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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Studies on the Post-hatching Development of the Testis in Korean Native Chickens
Jang, B.G. ; Tae, H.J. ; Choi, C.H. ; Park, Y.J. ; Park, B.Y. ; Park, S.Y. ; Kang, H.S. ; Kim, N.S. ; Lee, Y.H. ; Yang, H.H. ; Ahn, D.C. ; Kim, I.S. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 171~179
Changes in the chicken testis from hatching to adulthood were studied in Korean native chickens of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24, 28, 32, 44, 52 and 64 weeks (n=13 chickens per group) of age. The present study was to investigate in more detail the post-hatching development of testis in Korean native chickens. Testes of chickens were fixed by whole body perfusion using a fixative containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer, processed and embedded in Epon-araldite. Using
sections stained with methylene blue-azure II, qualitative and quantitative(stereological) morphological studies were performed. Sperm production was measured by routine technique. The average volume of a testis of 1 week old Korean native chickens was determined as 0.015 g and the parameter increased linearly from 1 week to 21 weeks days (28.9 g), and did not change from 21 weeks to 64 weeks. The volume density of the seminiferous tubules increased with age from 32.6% at week 1 to 92.89% at week 64. The volume density of the interstitium represents 67.4% of the testicular parenchyma at week 1. This proportion progressively diminished during development to reach a value of 7.11% at week 64. Total sperm production per testis increased significantly from 18 weeks to 28 weeks and remained unchanged. Sperm production per 1 g testis increased significantly from 18 weeks to 28 weeks, did not change significantly from 28 weeks to 52 weeks, and declined significantly at 64 weeks of age. The average diameter of the seminiferous tubules gradually increased with age from 1 week
to 21 weeks
. The length of the seminiferous tubules was 0.34 m at 1 week, increased significantly in subsequent age groups and reached 72.2 m by weeks 64. The stage of germ cell development in seminiferous tubules was classified as 1) spermatogonia
, 2) spermatogonia and spermatocytes
, 3) spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round spermatids
, and 4) speramatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa
. These results clarified the pattern of changes in the testicular development in Korean native chickens from hatching to adulthood as 1) neonatal-prepubertal
, 2) puberty
, and adult
The Ultrastructure of Leydig Cells in the Testis of Korean Native Chickens
Jang, B.G. ; Tae, H.J. ; Choi, C.H. ; Park, Y.J. ; Yang, H.H. ; Kim, N.S. ; Park, S.Y. ; Kang, H.S. ; Park, B.Y. ; Lee, Y.H. ; Ahn, D.C. ; Kim, I.S. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 181~188
Changes in the fine structure of testicular Leydig cell from hatching to adulthood were studied in Korean native chickens of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24, 28, 32, 44, 52 and 64 weeks (n=13 chickens per group) of age. The objective of this study were to elucidate Leydig cell ultrastructure during testicular development. Testes of chickens were fixed by whole body perfusion using a fixative containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer, processed and embedded in Epon-araldite. Using
sections stained with methylene blue-azure II, qualitative and quantitative(stereological) morphological studies were performed. The ultrastructural changes of the Leydig cell were investigated by ultrathin section with the transmission electron microscope. The stages of the Leydig cell development described focus on mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets which are involved in androgens as fullows. 1) Approaching puberty. The closely packed Leydig cells and sparse intercellular space. The nucleus occupied a large portion of the Leydig cell volume. The population of Leydig cells contained two types of cells that differed in the appearance of their nuclei which were either highly electron-opaque or relatively electron-lucid. The cytoplasm was characterized by large amounts of lipid droplets, relatively few spherical mitochondria, and sparse smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 2) Puberty to adult. The Leydig cells which display features compatible with significant androgen synthesis: large volume of cytoplasm containing extended smooth endoplasmic reticulum, abundant mitochondria, and reduction of lipid droplets.
