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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
A Feeding Value of Stevia by-product in Chickens
Park, Jae-Hong ; Ryu, Myeong-Seon ; Gwon, Jeong-Taek ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Sang, Byeong-Don ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 219~228
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of stevia by-product (SB) on performance in broiler chicks and laying hens. In experiment 1, a total 256 one day old male broiler chicks were replaced in 0, 2, 4, 7% of SB with four replicates for 5 weeks. All diets were consisted of isocaloric and isonitrogen containing CP 21.5, 19% and ME 3,100 kcal/kg for starting and finishing period, respectively. Weight gain of SB treatments decreased compared with control for the first three weeks, but no difference for the finishing period. Feed intake and feed conversion were no statistical difference between control and feeding stevia groups for overall period. There were no different total number of intestinal microflora. However, the number of Salmonella and E. coli of cecum seemed to decrease in SB feeding groups. Total Lactobacillus and yeast tended to be higher in those groups than control. The PUFa increased in SB treatments, but was no significance. In experiment 2. stevia by-product(SB) were mixed with iso-caloric and isonitrogeneous method to investigate the feeding value in induced molting hens of 78 weeks old. A total 360 birds were replaced in the four treatments(0, 2, 4, 8% SB) with five replicates. Egg production, quality and fatty acid composition in egg were periodically measured for 20 weeks. No difference were found in egg production, feed intake, feed conversion between control and SB treatments for overall period. Egg shell breaking strength, thickness, albumen height and Haugh unit were not statistically different. However, yolk color was significantly high in SB treatments compared to control(P<0.05). Yolk MUFA increased significantly in SB treatments compared to that of control(p<0.05), but PUFA tended to decrease in SB treatments. No significant difference was detected in total sugar in egg yolk between SB treatments and control. Tocopherol of egg yolk 2 and 4% SB were significantly higher than those feed the control (p<0.05).
Effects of Body Weight Control Methods during Rearing Phase on Laying Performance in Broiler Breeder Pullets
Na, Jae-Cheon ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; Jang, Byeong-Gwi ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Hak-Kyu ; Suh, Ok-Seok ; Lee, Gin-Keon ; Yu, Dong-Jo ; Ha, Jeong-Gi ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 229~233
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different BW control methods during rearing on laying performance of broiler breeder pullets. D-old 540 female breeder chicks (Arbor Acres) were assigned to three treatments consisted of standard BW (Control), 110% of standard BW at 12 wk of age (T1), and 90% of standard BW at 12 wk of age (T2), with three replicates of 60 birds per replicate (pen) for each treatment. At 20 wk of age, all birds from three treatments reached the BW reqired in the Arbor Acres Manual. There were no significant differences in egg production, egg weight and viability during laying period(p>0.05). However, total egg production rates were improved in T2 and T3. Average egg weight was the highest in T1 among all treatments. Fertility and hatchability were similar among treatments, but T2 tended to be higher than other treatments at 37 and 53 wk of age. No significant difference was found in hatchability among three treatments. The number of hatching egg of T2 reached 168 per year, showing higher number of eggs than did the other treatments. The number of hatched chicks in T2 was 131, which was also higher than the other treatments, but the difference was not significant. It appears that the laying performance of broiler breeder hens could be improved when their BW at 12 wk of age are kept at 90% of standard BW, and reach the standard BW at 20 week of age.
