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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Effects of Dietary Effective Microorganism (EM) on Growth Performance, Microflora Population and Noxious Gas Emission in Broiler
Kang, Hwan Ku ; Kim, Chan Ho ; Bang, Han Tae ; Kim, Ji Hyuk ; Kim, Min Ji ; Kim, Dong Woon ; Na, Jae Cheon ; Hwangbo, Jong ; Yang, Young Rok ; Choi, Hee Cheol ; Moon, Hong Kil ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 227~233
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.227
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with the effective microorganism (EM) on the growth performance, blood parameter, small intestinal microflora, and noxious gas emission of broilers. A total 720 1-d old ROSS 308 was randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatment groups: control, virginiamycin (6 mg/kg), 0.1% PB 0.1% EM, 0.5% EM, and 1.0% EM. Each treatment was fed to 4 replicates of 30 birds per diet for d 35. Two-phase feeding program with a starter diet from 0 to 3 wk, and a finisher diet from 4 to 5 wk was used in the experiment. Within each phase, a diet was formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements of broilers for macro- and micronutrients. The diet and water were available ad libitum. Result indicated that during overall periods of the experiment, final weight, body weight gain, and feed intake were not different among dietary treatments. Feed conversion ratio was less (P<0.05) for EM treatments than control, antibiotics, and PB. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TRG), glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), calcium (CA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were not different among dietary treatments. White blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), heterophils (HE), lymphocyte (LY), monocytes (MO), and eosinophils (EO) were not different among dietary treatments. HE:LY was less (P<0.05) for EM0.5 treatments than control, antibiotics, and PB. Lactobacillus was greater (P<0.05) for EM treatments than control and antibiotics. E. coli and Salmonella were not different among dietary treatments.
wereless (P<0.05) for EM treatments than control. These results indicated that EM treatments were effective feed conversion ratio, noxious gas emission and micro flora population on the cecum in broilers.
Phylogenetic Analysis using mtDNA D-loop Sequences in Korean Native Ducks
Choi, Nu Ri ; Seo, Dong Won ; Jin, Seon Deok ; Sultana, Hasina ; Heo, Kang Nyeong ; Lee, Jun Heon ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 235~240
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.235
Recently, the consumption of duck meat has been gradually increased in Korea. However, most of the duck breeds in Korea were imported from overseas. Based on the large demands for the breeding stocks of native ducks, a new project for the commercial use of the Korean native ducks has been launched. For the initial investigation of the relationships between Korean native duck (KND) with other duck breeds, the sequences from D-loop control region in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used. The results from phylogenetic analysis indicated that both KND and White Commercial Duck (WCD) breeds were classified well with wild duck breeds. However, mallard duck was not discriminated well with KND. The haplotype analysis indicated that KND and WCD have eight different haplotypes with eleven SNPs. Three haplotypes (haplotype 1, 3, 4) were shared both in KND and WCD. On the other hand, haplotype 1 was appeared only KND and haplotype 5, 6, 7, 8 were identified only in WCD population. With further verifications, the results presented here can be used for the conservation and commercialization of the Korean native ducks.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper-Sulfate and Copper-Soy Proteinate on the Performance and Small Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens
Kim, Chan Ho ; Kang, Hwan Ku ; Bang, Han Tae ; Kim, Ji Hyuk ; Hwangbo, Jong ; Choi, Hee Cheol ; Paik, In Kee ; Moon, Hong Kil ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 241~247
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.241
The objective of this experimental was to investigate the effect of dietary Cu-sulfate and Cu-soy proteinate on productive performance and small intestinal microflora. A total 1,000 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (35 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: Control, Cu-sulfate 50, 100 (50, 100 ppm Cu supplementation as Cu-sulfate) and Cu-SP 50, 100 (50, 100 ppm Cu supplementation as Cu-soy proteinate). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with fifty birds per replication, housed in 2 birds cages. Fifty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 5 weeks under 16L : 8D lighting regimen. Hen day egg production was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu treated groups than control. Feed intake, broken and shell-less egg production was not significantly influenced by treatment. Eggshell color, eggyolk color, haugh unit, and eggshell thickness were not significantly influenced by treatment. However, eggshell strength was significantly (P<0.05) greater in Cu treated groups than control. Concentration of copper of liver was significantly (P<0.05) greater in Cu treated groups than control. Concentration of zinc and iron of liver were not influenced by treatments. Population of Cl. perfrigens and Lactobacilli in the small intestinal content were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by treatments. Population of Cl. perfrigens decreased and that of Lactobacilli increased in the Cu supplement groups. In conclusion, dietary Cu sulfate and Cu-soy proteinate similarly improves egg production, eggshell strength, and favors intestinal microbial population of laying hens.
