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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Dec 2001
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Aug 2001
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Apr 2001
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Studies on the Cold Attenuation and Protective Effects of a Thermostable Newscastle Disease Virus Isolated from Korean Pheasants
K. H. Kwak ; S. C. Han ; T. J. Kim ; K. S. Chang ; M. H. Jun ; H. J. Song ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 83~89
Newcastle disease virus, CBP-1 strain isolated from Korean pheasants was passaged for 173 times by 9-day-old specific pathogenic free (SPF) embryonated eggs at
(parent strain) and subsequently passaged for 15 (cold attenuation (CA) -15) and 30(cold attenuation (CA) -30) times by 10-day-old of commercial broiler chicks embryonated eggs at
, respectively, The Physical and chemical properties (sensitivity to lipid solvents, low pH and thermostability), pathogenicity (mean death time, intracerebral pathogenic index and intravenous patho-genic index), safety, booster or protective effect and characterization of temperature sensitivity were measured in cold attenuated CA-15 or 30 strain and compared to those of parent CBP-1 strain. NDV, CBP-1 CA-30 strain acquired cold attenuation and decreased infectivity at
compared to those of parent strain grown at
. It lost hemagglutination activity (HA) and cell infectivity at
for 30, 60, and 120 Min. CA-30 strain treated with ethyl ether also lost its HA and cell infectivity. Both CA-30 and parent strains exhibited a little resistant to HA at pH 3.0 glycine HCI buffer. Intracerebral pathogenic index (ICPI) and intravenous pathogenic index (IVPI) of parent strain were 1.12 and 1.45, but decreased to 0.75 and 0.00 in CA-30 strain, respectively. The safety was evaluated by mortality in chicks inoculated with 10
/0.1 ml. The mortalities of parent, CA-30 and commercial Bl strains were 17.5, 12.0 and 0.0%, respectively. The safety of CA-30 strain was higher than that of parent strain. The booster effects of CA-30 strain and parent strain performed in 4-week-old chicks after being vaccinated with primary commercial Bl strain.
Effects of pine Bark Spent Liquor Prepared by Alkaline Sulfite-Anthraquinone Cooking as a Pellet Binder on Pellet Durability and Performance of Broiler Chicks or Laying Hens
K. S. Ryu ; H. L. Li ; S. P. Mun ; H. J. Song ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 91~98
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the Pine Bark Spent Liquor (PBSL) inclusion, prepared by alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone cooking, on Pellet durability index (PDI) of practical diets and performance of broiler chicks and laying hens. Fourteen treatments with four replications were assigned for PDI test in Experiment 1. Control, 10% Wheat(W10), 20% Wheat(W20), 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00% PBSL, 0.1, 0.2% commercial pellet binder A(CPB A) or B(CPB B), W10 plus 0.1% CPB A or B were used for PDI test. PDI was measured by PDI tester (Oriental Motors, Japan). The control diet was based on corn and soybean meal with no wheat or pellet binders inclusion. The PDI of the PBSL or other commercial pellet binder treatments were significantly higher than control groups(P<0.05). It was shown 95.9, 95.9, 95.8, and 95.7 in W10, 0.5% PBSL, 0.2% CPB A or B treatments, respectively. Thus, those treatments were applied to Experiments 2 and 3. In experiment 2, 200 male broiler chicks (Cobb
Cobb) were allocated to the control, W10, PBSL 0.5%, 0.2% CPB A and B with four replications. Starter diets contained 3,169, 3,149 kcal/kg ME and 21% CP, and finisher diets were fed at the level of 3,192, 3,172 kcal/kg ME and 19W% CP. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) were weekly measured for 5 wk and the number of intestinal anaerobes were examined at the end of experiment. The weight gain of chicks fed PBSL was not significantly greater than control groups, but was significant different compared to that of W10 or 0.2% CPB A treatments (P<0.05). FCR of chicks treated with PBSL or other pellet binders tended to improve compared to that of control.
