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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Comparisons between Two Different Eggshell Lines on Egg Traits and Egg Production Rate in Layers
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 151~156
The objective of this study was to compare the two different eggshell lines of commercial layers on egg traits and egg production rate. Hy-line W-98 (white shell line; WSL) and Hy-line Brown (brown shell line; BSL) were used as experimental stocks. The birds in each line were allocated to three floor pens each containing 25-birds. They were fed a ration containing 15.5% CP and 2,700 ㎉/kg ME, and were supplied 16 h of light per day throughout the experimental Periods. The egg traits and egg Production rate were measured from 53 to 56-wk-old and 20 to 56-wk-old, respectively. The mean egg weight and the mean percentage albumen were significantly heavier and higher (P<0.05) in the BSL than in the WSL, respectively. The mean eggshell thickness and the mean percentage shell were also significantly thicker and higher (P<0.05) in the BSL than those in the WSL, respectively. However, the mean percentage yolk and the yolk to albumen ratio showed a reverse trend as shown in the mean percentage albumen or percentage eggshell. Although the WSL birds started laying 4 d earlier than the BSL ones, the overall mean egg Production rate for BSL during 20 to 56 wk of age was significantly higher (P<0.05) by 6.6% than the WSL. It was concluded that the eggs of brown eggshell line had heavier egg weight and thicker shell, and they had more percentage of albumen, but less percentage of yolk than those of the white eggshell line. These results suggest that the brown eggshell line raised on the floor might be more beneficial than the white eggshell line not only for the preference of the table egg consumers, but also for the efficient production of the eggs.
Changes of Albumen Index and Haugh Unit by the Different Position of Thick Albumen Height of Eggs Measured
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 157~170
This experiment was conducted to investigate the change of egg qualify by the height of thick albumen of egg, storage temperature and storage period. The albumen index and Haugh unit were measured and compared among five different storage periods(0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 days), four different storage temperatures(
), and five different Parts(0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mm) aparted from egg yolk. The albumen index and Haugh unit were as follows: the albumen index of eggs was significantly(P<0.01) different by the storage temperature and by the measuring position of thick albumen of eggs. It means that the albumen index can be differed by the measuring position of thick albumen even if eggs have a same qualify. For measuring egg qualify in this country, it should be announced that which Parts in thick albumen of eggs are measured. The albumen index of fresh eggs was 0.16. However, the index when measured at 3 hour after oviposition was lower than 0.16. Therefore, it indicates that the criterion of 0.06 lower than 0.16 is required to set for considering practical point during the marketing periods of eggs. When the criterion of albumen index puts 0.06, it is as 100%. Therefore, eggs can be kept the same quality for 6, 4 and 2 days when eggs were stored at
and 25 ~
, respectively. When the criterion of Haugh unit score puts 79 as 100%, the eggs can be maintained the quality for 6, 4, and 2 days when eggs are stored at
, respectively. When the criterion of Haugh unit 55 as 100%, the eggs can be maintained the same quality for 10, 8 and 2 days when eggs are stored at
, respectively. From the experimental results, it can be considered that calculathing egg quality by the height of thick albumin of eggs which was measured at the attachment Parts of thick albumin layer and yolk of eggs was most reasonable and suitable when considering the marketing periods of eggs.
Effects of Taurine Supplementation on the Egg Production and Quality in Laying Hen
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 171~176
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of taurine supplementation on the egg production and egg quality in laying hen. In experiment 1, 19-wk-old laying hens were allowed one of four taurine supplemented diets (0 (control), 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2% taurine) for 10 weeks. The mean egg weight was lower about 1.2g in the 0.8% diet compared to the control. Egg production rate, egg mass, and feed intake in layers fed with 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2% taurine supplemented diets decreased by 8%∼24%, 3%∼l4% and 11%∼l5%, respectively, relative to the control. However, the feed conversion, parameters of egg quality, and the concentration of triacylglycerol and the level of cholesterol in yolk were not different among the treatments. In experiment 2, 81-wk-old laying hens were allocated one of three taurine supplemented diets(0 (control), 1 and 2% taurine) for 6 weeks. The egg weight, egg production rate, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion, parameters of egg quality, and level of yolk cholesterol were not different among the treatments, but the concentration of triacylglycerol in yolk was higher by 14%∼19% compared to the control. In conclusion, these results indicated that taurine supplementation in early laying stage of layers decreased hen performance.
Histochemical Studies of the Goblet Cell of the Oviduct in Korean Ring-necked Pheasants(Phasianus colchicus karpowi)
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 177~183
The study was designed to investigate the aspects of the goblet cell of the oviduct in laying Korean ring-necked pheasants by histochemical methods (PAS, alcian blue-PAS, alcian blue pH 2.5, alcian blue pH 1.0, and aldehyde fuchsin-alcian blue stain). Twelve laying Korean ring-necked pheasants were used. The results were summarized as follows. The goblet cell of the oviduct of the Korean ring-necked pheasant contained sulfated acid mucosubstances and neutral mucosubstances in the infundibulum. The compounds of sulfated acid mucosubstances, nonsulfated acid mucosubstances, and neutral mucosubstances are present in goblet cells of the magnum, vagina and openings of the tubular gland of the uterus of the oviduct in the Korean ring-necked pheasant. The goblet cell of the isthmus and uterus of the oviduct of the Korean ring-necked pheasant contained neutral mucosubstances except openings of the tubular gland of the uterus. The histochemical characteristics of secretory granules of goblet cells in oviduct of the Korean ring-necked pheasant were not related to the position of eggs in oviduct.