Effects of Strains and Enviromental Factors on Economic Traits in Korean Native Chicken
Sang, Byeong-Don ; Choi, Cheol-Hwan ; Kim, Hak-Gyu ; Kim, Si-Dong ; Jang, Byeong-Gwi ; Na, Jae-Cheon ; Yu, Dong-Jo ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; ; Lee, Jun-Heon ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 235~244
This study was carried out to estimate the effects of strain and generation on the major production performances of Korean native chicken. The data were collected from 11,583 birds of the 7 generations over the year 1995 through 2001 at National Livestock Research Institute, Korea. Results obtained were summarized as follows: The body weights at 150 and 270 days of age were 1,557.7 and 1880.7, 1,471.7 and 1,738.2, 1,393.5 and 1,694.9, 1,591.2 and 1,910.0, 1,545.6 and 1,763.6g in Red Brown, Yellow Brown, Gray Brown, Black, and White strains, respectively. The Coefficient of Variations (CVs) of the body weights at 150 and 270 days of age were 9.65~13.79% and 13.29~15.16%. The ages at first egg were 150.0, 148.3, 149.5, 152,8 and 147.7 days in Red Brown, Yellow Brown, Gray Brown, Black and White strains, respectively and the CVs were between 9.33 and 10.11%. The egg weights at the first egg and 270 days of age were 33.2 and 50.8, 32.2 and 49.2, 32.2 and 49.1, 33.0 and 50.0, 30.7 and 47.8g respectively. The CVs of the egg weights of the first egg and at 270 days of age were 13.54~15.27% and 6.93~7.36%. The numbers of eggs produced by 270 days of age were 77.0, 79.3, 77.3, 73,7, 75.4, respectively, and observed CVs were between 29.98~36.99%. The significant strain effects were investigated in all the major economic traits in Korean native chicken. The significant strain effects were investigated in all the major economic traits in Korean native chicken. The highest least square (LS) means of the body weights at 150 and 270 days of age were observed in Black strain as 1,594.38 and 1,911.57g. The earliest LS mean of the ages at first egg was 146.88days in White strain. The heaviest LS means of egg weights at the first egg and 270 days of age were observed in Red Brown strain as 32.20 and 50.74g. The LS mean of the largest number of egg production was 79.50 eggs in Yellow Brown strain. Also, The significant generation effects were investigated in all the major economic traits. The highest LS means of the body weights at 150 and 270 days of age were observed in the generation 3 as 1,599.74 and 1,905.01g. The earliest LS mean of the age at first egg was 143.31 days in 4th generation. The heaviest LS means of egg weights at the first egg and 270 days of age were observed in 7th and 5th generation as 35.68 and 50.42g. The LS means of the largest number of egg production was 78.53 eggs in generation 6. In general, light body weight, short time for the age at first egg, heavy egg weight, and large number of egg production were observed as the generation proceeded.
Effects of Feeding Ferritin Gene Transferred Yeast (Saccharomyces serevisiae) on Performance, Iron Concentration in Organs and Egg of Chickens
Ryu, Byeong-Seon ; Park, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Dae-Hyeok ; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 245~251
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding yeast accumulated transgenic ferritin(FRT, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a probiotic on the performance, iron contents in the liver, spleen, bone and yolk of laying hens and broiler chicks. Effects of feeding FRT were compared with that of feeding wild-type yeast(W0) and yeast grown on 20 mM ferric citrate-added medium (W20). In Expt 1, to investigate the effect of feeding yeast (control, W0 FRT) on performance and iron content of organs of broiler chicks which were fed basal diet supplemented with 75mg/kg iron(Fe75) or not (Fe0), three hundred sixty one-day-old male broiler chicks were fed a corn-sov based diet for five weeks. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were measured weekly. In Expt 2, fifteen 33-week-old ISA Brown laying hens were placed in individual cages and were fed control, W0 and FRT diets for Four weeks. In Expt 3, twenty four 45-week-old ISA Brown laying hens were placed in individual cages and were fed a basal diet for a week. Then, experimental diets (control, W0, W20, FRT) were fed for three weeks. Iron contents in the liver, heart, spleen and tibia were determined at the end of all experiments. Iron content in yolk was measured weekly (expt 2, 3). The level of yeast added and iron concentration of FRT were
cfu/kg diet and 500 mg/kg cell (DM) respectively in Expt 3, yeast was supplemented at
cfu/kg diet and the iron content of FRT was 1000mg/kg cell (DM). In Expt 1. birds fed Fe75 showed significantly higher weight gain compared with Fe0 (P<0.05). However, weight gain and feed intake of birds fed FRT was significantly lower than control (P<0.05). In Expt 2, the iron content of the liver was decreased in the FRT treatment (P<0.05). In Expt 3, iron concentration of the liver and spleen tended to be increased by feeding FRt. However, the iron content of the tibia tended to be decreased in the FRT treatment. These results suggest that feeding FRT as a probiotic cannot improve performance and iron content in organs of broiler chicks and laying hens.