The Effect of Natural Mineral Complex Supplementation on Production, Egg Quality and Blood Characteristic in Laying Hens
Yoo, J.S. ; Kim, J.D. ; Cho, J.H. ; Chen, Y.J. ; Kim, H.J. ; Kang, D.K. ; Min, B.J. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 189~194
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural mineral complex supplementation on egg production and characteristic in laying hens. A total of two hundred forty laying hens were randomly allocated into four treatments with ten replications for six weeks. Dietary treatments included 1) CON (control, basal diet) 2) M0.5 (basal diet + 3% chitosan + 0.5% natural mineral complex), 3) M1.0 (basal diet + 3% chitosan + 1.0% natural mineral complek) and 4) M1.5 (basal diet + 3% chitosan + 1.5% natural mineral complex). In the egg production, the M1.5 treatment was significantly higher than other treatments(P<0.05). However, egg weight was significantly higher in M0.5 treatment than CON and M1.0 treatments(P<0.05). Egg shell breaking strength was higher in M1.5 treatment than M0.5 treatment. Egg shell thickness was the highest in M1.5 treatment compared to other treatments(P<0.05). The hens 134 M0.5 diet were improved egg yolk color compared to those fed other diets(P<0.05). The Haugh unit, CON and M1.0 treatments showed significantly different results compared to those of M1.5 treatment(P<0.05). The M1.5 treatment had higher Ca and Fe concentration in blood and higher K concentration in yolk than CON(P<0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of natural mineral complex in laying hen diets influenced on egg production, egg shell qualify and mineral concentration in blood and yolk.
Effects of Dietary Selenium Sources on Performance and Selenium Retention in Broiler Chickens and Laying Hens
Na, J.C. ; Kim, S.H. ; Jang, B.G. ; Kim, J.H. ; Yu, D.J. ; Lee, D.S. ; Lee, S.J. ; Lee, J.C. ; Lee, W.J. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 195~202
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary selenium sources on performance and selenium retention in broiler chickens and laying hens. In experiment 1, the effects of dietary selenium sources and levels on the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, and selenium retention of meat in broiler chickens were investigated. for each growth phase, the basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 0.12 and 0.24 ppm Se from sodium selenite (SS) and 0.12, 0.24 and 0.60 ppm Se from selenium yeast(SY). Weight gain was significantly increased(P<0.05) in supplemental 0.24 and 0.60 ppm SY compared to the 0.24 ppm SS by diet during day 1 to 35, but feed intake and feed conversion were not affected by the source or the level of Se. Selenium concentrations of breast and leg muscle were significantly increased(P<0.05) in supplemental SS and SY compared to the control, and linearly increased(P<0.05) as dietary. Se level increased by SY, but there was no difference in supplemental 0.12 ppm SS compared to 0.24 ppm SS. In experiment 2, 12-week-experiment using Hy-Line laying hens(31 wk of age) was conducted to compare the effects of selenium sources and levels on egg production, egg weight, daily egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion, egg quality, and selenium retention of egg in laying hens. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 0.06 and 0.12 ppm Se from sodium selenite (SS) and 0.06, 0.12 and 0.30 ppm Se from selenium yeast(SY). Feed conversion was significantly improved(P<0.05) in supplemental 0.06 ppm SS compared to the control, but egg production, egg weight, daily egg mass, and feed intake were not affected by source and level of Se. Haugh unit was not affected by source or level of Se. Yolk color was significantly(P<0.05) higher in supplemental 0.3 ppm SY compared to the control and other supplement in week 12. Eggshell breaking strength was significantly(P<0.05) higher in supplemental 0.06 ppm SY(P<0.05). Thickness of eggshell was not affected by source or level of Se. Se concentrations of egg was significantly improved(P<0.05) in supplemental SS and SY compared to the control, and was significantly increased(P<0.05) as dietary Se level increased by SS and SY, especially SY more effective compared to the SS.