The Evaluation of Various Conditions in the Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells on Korean Native Chicken (Ogye)
Kim, Hyun ; Cho, Young Moo ; Han, Jae Yong ; Choi, Sung Bok ; Byun, Mi Jeong ; Kim, Young Sin ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Kim, Sung Woo ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 249~259
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.249
Cryopreserving cells which are maintaining their viability are the very complex process. This study has been carried out in order to find the effects of cryopreservation steps and freezing media on the rates of viability of cryopreserved chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGCs obtained from the germinal gonade of 5.5~6 day (stage 28) chick embryos of Korean Ogye (KO) and Commercial breeds (C), using the MACS method were suspended in a freezing medium containing a freezing and protecting agents (e.g. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)). Gonads were harvested from stage 28 chick embryos and pooled in groups of 5, 10, 15, 20E embryos, contributing gonads to the cell suspension. The gonadal cells, including PGCs, were then frozen in 1 of the following cryoprotectant treatments : 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 0% cryoprotectant (DMSO, EG, PG) as a control. Effects of exposure to slow freezing and vitrification, with different concentrations of the cryoprotectant solution, were examined. After vitrification and slow freezing, survival rates of the frozen-thawed PGCs from the 10% EG plus FBS treatment were 85.63%, and 66.14% (p<0.05), respectively. The viability of PGCs after freeze-thawing was significantly higher for 10% EG plus FBS treatment than for 10% PG + FBS treatment (p<0.05) (85.63% vs 66.81%) by vitrification. This study established a method for preserving chicken PGCs that enables systematic storage and labeling of cryopreserved PGCs in liquid (
) at a germplasm repository and ease of entry into a data base. In the future, the importance for this new technology is that poultry lines can be conserved while work is being conducted on improving the production of germline chimeras.
The Effect of Simple Freezing Method on Viability of Frozen-thawed Primordial Germ Cells on the Chicken
Kim, Hyun ; Cho, Young Moo ; Han, Jae Yong ; Choi, Sung Bok ; Cho, Chang-Yeon ; Suh, Sangwon ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Kim, Sung Woo ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 261~270
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.261
This study was conducted to establish the method for preserving chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) that enables long-term storage in liquid nitrogen (
) for developmental engineering or preservation of species. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of simple freeze-thaw treatment on viability of PGCs in chickens and to the optimal protocol for PGCs freezing. PGCs obtained from the germinal gonade of an early embryos of 5.5~6 day (stage 28) of Isa Brown, Korean Ogye (KO), White Leghorn and Commercial breeds, using the MACS method were suspended in a freezing medium containing a freezing and protecting agents (e.g. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)). The gonadal cells, including PGCs, were then frozen in 1 of the following cryoprotectant treatments : 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 0% cryoprotectant (DMSO, EG, PG) as a control. Effects of exposure to simple freezing, with different concentrations of the cryoprotectant solution, were examined. After simple freezing, the viability of PGCs after freeze-thawing was significantly higher for Commercial breeds (
) than KO (
), Isa Brown (
) and White Leghorn (
) (p<0.05) using 10% EG cryoprotectant. Therefore, these systems may contribute in the improvement of cryopreservation for a scarce species in birds preservation. This study established a method for preserving chicken PGCs that enables systematic storage and labeling of cryopreserved PGCs in liquid (
) at a germplasm repository and ease of entry into a database.
The Study on the Quality of Sausage Manufactured with Different Mixture Ratios of Spent Laying Hen and Pork Meat
Kim, Young-Jik ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 271~277
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.271
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the meat from spent laying hen on the shelf-life and physicochemical properties of emulsified sausage. Four types of sausage were made: 0% (Control), 10% (T1), 20% (T2) and 30% (T3) of spent hen meat added. Each sausage type was tested in triplicate. The addition of spent hen meat resulted in decreased crude fat and cooking loss, and increased WHC (water holding capacity), CIE
and hardness. Values for crude fat and cooking loss were significantly decreased by the addition of spent laying hen meat relative to the control (P<0.05). Especially, T3 was significantly (P<0.05) decreased compare to other treatment groups. Spent laying hen meat addition had no significantly effects on moisture, crude protein, crude ash, pH, WHC, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values, shear force, total plate counts (TPC), CIE
values. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the addition of spent laying hen meat to emulsified sausages tended to improve sausage quality.