Comparative Pathology of chickens Experimentally Inoculated with Virulent Viscerotropic Newcastle Disease Viruses isolated in Korea
I. P. Mo ; Y. K. Kwon ; M. G. Han ; H. W. Seong ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 99~106
Pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigen as determined by immunohistochemistry were compared among 4-wk-old specific-pathogen free (SPF) chickens inoculated intratracheally with velogenic vis-cerotropic Newcastle disease virus isolated in Korea. Although the pattern of organ involvement and severity of lesion was different among chickens infected with different velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) viruses, the pathological types of lesion was similar among the chickens. Severe lymphocytic necrosis and depletion were main histologic lesions in the immune related organs such as thymus, Fabricius bursa and spleen. The frequency of IP positive staining was variable depends on the types of tissues but not types of the kinds of VVND viruses infected. Brain, Fabricius bursa, thymus, cecal tonsil and trachea were IP positive with fairly high frequency and spleen, lung, proventriculus, intestine, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart and Harderian gland were with relatively low frequency. These results suggest that histologic evaluation and viral antigen specific immunohistochemical staining methods to determine virus distribution will be useful for pathogenic study of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus infection in chicken.
Application of DNA Marker Technology and Functional Genomics to the Development of coccidiosis Control Strategy
Lillehoj, H.S. ; Zhu, J. ; Min, W.G. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 107~123
Production of Transgenic Chicken by Using Embryo Culture Techniques
I. S. Jeon ; D. H. Yoon ; E. W. Park ; W. G. Nho ; C. H. Choi ; J. H. Lee ; H. H. Lee ; I. C. Cheong ; J. Y. Han ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 125~133
The goal of this paper was to examine the qualify zygote-acquiring method for in-vitro culture and the in-vitro culture method of the acquired zygote from a technological perspective. We have reported the results on the introduction of foreign DNAs using the described culturing method. After performing in-vitro and surrogate eggshell culture on a zygote acquired from the abdomen of a hen, 25.8% hatchability was acquired. After microinjecting foreign DNAs into the acquired zygote and performing in-vitro and surrogate eggshell culture using the same method, 13.1∼11.7% hatchability was acquired. Having compared the developments of the control subjects and the experimental subjects, the viability of the experimental subjects on the 4∼5th day of culturing was much lower compared to that of the control subjects. This is a result that shows that the microinjection process of foreign DNAs might have a negative effect on the existence of the embryo; therefore, various technical attempts should be made to minimize such negative effects. Having microinjected foreign DNAs into the zygote of a hen to produce transgenic chickens, 3 transgenic founders were Produced and 70 G1 progeny were produced as a result of the progeny test that had been performed to the present.
Developmental Genetic Analysis of Avian Primordial Germ Cells and the Application to Poultry Biotechnology
Kagami, H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 135~142
A novel sterategy has been established to determine the origin of the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) in avian embryos directly and the developmental fate of the PGCs for the application to Poultry biotechnology. Cells were removed from 1) the centre of area pellucida, 2) the outer of area pellucida and 3) the area opaca of the stage X blastoderm (Eyal-Giladi & Kochav, 1976). When the cells were removed from the centre of area pellucida, the mean number of circulating PGCs in blood was significantly decreased in the embryo at stage 15 (Hamburger & Hamilton, 1951) as compared to intact embryos. When the cells were replenished with donor cells, no reduction in the PGCs number was observed. The removal of cells at the outer of area pellucida or at the area opaca had no effect on the number of PGCs. In case, another set of the manipulated embryos were cultured ex vivo to the hatching and reared to the sexual maturity, the absence of germ cells and degeneration of seminiferous tubules was observed in resulting chickens derived from the blastoderm in which the cells were removed from the centre of the area pellucida. It was concluded that the avian Primordial Germ cells are originated at the center of area pellucida. Developmental ability of the cells to differentiate into somatic cells and germ cells in chimeras were analyzed. Somatic chimerism was detected as black feather attributed from donor cells. Molecular identification by use of female - specific DNA was performed. It was confirmed that the donor cells could be differentiated into chimeric body and erythrocytes. Donor cells retained the ability to differentiate into germline in chimeric gonads. More than 70% of the generated chimeras transmitted donor derived gametes to their offspring indicating that the cells at the center of area pellucida had the high ability to differentiate into germ cells. A molecular technique to identify germline chimerism has been developed by use of gene scan analysis. Strain specific DNA fragments were amplified by the method. It would be greatly contributed for the detection of germline chimerism. Mixed- sex chimeras which contained both male and female cells were produced to investigate the developmental fate of male and female cells in ovary and testes. The sex combinations of donor and recipient of the resulting chimeras were following 4 pairs; (1) chimeras (ZZ/ZZ) produced by a male donor (ZZ) and a male recipient (ZZ), (2) chimeras (ZW/ZW) produced by a female donor (ZW) and a female recipient (ZW), (3) chimeras (ZZ/ZW) Produce by a male donor (ZZ) and a female recipient (ZW), (4) chimeras (ZW/ZZ) produced by a female donor (ZW) and a male recipient (ZZ). It was found that genetically male avian germ cells could differentiate into functional ova and that genetically female germ cells can differentiate into functional spermatozoa in the gonad of the mixed- sex chimeras. An ability for introduction of exogenous DNA into the PGCs from stage X blastoderms were analyzed. Two reporter genes, SV-
gal and RSV-GFP, were introduced into the PGCs. Expression of bacterial/gal was improved by complexing DNA with liposome detectedcc in 75% of embryos at 3 days embryos. At the embryos incubated for 1 day, expression of the GFP was observed all the embryos. At day 3 of incubation, GFP was detected in about 70% of the manipulated embryos. In case of GFP, expression of the transgene was detected in 30 %e of the manipulated embryos. These results suggested that the cells is one of the most promising vectors for transgenesis. The established strategy should be very powerfull for application to poultry biotechnology.