Effects of Dietary Liquid Chitosan on the Performance of Broiler Chickens
Choi, B.K. ; Son, J.H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 203~209
This study were conducted to evaluate effects of drinking concentrated liquid chitosan on performance of broiler. A total of 240 broiler chicks at 7 days of age were fed the commercial diet and water until 47 days of age, drinking water divided into three treatments, 0 ppm (control), 200 ppm (200) and 400 ppm (400) of concentrated liquid chitosan. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not different by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan until 28 days of age, but body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improve by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan over 28 days of age. Both body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were tend to improve and significantly improved (p<0.05) in 200 and 400 than control at 29 to 35 days of age, respectively. While body weight gain was tended to improve and significantly improved (p<0.05) in 400 and 200 than control at 36 to 47 days of age, respectively. There was a decrease in the microflora population of E coli. in the cecum contents and feaces of broilers by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan. This effect is higher in 400 than 200. The digestibility of dry matter and crude fat of feed were tend to increased in broiler by drinking concentrated liquid chitosan. Digestibility of crude protein of feed of broiler in 200 and 400 was significantly improved (p<0.05) as compared with those in control. These results indicated that when broiler chicks drinking concentrated liquid chitosan of 400 ppm, the improvement of the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed nutrients digestibility, decreasing of microflora population of both E coli. and Salmonella in the cecum contents and feaces.
Production of the Functional Egg to Strengthen Isoflavone : Improvement of Transfer Efficiency of Genistein into the Egg Yolk
HwangBo, J. ; Lee, B.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Chung, W.T. ; Cho, S.B. ; Hong, E.C. ; Bae, H.D. ; Chang, J.S. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 211~215
This study was carried out to determine whether genistein implants in laying hens could be transferred into their eggs. 250 mg genistein pellet was implanted two or four subcutaneously in the neck of laying hens. The contents of genistein in egg yolk transferred were analyzed with HPLC-MS. In 500 mg genistein pellets, it was detected as 395 ng/egg yolk on the day 18 after implanting and maintained as 546 ng/egg yolk after the day 59. In 1,000 mg, genistein was detected as 240 ng/egg yolk on the day 13, as 514 ng/egg yolk on the day 30 and maintained over 59 days. In conclusion, the direct genistein implants could be more twenty times efficiently transferred to egg yolks than dietary supplement.
The Effect of Food Waste on the Performance and the Egg Quality in Laying Hens
HwangBo, J. ; Lee, S.J. ; Lee, B.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Cho, S.B. ; Kim, H.K. ; Lee, S.U. ; Hong, E.C. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 217~224
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of food-waste(FW) between weeks(0, 1, 2, 3, 4 week) and additive levels(0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20%) on egg production and egg qualify in laying hens. One hundred sixty two White Leghorn laying hens at fifty weeks of age were used for this work. There was no significant difference on feed intake, egg production, and egg weight among all treatments. But, 20% FW group was decreased at 1, 2, and 3 week on egg production and it was recovered at 4 weeks(p<0.05). There was no difference on the eggshell thickness and egg yolk index among all treatments. However, eggshell breaking strength were
at 3 week and 4 week, individually, and there was difference on eggshell breaking strength(p<0.05). Haugh unit and egg yolk color were high at 20% FW group as 92.3 and 9.4, individually, and there was shown the significant increasing in weeks and additive levels(p<0.05). Conclusionally, 20% FW group was decreased on egg production, while 5% FW group was maintained on egg production, and haugh unit and egg yolk color were cleary developed. Therefore, if the nutrients balance of FW diets were controlled, FW diets will be used with one of the valuable feed sources.