Utilization of Processed Cardboard as Litter Material for Rearing Broiler Chicks
Kim, Seong-Kwon ; Kwon, Sun-Gwan ; ; Kim, Eun-Jip ; An, Byeong-Ki ; Kang, Chang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 253~257
The suitability of processed cardboard(PC) as litter of broiler house was evaluated by comparing the growth performances of broiler chicks reared on the PC with those of birds reared on conventional rice hull litter(RH) as the control group. A total of 180 male broiler chick (5d old, Ross) were randomly divided into 2 groups and placed into 2 types of litter, PC and RH, with 3 replicates of 30 birds per replicate. Commercial broiler feeds and water were provided ad libitum for 5 weeks. The body weight gains of the birds reared on PC were heavier than those on RH(P<0.05). The average feed conversion rate of chicks reared on PC was appeared to be improved as compared to that of the control. The Enterobacter aerogens counts in PC were significantly rduced than those in the control litter(P<0.05), but a total number of Salmonella and E. coli were not affected by the litter materials. No difference was observed between the average moisture contents of the litters. The average mortality of the chicks reared on PC was significantly lower than that of RH(P<0.05). The results indicate that processed cardboard can substitute other conventional litter materials when the others are in short supply or expensive.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Betaine on Performance, Lipid Metabolic Parameters, and Blood and Ileal Osmolality in Laying Hens
Ryu, Myeong-Seon ; Park, Jae-Hong ; Shin, Ki-Hyeong ; Na, Jong-Sam ; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 259~267
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of betaine on egg production, lipid metabolism, and osmoregulation in 18-to 42-week-old ISA Brown laying hens. In experiment 1, three hundred and sixty one hens were fed a com-soy basal diet contailing 16% crude protein (CP), 2800 kcal/kg metabolizable energy (ME), 0.33% methionine, and 0, 300, 600, or 1200 mg betaine per kg diet. Egg production, egg weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, and egg quality were measured every eight weeks. Betaine concentration in live and egg were determined along with serum cholesterol, abdominal fat, total serum protein and albumin levels. In experiment 2, twenty thirty-three-week-old laying hens were fed the same diets as those used in experiment 1 in individual cages and the amount of feed and water consumption were measured for two weeks. At the end of experiment 2, all birds were killed to determine blood plasma and ileal osmopressure, arginine vasotocin (AVT), and liver moisture content. In experiment 1, egg production between the treatments during the first eight weeks were not different, whereas the significant increment of egg production were noticed in the birds fed more than 600 ppm betaine after reaching the peak egg production stage (p<0.05). The egg weight was reduced significantly by the betaine supplementation for the first 8 weeks (p<0.05). Feed conversion tended to improve by betaine supplement. Egg quality was not enhanced by betaine supplementation. Liver betaine level increased with betaine feeding compared to the control but betaine concentration in eggs decreased with betaine supplementation. Betaine supplementation elevated the level of serum total cholesterol and triglyeerides compared to the control. Abdominal fat content was increased by betaine supplementation, whereas liver fat content decreased. In experiment 2, water consumption significantly increased in hens fed diets containing 300 and 600 mg betaine/kg (p<0.05) and osmotic pressure of ileal digesta increased with betaine supplement. Liver moisture content was not affected by betaine, but AVT increased in hens fed betaine. The overal results suggested the possibility of using betaine as a feed additives in the laying hens beacuse of its positive contribution to improving egg production and other metabolic parameters related to lipid metabolism.
A Study on the Back Flow of Urine into the Ceca in Chicken
Son, Jang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 269~273
A cecostomy technique (surgery for inserted tube into ceca) was developed to quantify urine backflow into the ceca of fed and feed-deprived chickens. Two days post-surgery, cecostomised chickens were flushed with 20ml of warm saline solution every other day for 10 days. Excreta were collected daily from cecal tubing and cloaca by surgical attachment of polyethylene collection vessels to the chickens. Uric acid excretion was significantly increased in fed compared to feed-deprived chickens (P<0.05). Amount of determined uric acid from the ceca was 7.74% and 5.31% of total excretion for fed and ffeed-deprived chickens, respectively. Post-mortem examinations ascertained that the caeca were intact around the Latex tubing. The results of the study indicated that at least 5% of daily urine production flow retrograde into the ceca of roosters.