Discovering Novel Genes of poultry in Genomic Era
S.K. Kang ; Lee, B.C. ; J.M. Lim ; J.Y. Han ; W.S. Hwang ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 143~153
Using bioinformatic tools for searching the massive genome databases, it is possible to Identify new genes in few minutes for initial discoveries based on evolutionary conservation, domain homology, and tissue expression patterns, followed by further verification and characterization using the bench-top works. The development of high-density two-dimensional arrays has allowed the analysis of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in the humans, mice, rats, yeast, and bacteria to elucidate the genes and pathways involved in physiological processes. In addition, rapid and automated protein identification is being achieved by searching protein and nucleotide sequence databases directly with data generated from mass spectrometry. Recently, analysis at the bio-chemical level such as biochemical screening and metabolic profiling (Biochemical genomics) has been introduced as an additional approach for categorical assignment of gene function. To make advantage of recent achievements in computational approaches for facilitated gene discoveries in the avian model, chicken expression sequence tags (ESTs) have been reported and deposited in the international databases. By searching EST databases, a chicken heparanase gene was identified and functionally confirmed by subsequent experiments. Using combination of sub-tractive hybridization assay and Genbank database searches, a chicken heme -binding protein family (cSOUL/HBP) was isolated in the retina and pineal gland of domestic chicken and verified by Northern blot analysis. Microarrays have identified several host genes whose expression levels are elevated following infection of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) with Marek's disease virus (MDV). The ongoing process of chicken genome projects and new discoveries and breakthroughs in genomics and proteomics will no doubt reveal new and exciting information and advances in the avian research.
Development of complete Culture System for Quail Embryos and Its Application for Embryo Manipulation
Ono, T. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 155~163
Gene and cell transfer technique will serve as a powerful tool for the genetic improvement of the poultry and to yield useful products. For avian transgenesis, Japanese quail may serve as an excellent animal model because of its small body size and fast growth rate. Recent progress was described on the manipulation of quail embryos such as the introduction of foreign genes and cells, and the subsequent culturing of the manipulated embryos yielding hatchlings. Intraspecific donor-derived offspring have been available in quail, however, further investigation will be required to obtain interspecific offspring with the aim of rescuing endangered species. Trans genesis will also be useful for improving the profitability and quality of poultry stocks and for developing stocks with novel uses. Considerable progress should soon be made toward the production of transgenic poultry. The key feature of the procedure described here is that embryos are initially taken out from the shell for ease of manipulation and then placed back in culture in addition to various operations midway during culture.
New Concepts on Vaccine Development for the Poultry Diseases
Han, M.G. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 165~172
Vaccination is one of the most important and cost-effective methods of preventing infectious diseases. Over the past decade, scientific in molecular biology and immunology have improved understanding of many diseases and led to the development of novel strategies for vaccination. An ideal vaccine would induce effective immunity specific for the type of infection, have long duration, require minimal or no boosters, have safety, would not induce adverse reaction, and be easy to administer. The desire to meet these criteria has resulted in the development of vaccines that do not depend on the use of the viable disease agent. It is not the intent of this review to give an extensive review of the field of vaccinology, but rather to address characteristics of conventional and genetically engineered vaccines.
Industrial Application of IgY
Lee, N.H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 28, issue 2, 2001, Pages 173~180