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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin and Capxanthin on the Pigmentation of Egg Yolk
Son, M. ; Kim, S. ; Lee, B.D. ; Lim, Y.P. ; An, G. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 219~224
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.219
A total of 96 ISA Brown layers, 63-wk-old, were used in a 12-day feeding trial to measure the effect of dietary astaxanthin and capxanthin on their accumulation in egg yolk. The hens were fed diets containing astaxanthin from the yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, at 22.5 mg/kg feed, or synthetic compound at 45 mg/kg feed, and capxanthin from paprika extract at 45 mg/kg feed. The levels of yolk astaxanthin from the two pigments were saturated at
day of feeding. Capxanthin was not accumulated in egg yolk but its derivatives were slightly present after
days of feeding. The level of astaxanthin accumulated in egg yolk was proportional to the level of dietary astaxanthin. Except the color of egg yolk, other quality factors of eggs were not significantly different among the treatments.
Immune Responses against Marek`s Disease Virus Infection
Jang, H.K. ; Park, Y.M. ; Cha, S.Y. ; Park, J.B. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 225~240
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.225
Marek`s disease virus(MDV) is a highly cell-associated, lymphotropic
-herpesvirus that causes paralysis and neoplastic disease in chickens. The disease has been controlled by vaccination which was provided the first evidence for a malignant cancer being controlled by an antiviral vaccine. Marek`s disease pathogenesis is complex, involving cytolytic and latent infection of lymphoid cells and oncogenic transformation of
T cells in susceptible chickens. MDV targets a number of different cell types during its life cycle. Lymphocytes play an essential role, although within them virus production is restricted and only virion are produced. Innate and adaptive immune responses develop in response to infection, but infection of lymphocytes results in immunosuppressive effects. Hence in MDV-infected birds, MDV makes its host more vulnerable to tumour development as well as to other pathogens. All chickens are susceptible to MDV infection, and vaccination is essential to protect the susceptible host from developing clinical disease. Nevertheless, MDV infects and replicates in vaccinated chickens, with the challenge virus being shed from the feather-follicle epithelium. The outcome of infection with MDV depends on a complex interplay of factors involving the MDV pathotype and the host genotype. Host factors that influence the course of MD are predominantly the responses of the innate and adaptive immune systems, and these are modulated by: age at infection and maturity of the immune system; vaccination status; the sex of the host; and various physiological factors.
A Study of the Generation of Transgenic Chickens That Express Human SOD-3 Protein
Byun, S.J. ; Park, C. ; Kim, J.A. ; Woo, J.S. ; Lee, H.C. ; Kim, T.Y. ; Kim, S.H. ; Seong, H.H. ; Park, J.K. ; Jeon, I.S. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 241~245
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.241
Lentiviral vector system is efficient vehicles for the delivery of exogenous genes, and it is generally used in the generation of transgenic chickens. In this study, we used recombinant lentiviral vectors to generate transgenic chicks that express the human superoxide dismutase-3 gene driven by the chicken ovalbumin promoter. It is well known that superoxide dismutases(SODs) are believed to play a crucial role in protecting cells against oxygen toxicity. There are three forms of SOD proteins: cytosolic Cu-Zn SOD, mitochondrial Mn SOD, and extracellular SOD(SOD-3). The recombinant lentivirus containing the human SOD-3 gene was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid eggs. Subsequently, the embryos were incubated to hatch using phases II and III of the surrogate shell ex vivo culture system. From 341 injected embryos, the 78 chicks hatched after 21 days incubation. The hatched chicks were screened for the human SOD-3 gene by using PCR. Two of 47 male chickens that survived to sexual maturity contained the human SOD-3 gene in their semen. These results showed that our transgenic chicken generation system was completely established.