Effect of Protein Level and Dietary Germanium Biotite on Egg Production, Egg Quality and Fecal Volatile Fatty Acid in Laying Hens
Lee, Won-Baek ; Kim, In-Ho ; Hong, Jong-Uk ; Kwon, O-Seok ; Min, Byeong-Jun ; Son, Gyeong-Seung ; Jung, Yeon-Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 275~280
This study conducted to investigate the effect of dietary germanium biotite by protein level in laying hen diets. One hundred forty four, 51 weeks old ISA brown commercial layer, were used in experiment. Dietary treatments were 1) low protein diet(LPD), 2) high protein diet(HPD), 3) LPD-GB(LPD + 1.0% germanium biotite) and 4) HPD-GB(HPD + 1.0% germanium biotite). Henday egg production tended to be increased as the concentration of protein in diets increased with significant difference(P<0.01). Egg weight tended to decrease by increasing of supplementation germanium biotite in the diets(P<0.01). Egg shell breaking strength was not influenced by germanium biotite supplementation(P>0.05). Large band of egg decrease as increasing of supplementation germanium biotite in the diets(P<0.02). Sharp and middle band of egg were not influenced by germanium biotite supplementation. Egg yolk index tended to decrease as increasing of supplementation germanium biotite in the diets(p<0.01). Fecal propionic acid(P<0.01) and butyric acid(P<0.03) were decrease as the concentration of germanium biotite in the diet was increased. Also, butyric acid increased as the concentration of protein in diets increased with significant difference(P<0.02). Supplementation germanium biotite in the diet reduced the fecal acetic acid(P<0.01). Fecal
-N of hens fed HPD-GB diet was decreased(P<0.05) compared to that LPD-GB diet. In conclusion, germanium biotite supplementation to layer diets can reduce fecal volatile fatty acid compabebts.
Effects of Dietary Monascus Culture on Cholesteral Content of Egg Yolk, Meat and Serum of Laying, Hens
Kim, Sang-In ; Ham, Yeong-Hun ; Lee, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 281~287
This experiment was carried out to study the effect of dietary Monascus culture on the cholesterol contents of egg yolk, muscle and serum of layers with 180 Isa-Brown laying hens for 10 weeks. Control group(C) was fed the commercial laying hen diet and 2.67(T1), 5.33(T2) and 8.00(T3)% of Monascus culture which contained 0.6% monacolin-k added to control diet so as to supply the monacolin-k 20(T1), 40(T2) and 60(T3) mg respectively, per hen-day with 125g diet. Hen-day egg production and average egg weight were not affected by the dietary Monascus culture, but feed intake and feed conversion per kg egg were significantly decreased(P<0.05) as the dietary Monascus culture increased. Cholesterol contents of egg yolk measured 4~5 weeks after feeding the Monascus culture and those of thigh meat measured at the end of experiment were significantly decreased(P<0.05) as the dietary Monascus culture increased. Average cholesterol contents of serum showed a trend to decrease as the dietary Monascus culture increased without significant difference.
Effects of Dietary
-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Fatty Acid Composition of Immune Organs in Young Chicks
Ahn, Byeong-Ki ; Youn, Je-Yeong ; Chee, Kyu-Man ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2003, Pages 289~299
Effects of various combinations of corn oil (CO) and perilla oil (PO) as respective dietary sources of
-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fatty acid profiles of immune organs were studied in young chicks. Seventy-five 1-day-old male (ISA Brown) chicks were assigned to five treatments with three replications. Semi-purified-type diets containing glucose and soybean meal as major ingredients were added with 8% CO, 6% CO+2% PO, 4% CO+4% PO, 2% CO+6% PO and 8% PO and fed for 7 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and relative weights of liver and immune organs (g/100g weight) among dietary groups. Dietary fatty acid patterns were generally reflected in the fatty acid compositions of all immune organs such as spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius. The levels of a-linolenic acid(LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid in various immune organs increased with increasing levels of perilla oil in the diets, whilet the levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) decreased. Thymus appeared to have capacity to retain remarkably higher (P<0.05) levels of LA and LNA up to 37 and 22%, respectively, compared to the other organs. Thymic tissue contained
-3 fatty acid and
-6 fatty acid 10~36 times and 3~5 times higher than the other organs, respectively. Spleen tissue was specifically higher (P<0.05) in the levels of AA and EPA and the ratios of AA/LA and EPA/LNA, compared to the other organs, suggesting that the tissue might have high desaturase activity to convert LA or LNA to AA or EPA, respectively. BSA antibody production tended to increase by 18 ~ 32% with higher levels of perilla oil in diet, although the increase was not statistically significant. In conclusion, fatty acid compositions of immune organs very depending on the lipid composition of the diets and each organ appears to respond differently for its fatty acid profile to dietary lipids. Considering AA and EPA are precursors of many important eicosanoids, further studies are required to clarify the responses of the immune organs to the dietary fatty acids.