Effects of Dietary Zizyphus jujuba Seed Meal on Broiler Performance
Son, Jang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 279~285
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.279
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Zizyphus jujuba seed meal on broiler performance, small intestine and cecal length, gizzard weight and fecal gas emission. A total of 180 day-old broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly divided into 4 groups, fed the commercial diet containing 0, 0.3 (T1), 0.6 (T2) and 0.9 % (T3) of Zizyphus jujuba seed meal from two to 5 weeks of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency (feed/gain) were significantly increase in T2 than other groups at 3 weeks age (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in body weight gain and feed efficiency (feed/gain) by feeding Zizyphus jujuba seed meal, although they tended to be improved by treatment during whole experimental period (5 weeks age). The gizzard weights of three treatment groups were higher than control. But no difference among three treatment groups was observed. The small intestine and cecal length was no change by feeding Zizyphus jujuba seed meal. Emission of
and VFA gas from excreta were significantly decreased from 5 to 10 days of storage period (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the addition of Zizyphus jujuba seed meal at 0.3 to 0.6 % to the diet has increased digestibility of feed and the reduction of
emissions from feces, there was a possibility of improvement in body weight gain of broiler chickens.
Gene Expression Profiling by RNA Sequencing in Mature/Immature Oocytes of Chicken
Kang, Kyung-Soo ; Jang, Hyun-Jun ; Park, Mi Na ; Choi, Jung-Woo ; Chung, Won-Hyong ; Heo, Kang-Nyeong ; Choe, Chang-Yong ; Kim, Young-Joo ; Lee, Si-Woo ; Cho, Eun-Seok ; Kim, Namshin ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Han, Jae-Yong ; Lee, Kyung-Tai ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 287~296
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.287
Chicken eggs undergo various physiological changes during egg maturation. To study genes associated with the egg maturation in pre-ovulation (immature) and post-ovulation (mature), we compared gene expression patterns between in the immature egg and mature egg using RNA sequencing data. Mature and immature eggs were obtained from a Heuksaek Jaerae-jong of Korean native chicken. Total RNAs obtained from the eggs were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, and the generated sequence reads were mapped to Galgal4 reference sequence assembly using Tuxedo Protocol. From the comparison of the RNA sequencing data, 315 genes were differentially expressed between mature and immature eggs, and 46 genes were only detected in immature egg. Further gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed for the differentially expressed genes using DAVID, showing that 29 and 28 GO terms were independently clustered from mature and immature, respectively. From those clustered GO terms, genes related to germ cell development, sex differentiation and defense response to bacterium were mainly expressed in the immature egg, while genes related to regulation of apoptosis, steroid metabolic process and lipid homeostasis were mainly detected in the mature egg. Our results could contribute to understand egg maturation before and after ovulation, and develop genetic markers for improving egg quality and productivity.
Effects of Early Heat Conditioning on Performance in Broilers exposed to Heat Stress
Yoon, HyungSook ; Hwangbo, Jong ; Yang, Young-Rok ; Kim, Jimin ; Kim, Yeon-Hwa ; Park, Byungsung ; Choi, Yang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 297~303
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.297
Heat manipulation at early age has been known to help chickens cope with heat stress later in life. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of early heat conditioning at 5 days of age on performance in broilers when re-exposed to heat stress later in life. Day-old, 256 Arbor Acre boiler chicks were housed in two identical rooms where all broilers were exposed to a 23-h light: 1-h dark cycle throughout the study and provided with feed and water ad libitum. At the age of 5 days, one group was exposed to
for 24 hours and then returned to the temperature at which control birds were maintained (early heat condition group) while the other was maintained without heat modulation (Control). On 21 days, broilers were regrouped into 4 groups (CON+CON: control+control; CON+HS: control+heat stress; HC+CON: heat conditioning+control; HC+HS: heat conditioning+heat stress), and given 7 days for adaptation. On 28 days, birds in one room were exposed to heat stress (
) for 3 days whereas those in the other were at room temperature. Heat stress resulted in decreased feed intake, water intake, and body weight gain (P<0.05), but increased rectal temperature and mortality (P<0.05). No beneficial effects of heat conditioning were detected when broilers were exposed to heat stress again at later in life. The present results were discussed together with other studies regarding possible differences in methods such as ages of breeders and strains, which may have resulted in the failure of heat conditioning to help broilers resist heat stress.