Physicochemical Properties of Korean Ogol Chicken, the Cross-Bred Ogol Chicken and Broiler Meat
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 185~194
This study was conducted to compare the biochemical properties on chicken meat among Korean Ogol Chicken(KOC), the Cross-bred Ogol chicken(CBO), and broiler(BRO). The results were as follows: the total protein content of the CBO was significantly(P<0.05) higher by 0.83% in male and by 1.37% in female than that of KOC. In the total protein content, CBO also had significantly(P<0.05) higher percentages than that of BRO(21.73%). In the total fat content of CBO, there was a significant (P<0.05)difference between male(0.69%) and female(0.91%). However, on the regarding both sexes the total fat content percentage of CBO was a greatly lower than that of BRO(1.92%). The CBO showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher calcium ion content, with 103.67 ppm and 118.00 ppm in male and female, respectively, than traditional broiler breed(73.80 ppm). But KOC and CBO contained similar calcium ion content in each other. The CBO contained significantly(P<0.05) higher essential amino acids(cystine, serine, lucine, phenylalanine, arginine, proline) than the BRO. In fatty acid composition, the CBO contained higher unsaturated fatty acids, with 34.22 and 26.23% for male and female, respectively, than the KOC containing 29.76 and 24.59% fur male and female, respectively. These were substantially higher levels compared to 19.59% in BRO. Higher trend in Docosa hexaenoic acid(DHA) level was observed in the CBO(5.47% and 2.89% for male and female, respectively) compared to the KOC(2.92% and 1.00%). While DHA in the broiler meat was not detectable. In the ratio between n-6 and n-3, the CBO(3.87∼6.14) appeared to have a better profile than BRO(25.71). The brightness of Commision Internationale do L＇Eclairage for CBO were 56.97 and 58.06 for male and female, respectively. Whereas broiler meat showed 62.88. Collectively, these color properties were higher than KOC.
Effects of Nutrient Levels and Feeding Regimen of a.m. and p.m. Diets on Laying Hen Performances and Feed Cost
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 195~204
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of nutrient level and feeding method of split diets for a.m. and p.m. on laying hen performance, feed cost and eggshell quality. In experiment 1, 384 ISA Brown layers of 30∼38wk of age were assigned to four treatments which comprise of three replicates each containing 32 birds. The control(C) was fed a conventional single diet throughout the day and split diet groups(T1, T2 and T3) were offered high energy/protein-low Ca diets, and low energy/protein-high Ca diets in a.m.(04:00∼15:00) and p.m.(15:00∼21:00), respectively. In the split diet groups, daily ME and CP consumption, and feed cost were significantly reduced(P<0.05) compared to the C, while the hen-day egg production, average egg weight and daily feed intake were not different among treatments. Due to the reduced daily ME and CP intakes and feed cost, the conversions of feed, ME, CP and feed cost required per day and per kg egg mass were also significantly improved(P<0.05) in the split diet groups. Eggshell qualities (egg specific gravity, egg breaking strength and eggshell thickness) were improved(P<0.05) by split diet feeding. As the Ca level of the p.m. diet increased. In Experiment 2, 384 ISA Brown layers of 50∼58 wk of age were used in three treatments and each treatment was represented by four replicates each containing 32 birds. The control(C) was fed a conventional single diet throughout the day and split diet group(T1) was offered high energy/protein-low Ca diets, and low energy/protein-high Ca diets in a.m.(04:00∼l5:00) and p.m.(15:00∼21:00), respectively. T2 group was fed the diet mixed (50:50) with the a.m. diets in mash and p.m. diet in pellet used T1 group. In T1 and T2 groups, daily feed intake and average egg weight were significantly reduced(P<0.05) compared to the C, while the hen-day egg production was not influenced by the feeding system. Daily ME and CP consumption, and feed cost were reduced(p.0.05), and the conversions of ME, CP and feed cost required per egg were also significantly improved(P<0.05) in T1 and T2, while the conversions of feed, ME, CP and feed cost required per kg egg mass were not different to the C. Eggshell qualities of T1 and T2 were improved(P<0.05) compared to the others. It was concluded the feed and nutrients consumption, feed cost per day or per kg egg mass could be reduced by introducing split diets for a.m. and p.m. and the feeding method of mixed diet of split diets were also convenient and effective for sparing feed cost and improvement of eggshell quality.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Yeast Pichia farinosa on Performance, Intestinal Microflora, and Fecal
Emission in Laying Hens
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 205~211
A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of a live yeast, Pichia farinosa culture(PF), on the production performance and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and sixty ISA Brown layers, 21 weeks of age, were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, with four replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of four levels (0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%) of PF added to a com-soybean meal based diet. Egg production, egg weight, feed intake and fred conversion ratio(FCR) were measured. Egg qualifies were examined at 25th and 29th weeks of age. A metabolism trial was conducted following the feeding trial, during which intestinal microflora, nutrient digestibility and fecal NH3 gas emission were measured. Egg production of birds fed 0.1 and 0.3% PF were significantly higher than those from birds fed 0 and 0.5% PF(P<0.05). Daily egg mass of 0.3% PF increased significantly compared to that of 0% PF. There was no difference in egg weight among all treatments. Feed conversion ratio was significantly improved as the PF level increased. No significant difference was found in eggshell quality and Haugh unit at both 25 and 29 weeks of age. Viable count of ileal Lactobacillus spp. increased significantly as the rf level increased. However, the total number of yeast and anaerobes in ileum were similar among all treatments. Cecal Lactobacillus spp. and yeast counts showed no difference among all treatments. Fecal NH