Effect of Water Uptake Rate of Chicken on Lipid Oxidation, Color of Meat, and Microbes of Chicken during Storage
Chae, H.S. ; Ahn, C.N. ; Yoo, Y.M. ; Jang, A.R. ; Jeong, S.G. ; Ham, J.S. ; Cho, S.H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 247~253
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.247
This study was performed to evaluate change of lipid oxidation, microbes, and color of chicken meat containing 6, 8, and 10% of water uptake rate(WUR) during cold storage. pH of chicken containing 6, 8, and 10% of WUR showed 6.00, 6.04, and 6.05%, at day 3, respectively. Lightness(
) of chicken containing 6, 8, and 10% of WUR was 73.40, 75.27, and 75.31, at day 3, respectively. Redness(
) of chicken with 10% of WUR was 2.52, which was the highest value, while no difference was found between chicken with 6 and 8% of WUR. Yellowness(
) of chicken containing 6, 8, and 10% of WUR was 4.31, 4.33, and 4.36. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) value of chicken containing 6, 8, and 10% of WUR was 0.107, 0.104, and 0.113 mg malondialdehyde/kg meat. The higher WUR, the higher TBARS value was shown. Total microbial number of chicken with 6, 8, and 10% of WUR was 4.04, 4.12, and 4.56
at day 3. E. coli of chicken with 6, 8, and 10% of WUR was 0.93, 1.40, and 1.28
. From this result high WUR increases
value, TBARS, and microbes of chicken meat during storage. Therefore, lower WUR would be beneficial to extend shelf life of chicken meat during storage.
Production of DHA-Rich Meats and Eggs from Chickens Fed Fermented Soybean Meal by Marine Microalgae(Schizochytrium mangrovei MM103)
Jeong, Woo-Cheol ; Lee, Jeong-Yeoul ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; Choi, Byeong-Dae ; Kang, Seok-Joong ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 255~265
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.255
The objective of this study was to evaluate the docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) levels of meats and eggs from chickens which were fed fermented soybean meal(FSM) by marine microalgae(Schizochytrium mangrovei MM103). The diets contained different amounts of FSM at 0, 3, 5 and 10%. DHA content of carcass was increased with dietary FSM. DHA amounts in the breast meat were higher in the 10% FSM diet(2.21%) than the 5%(1.65%) and 3%(1.18%) FSM, and similar results were observed in the leg meat(10% FSM: 2.21%; 5% FSM: 1.65%; and 3% FSM: 1.18%, respectively) and in eggs(10% FSM: 2.02%; 5% FSM: 1.22%; and 3% FSM: 0.73%). The level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as DHA(22:6n-3) in the FSM treatment was significantly higher than those of the other groups(P<0.05). The results demonstrated that FSM by marine microalgae could be used to enhance DHA amounts in chicken meats and eggs.
Effect of Dietary Anti-oxidant Supplementation on Telomere Length and Egg Quality in Laying Hens
Lee, M.H. ; Lee, S.H. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Ko, Y.H. ; Jang, I.S. ; Moon, Y.S. ; Choi, Y.H. ; Sohn, S.H. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 267~274
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.267
There are many kinds of anti-oxidant materials in natural plant resources. The Siberian ginseng and Eucommia are well known as anti-oxidant and medicinal plants. To investigate the effect of their anti-oxidant-like activity on telomere quantity and egg quality, diets containing Siberian ginseng leaf and Eucommia leaf at 0.5% and 1% were given Hyline Brown commercial laying hens during two periods of age: 20 to 30 wks and 60 to 70 wks. The amount of telomere in lymphocyte, liver, ovary, heart and lung was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization using telomeric DNA probe. Egg weight, albumin height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color, egg shell color, egg shell thickness, egg shell weight and egg shell density were measured to analyze egg quality. The chickens consuming diets Siberian ginseng and Eucommia had higher telomeric DNA in lymphocytes than control chickens in younger layers whereas no significant differences were detected in all target cells analyzed from older layers. Egg quality was increased in younger hens with dietary supplementation as determined by egg weight, albumin height and Haugh unit but there were no effects in older hens. These results imply that dietary supplementation of Siberian ginseng and Eucommia in layers improves bio-activity and egg quality at early laying stage.