Effect of Feeding Rare Earth on Egg Production and Hatchability Broiler Growth
Ham, S.K. ; Song, T.H. ; Zhang, G.Q. ; Hur, S.N. ; Park, H.S. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 225~231
To investigate the effect of feeding rare earth (RE) on the performance of breeder hens a feeding trial with sixteen thousands of 158 day old Ross broiler breeder hens was conducted for thirty weeks. A mixture of RE- chlorides containing mainly La, Ce, and Pr was mixed into corn-soy based diet at two levels, 300 and 600 mg/kg, All the hens were housed in flat layer houses and the ratio of male to female was maintained at one to ten. Dietary supplementation of the of RE at a level of 300 mg/kg made the hens reach egg production peak higher by about 6% and earlier by about two weeks. As a result, it made higher hatchable egg production by 3.5%. It also reduced dramatically the mortality of both male and female breeders(P<0.05). Egg weight was slightly increased but egg qualify was not much influenced by dietary supplementation of RE. Egg albumin hight and Haugh unit were significantly improved while egg shell thickness, egg breaking strength and yolk color were similar to those of the control. Experimental results appeared to show a good possibility that egg fertility and hatchability were improved by feeding RE. Dietary supplementation of RE at a level of 300 mg/kg should be acceptable but not the 600 mg/kg level for breeder hens. Further studies on the effect of RE on egg fertility and hatchability appears to be necessary.
Rare Earth as a Feed Additive for Broiler Growth
Ham, S.K. ; Song, T.H. ; Zhang, G.Q. ; Hur, S.N. ; Park, H.S. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 233~238
In order to study the effect of feeding rare earth(RE) on growth of broiler chicks, feed conversion ratio, and probable harmfulness of feeding high levels of RE, two feeding trials with broiler chicks were conducted; one using a commercial broiler compound feed and the other using a self mixed feed excluding any growth stimulating feed additives. The the first trial used three hundred sixty of one day old Cobb broiler chicks for six levels of dietary supplementation of RE : 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1,600 mg/kg. There were significant effect of RE stimulating broiler chick growth and improving feed conversion ratio, The dietary supplementation of RE at a level of 100 mg/kg was the best of all and increased body weight gain by 8.9% (p<0.05). Chicks fed RE at a level of 1,600 mg/kg grew as good as chicks fed feeds without RE and did not show my abnormalities. The second feeding trial was conducted in the same manner as the first trial using Ross broiler chicks and self-mixed experimental diets supplemented with RE at levels of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Differently from Results of the first trial, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of were the best at the level of 50 mg/kg RE supplementation(p<0.05). In this trial all the birds fed RE showed significantly lower ratio of abdominal fat against live weight than those of the control group birds. Overall, it can be said that dietary supplementation of RE will improve broiler growth and feed conversion ratio and the proper dietary level would be
. These results suggested that the proper level of RE for broiler chicks would be 50 to 100 mg/kg and its effectiveness is varied depending upon RE mixture. There appears abdominal fat of broiler chicks is decreased by feeding RE but further investigation is in need.
Utilization of Fermentable Carbohydrates in Feed Manufacturing and in Enzyme of Poultry Feed
Nahm, K.H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 239~248
Improvements in understanding the effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates and their interaction with supplemental feed enzymes and the feed manufacturing process may lead to reductions in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from poultry manure. Starch digestibility has been improved by replacing ground wheat or barley with whole wheat or barley, but there was no consistent effect of cereal species or feed form on the pH value of the gizzard contents. Pelleting results in improvements in feed conversion from 0 to 12%. Starch digestibility has been reported to account for up to 35 % of the improvement in available metabolic energy as a result of xylase supplementation. Factors which affect starch utilization and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) absorption include the presence of anti-nutrient facto. (ANF) in grains, the nature of grain starch, NSP and the digestive capacity of animals. Improvements in feed production technology have been made in enzyme stabilization, allowing some dry enzyme products to be pelleted after conditioning at up to
and liquid enzymes to be stored in the feed mill for up to low months prior to use. The soluble NSP, arabinokylans and beta-glucans are partially degraded into smaller fragments by enzymes. With fragmentation, the water holding capacity is decreased, which leads to a reduction in digesta moisture, wet feces, and dirty eggs from hens fed diets containing viscosity-inducing ingredients.