gas emission of layers fed PF decreased significantly by the PF supplementation. From the result of this experiment, it could be concluded that dietary supplementation of the live yeast Pichia farinosa improves the laying performance and decreases the fecal ammonia gas emission.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lactobacillus on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Microflora, and Fecal
Emission in Laying Hens
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 213~223
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of feeding various Lactobacillus on production performance, nutrients digestibility, intestinal microflora, and fecal
gas emission in laying hens. Three hundred and sixty ISA Brown layers, 21 weeks of age, were randomly allotted to nine treatments, with low replicates per treatment. Nine treatments consisted of Control(no Lactobacillus), Lactobacillus crispatus avibrol(LCB: KFCC-11195), Lactobaciilus reuteri avibro2(LRB: KFCC-11196), Lactobacillus crispatus avihenl(LCH: KFCC-11197), Lactobacillus vaginalis avihen2(LVH: KFCC-11198). Each Lactobacillus was added at two levels (
cfu/g diets). Egg production, and egg weight were measured daily. A metabolism trial was conducted following the 12-week feeding trial, during which egg qualities, intestinal microflora and fecal
gas emission were examined. Egg production and daily egg mass improved significantly by the addition of various Lactobacillus(P<0.05), of which effect was more notable during the latter part of the feeding trial. But, no significant differences were found among Lactobacillus strains and between two levels of supplementation. Egg weight and feed intake showed no difference among all treatments. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed lactobacillus was significantly improved compared to that of the Control(P<0.05), but not different among lactobacillus treatments. Digestibility of crude protein, ether extract and crude ash improved significantly in lactobacillus treatments(P<0.05). However, there were not statistically different by adding levels and strains. Total counts of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum of layers fed Lactobacillus were significantly higher than that of the control, but no consistent trend was found in cecum. There were no significant differences in intestinal yeast and anaerobes counts among all treatments. The Lactobaciilus supplementation did not exert my effect on the eggshell quality and Haugh unit. Fecal
gas emission decreased significantly in Lactobacillus treatments, and showed no difference between the two supplementation levels. From the result of this study, it could be concluded that dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus, regardless of their species, Improves the laying performance and decreases the fecal ammonia gas emission. The proper level of supplementation appears to be
cfu/g of diet.
Effects of Single or Mixed Feeding of Lactobacillus and Yeast on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Microflora, and Fecal NH
Gas Emission in Laying Hens
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 29, issue 3, 2002, Pages 225~231
Total 240 of ISA Brown layers were employed in this experiment to study the effects of single or mixed feeding of Lactobacillus and yeast on the performance and intestinal microflora of laying hens. They were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments; None(Control), Pichia farinosa(PF), Lactobacillus crispatus avihen1 (LCH), Lactobacillus vaginalis avihen1(LVH), LCH＋PF, and LVH＋PF. Viable microflora were added to meet 3
6/ cfu PF and 10
7/ cfu Lacrobacillus per g of feed. There were four replicates per treatment, and 10 birds per replicates. Laying performance was recorded for 10 weeks, followed by a metabolism trial during which nutrient utilization, pattern of intestinal microflora and fecal NH
3/ emission were examined. Egg production and daily egg mass of birds fed either single or mixed microorganisms were significantly higher than those of the control(P<0.05). Egg weight and feed intake were not statistically different among all treatments. However, feed conversion ratio tended to improve by the supplementation of microbes. Digestibility of crude protein, ether extract and crude ash tended to improve in Lactobacillus treatments, however, there were not statistically different. With regards to the number of intestinal microbes, number of anaerobes were increased in microbes feeding group. Eggshell quality of PF layers was significantly poorer than those of the other treatments. No consistent trend was found in Haugh Unit among all treatments. Fecal NH
3/ gas emission was significantly lower in LVH, LVH＋PF and LCH＋PF than the other treatments(P<0.05). From the result of this experiment, it could be concluded that single or mixed feeding of Lactobacillus and yeast improves the laying performance and decreases the fecal ammonia gas emission. No synergic effect was found when both microbes were mixed and fed to the layers.