Effects of Lycopene as a Feed Additive on the Quality of Chicken Eggs
Kim, K.S. ; Hong, J.A. ; Kim, J.W. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 275~281
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.275
This experiment deals with lycopene-enriched egg production in chicken and their effects on egg quality, especially antioxidant status of eggs upon their long term storage. Forty two laying hens(Hyline, 36 weeks of age) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets containing 0 mg and 2 mg lycopene per kilogram feed for 4 weeks. There was a comparable concentration of lycopene in egg yolk(
/1 g yolk) of chickens supplemented with dietary lycopene. No measurable concentration of lycopene was detected in egg yolk of chickens fed the control diet. Dietary lycopene supplementation increased egg yolk color(P<0.01), egg yolk height(P<0.08), egg yolk diameter(P<0.19), egg shell intensity(P<0.19), egg white height(P<0.33), and Haugh unit (P<0.34). After 4 week of storage of eggs in room temperature, lycopene treated eggs were tested for freshness. The ESI, EYH, EWH, HU, and EYC of lycopene treated eggs were comparably higher than those of control groups, even though there was not statistically significant difference between two groups whereas EYD of the control group was smaller than that of lycopene treated group. In conclusion, dietary lycopene supplementation to chickens might be improved egg quality.
Effect of Dietary Siberian Ginseng and Eucommia on Broiler Performance, Serum Biochemical Profiles and Telomere Length
Sohn, S.H. ; Jang, I.S. ; Moon, Y.S. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Lee, S.H. ; Ko, Y.H. ; Kang, S.Y. ; Kang, H.K. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 283~290
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.283
The Siberian ginseng and Eucommia are a kind of medicinal plant with powerful anti-oxidant activity. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Siberian ginseng leaf and Eucommia leaf at level of 0.5% and 1% per feed in Ross commercial broiler for 4 to 35 days of age on performance, organ weight, blood biochemical profiles and telomere quantity. Chickens consuming diets containing 1% Siberian ginseng had higher feed conversion ratio than the other treated chicken during experimental period whereas no significant differences were detected in body weight, weight gain and feed intake. The weight of bursa of fabricius was significantly increased in chickens with dietary supplementation compared with chickens fed control but this was not seen in liver, spleen and thymus. In blood biochemical profiles, chickens with dietary supplementation had higher concentration than chickens fed control in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin and total protein, however, was not significantly different between dietary supplemented chickens and control chickens. The relative amount of telomeric DNA of lymphocytes in chickens with dietary supplementation was significantly higher than that of control chickens but the difference was not found in liver, heart and testis tissues. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Siberian ginseng and Eucommia in broiler improved immune activity and telomere length without decreasing chicken growth performance.
Effect of Dietary Energy, Protein on Growth and Blood Composition of Cross Bred Chicks
Jeong, Y.D. ; Ryu, K.S. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 291~302
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.291
To acquire essentially necessary basic data to establish feeding system by verifying appropriate dietary energy and protein level for the growth of commercial slow growing broiler chicks within the country, two experiments were conducted for 5 weeks. One day old, 1,404 male and female broiler chicks were used for the experiments, and 26 chicks were placed at each pen. The energy level of feed was maintained about 3,000 or 3,100 kg/kcal for whole breeding period of 5 weeks, and protein content was adjusted about 20, 21, and 22% during the first two weeks and the content was adjusted to 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22% from the 3 to 5 weeks old of the experiment. The categories of body weight and feed intake amount were monitored to calculate the productivity and blood sampling was conducted for the analysis at the end of each experiment. Experiment 1:Although the productivity by the ME content difference during
weeks did not have significant difference and the body weight increase by the difference of CP content and feed intake amount did not have much difference, the feed requirement rate was statistically improved in CP 21 and 22% treatment groups compared to the CP 20% group (P<0.05). The feed ME 3,100 kcal/kg treated group during
