However, spray vaccination with B1 at one day old, CBP-1 at two weeks ild and challenge with velogenic Kyojeongwon strain at four weeks old showed 93.5% survival rate. Mortality of chicks, vaccination with 173rd passaged CBP-1 strain at one day old, two weeks old and challenge with Kyokeongwon strain at four weeks old, was 20.0%. The results of these studies indicated that partial attenuated CBP-1 strain tended to be a low safety for ND of broiler chicks and would need to be more successive attenuation.
A Strategy for Quality Poultry Egg Production I. Eggshell Strength and Pigmentation
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2000, Pages 115~132
Eggshell strength and eggshell pigmentation are described in this paper since these are needed for quality egg production. A strong eggshell is determined by the components of the shell (cuticle, true shell and membranes) as well as the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract, the shell gland, the Kidneys and the endocrine system. When the puller reaches sexual maturity, the medullary bone must be ready for the laying hen at the peak egg shell formation. The amount of calcium in the layer diet, sources of calcium feed, the ratio of calcium and phosphorus in the layer diet, adequate levels of vitamin D and the dietary mineral (electrolyte) balance in the body fluid are important factors along with the levels of other nutrients. Biological, environmental and managerial factors such as the age of laying flock, temperature and humidity of the hen house, bird strain, disease, egg collection through transportation and others and influence the shell breakage at various stages of movement of the eggs from the producer to the consumer. The pigments present in eggshells are protoporphyrin-Ⅸ, biliverdin-Ⅸ and its zinc chelate and occasional traces of coproporphyrin-Ⅲ. However, there are several causes of changes in eggshell pigmentation such as the age of hen, disease, drugs and surface defects due to abnormal post-cuticular deposits.
A Strategy for Quality Poultry Egg Production II. Egg Interior Quality; Cholesterol Content, Egg Yolk Pigmentation, Controlling Egg weight and Organic Eggs
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2000, Pages 133~153
The egg's interior quality is one of the most important criteria for commercial producers and consumers. Internal quality is complex, including aesthetic factors such as taste, freshness, nutritional and processing values, and the genetic influences upon these upon these factors ranges from none to considerable. The rate of cholesterol synthesis in the hen is very high compared to other animals and humans. Genetic selection, diet drugs and other chemicals can alter cholesterol concentration in the plasma of laying hen, but attempts to manipulate the cholesterol concentration in the egg yolk are generally unsuccessful since the cholesterol can only be changed to a small extent. Factors which may affect the degree of pigmentation of the yolk include the type of xanthophyll and its concentration in the feed, the feed composition, and the health of the hen. Several feed ingredients interact with carotenoid pigment to improve or reduce their deposition rates in yolks. Egg weight is determined by genetics, body size prior to first egg housing density, environmental temperature, lighting program, total feed consumption, calcium, phosphorus, niacin, water, methionine, total sulfur amino acids, energy, linoleic acid, fat and protein levels. Eggs need to be promote levels. Eggs need to be promoted a versatile commodity and new processed egg items need to be developed. Organic eggs are laid by hens which were raised in chemical and drug frdd environments. There are still difficulties in producing these eggs due to the availability of organic poultry feeds and cost of organic grains.
Recolonization of Transfected Blastodermal Cells in Developing Embryos after Transferring into UV-irradiated Fertilized Hen′s Egg
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2000, Pages 155~161
Unfortunately, there is no technique which is stable and repetitive to produce transgenic chicken, although various ways of gene transfer including PGC-and embryonic cell-mediated gene transfer, DNA microinjection, virus inoculation and sperm cells have been employed. The aims of this study were 세 develop and establish such a stable, repetitive and efficient way of gene transfer giving a faithful gene expression during development after the reconstruction of embryo in an UV-irradiated egg. A dual reporter plasmid (pJJ9), a fusion gene containing lacZ and GFP driven by a CMV promoter was used to exploit either merits of both reporting markers. lacZ with strong signal or GFP with vital marking. Electroporated embryonic blastodermal cells (EBCs) in the presence of the pJJ9 DNA faithfully showed 377 bp PCR product and lacZ or GFP expressions in the identical cells in vitro of in vivo. Furthermore, analyses of expression pattern of the foreign DNA demonstrated that microinjected EBCs cells into the UV-irradiated recipient egg should participate in normal developmental process, for example, proliferation and differentiation into various tissues. Thirty percentages of the manipulated eggs showed lacZ expression in their tissues. These results together with the specific procedures used in this study should facilitate avian transgenesis.