Genome-wide Copy Number Variation in a Korean Native Chicken Breed
Cho, Eun-Seok ; Chung, Won-Hyong ; Choi, Jung-Woo ; Jang, Hyun-Jun ; Park, Mi-Na ; Kim, Namshin ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Lee, Kyung-Tai ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 305~311
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.305
Copy number variation (CNV) is a form of structural variation that shows various numbers of copies in segments of the DNA. It has been shown to account for phenotypic variations in human diseases and agricultural production traits. Currently, most of chicken breeds in the poultry industry are based on European-origin breeds that have been mostly provided from several international breeding companies. Therefore, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA has been trying to restore and improve Korean native chicken breeds (12 lines of 5 breeds) for about 20 years. Thanks to the recent advance of sequencing technologies, genome-wide CNV can be accessed in the higher resolution throughout the genome of species of interest. However, there is no systematic study available to dissect the CNV in the native chicken breed in Korea. Here, we report genome-wide copy number variations identified from a genome of Korean native chicken (Line L) by comparing between the chicken reference sequence assembly (Gallus gallus) and a de novo sequencing assembly of the Korean native chicken (Line L). Throughout all twenty eight chicken autosomes, we identified a total of 501 CNVs; defined as gain and loss of duplication and deletion respectively. Furthermore, we performed gene ontology (GO) analysis for the putative CNVs using DAVID, leading to 68 GO terms clustered independently. Of the clustered GO terms, genes related to transcription and gene regulation were mainly detected. This study provides useful genomic resource to investigate potential biological implications of CNVs with traits of interest in the Korean native chicken.
Energy Metabolism and Protein Utilization in Chicken- A Review
Kim, Ji-Hyuk ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 313~322
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.313
Evaluation of energy in the diet is very important in animal nutrition because food intake is strongly influenced by the energy content of the diet. This means that the intake of other nutrients, such as amino acids, is affected by their ratio to energy content. Poultry can control their energy intake over a range of energy: protein ratios. Energy: protein ratio also affects the growth and body composition. Therefore we need to know what extent the relationship between energy and dietary protein influences the bird's performance. To predict the energy value of the diet or its chemical constituents, researchers have been working on modelling using the equations of the major biochemical pathways in terms of ATP generation and utilization. The activity of feeding and the metabolism caused by digestion and assimilation of food increase the animal's heat production and it can be measured by calorimetry technique. Theoretically, surplus amino acids which are not needed for protein synthesis stimulate an additional increase in metabolic rate and lead to increased energetic costs of catabolism and excretion. However, it has sometimes been shown that there was no measurable diet-induced thermoregulatory effect when an imbalanced amino acid mixture was fed. All these aspects are discussed in this review.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper Soy Proteinate (Cu-SP) and Herbal Mixture (HBM) on the Performance, Blood Parameter and Immune Response in Laying Hens
Kim, Chan Ho ; Kang, Hwan Ku ; Bang, Han Tae ; Kim, Ji Hyuk ; Hwangbo, Jong ; Choi, Hee Cheol ; Paik, In Kee ; Moon, Hong Kil ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 323~329
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2014.41.4.323
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of copper-soy proteinate (Cu-SP) and herbal mixture (HBM) on growth performance, blood parameter, and immune response in laying hens. A total 800 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments : (1) Control : control diet, (2) Cu-SP : control diet + 100 mg/kg Cu-soy proteinate, (3) HBM : control diet + 0.15% herbal mixture, and (4) Cu-SP + HBM : control diet + 100 mg/kg Cu-soy proteinate + 0.15% herbal mixture. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with forty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 5 weeks under 16L : 8D lighting regimen. The diet and water were available ad libitum. Result indicated that during feeding trial of the experiment, hen-day egg production was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP and HBM treated groups than control. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, broken and shell less egg production were not significantly influenced by treatments. Eggshell strength was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP than control. Eggshell thickness, eggshell color, egg yolk color, Haugh unit were not significantly influenced by treatments. The level of WBC and stress index (heterophil : lymphocyte) were higher in supplemented groups than the control. The concentration of plasma IgG was higher in supplemented groups than the control. The result of this experiment showed that dietary copper-soy proteinate or herbal mixture tended to improve egg production and affect positively on immune response of laying hens.