weeks after starting the experiment revealed to show improved feed requirement rate (P<0.05). Within the period of experiment, the CP 22% treated group resulted to show significant body weight increase compared to the groups treated with low levels of CP (P<0.05) and the feed requirement rate was improved in high CP treated group compared to low CP treated groups, but the feed intake amount did not show significant difference between treated groups. During the experiment period, the body weight increase and feed requirement rate revealed to interact between ME and CP (P<0.05). During the whole experiment period of the 5 weeks, the feed requirement rate was improved in ME 3,100 kcal/kg treated group than the groups treated with ME 3,000 kcal/kg, and the CP (20) 18% treatment groups resulted to show higher values than other treatment groups (P<0.05). Body weight increase was high in CP (22) 22% treated groups than those of CP (21) 21% and (20) 18% treated groups, and the interaction between ME and CP was found at body weight increase and feed requirement rate (P<0.05). Although blood albumin and total cholesterol levels were elevated in ME 3,100 kcal/kg treated group than ME 3,000 kcal/kg treated group, but neutral fat content was reduced (P<0.05). On the other hand, the total cholesterol content was increased in CP (22) 21% treated group than CP (22) 20% and CP (20) 18% treated groups (P<0.05). Experiment 2: The body weight increase in 0-2 weeks was higher in ME 3,100 kcal/kg treated group than ME 3,000 kcal/kg treated group, and it was highly improved in CP 22% treated group than CP 20% treated group by showing the interaction between CP and ME (P<0.05). The significant improvement of feed requirement rate was observed in CP 21% and 22% treated groups compared to CP 20% treated group (P<0.05). The productivity between the growth period from 3 to 5 weeks of age and whole growth period resulted to show no significant difference. Although no difference was observed in blood composition between treated groups, the interaction of ME and CP on cholesterol content was accepted at the range of P<0.05). Therefore, it is considered that the appropriate dietary protein level within feed for the physiology of growing broiler chicks was 22% or more for the first two weeks and protein level of 21% or 20% from 3 to 5 weeks old for the maximization of productivity. Even if the energy level within feed had some partial effects on the productivity, but did not show consistency. So, further experiments needto be conducted by differentiating the energy level.
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Cu-methionine Chelate and Cu-soy Proteinate on the Performance, Small Intestinal Microflora and Immune Response in Laying Hens
Paik, I.K. ; Kim, C.H. ; Park, K.W. ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 35, issue 3, 2008, Pages 303~311
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.303
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Cu-methionine chelate(Cu-Met) and Cu-soy proteinate(Cu-SP) on the performance, small intestinal microflora and immune response in laying hens. A total of 960 Hy-line
laying hens of 39 wks old were assigned to one of the following 6 dietary treatment: control(C), antibiotic(Avilamycine 6 ppm), Cu-Met 50 and Cu-Met 100(50 and 100 ppm Cu as Cu-methionine chelate), Cu-SP 50 and Cu-SP 100(50 and 100ppm Cu as Cu-soy proteinate). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with forty birds per replication, housed in 2 birds per cages. Forty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 6 wks under 16 hours lighting regimen. Hen-day and hen-house egg production of groups treated with Antibiotic and Cu supplements tended to be higher than the control with significant difference (P<0.05) shown between Cu-Me 100 and control. Egg weight was significantly (P<0.05) heavier in antibiotic and Cu-SP treatments than Cu-Met treatments but they were not significantly different from the control. Eggshell strength, egg shell thickness, egg yolk color and Haugh unit were not significantly different among treatments. There were no significant differences in leukocytes and erythrocytes in the chicken blood. But mean corpuscular hemoglobin value(MCH) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP 100 than antibiotic treatment. The concentrations of serum IgG and IgA were not significantly different among treatments. Copper concentration in the liver tended to increase as the level of copper supplementation increased, that of Cu-SP 100 being significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of the control and antibiotic treatment. Concentrations of iron and zinc of the liver were not significantly influenced by treatments. Populations of Cl. perfringens and Lactobacilli in the small intestinal content were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by treatments. Population of Cl. perfringens decreased and that of Lactobacilli increased in the copper supplemented groups. The result of this experiment showed that Cu-Met and Cu-SP are comparable to antibiotic in improving egg production in laying hens. Birds fed diets supplemented with Cu-SP produced heavier eggs than those fed diets with Cu-Met. There were no significant differences in the performances between 50 ppm and 100 ppm copper supplementation as organic forms.