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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Evaluating the Effects of Salicornia Extract on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Profile of Laying Hens
Mohammadi, Mohsen ; Li, Hanlin ; Kim, In Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 191~196
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.191
The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding Salicornia extract to the drinking water on the performance, egg quality, and blood profile of laying hens. A total of 216 Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 40 weeks of age were used in a 10-week experiment. The birds were allotted into three experimental treatments with three replications per treatment and 24 birds per replication. The treatments were CON (basal diet), T1 (1 cc of Salicornia extract per liter of drinking water), and T2 (5 cc of Salicornia extract per liter of drinking water). The collected data were analyzed using the SAS package program. The results indicated that addition of Salicornia extract to the drinking water of laying hens did not cause any negative effects on the performance, egg quality, or blood profile. Compared to the control treatment, the treatments with Salicornia extract remarkably increased egg production (P<0.05) in the last week of the study, improved egg shell thickness and significantly reduced the egg breaking rate (P<0.05). The results of this study showed that the addition of Salicornia extract improved egg shell quality; thus, Salicornia extract can decrease the egg breaking rate and increase production on commercial farms.
Effect of Supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Profiles and Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Broiler Chicks
Jang, In-Surk ; Moon, Yang Soo ; Sohn, Sea Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 197~204
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.197
This study was performed to examine the effects of dietary Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) on growth performance, immune organ weights, blood biochemical parameters and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in broiler chicks. A total of 120 4-day-old birds were given a basal diet (CON) or a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% (AS1) or 1.0% (AS2) AS powder until the birds were 35 days of age. There was no difference in body weight, total gain, feed intake or immune organ weights among the treatment groups. However, the feed conversion ratio in the AS2 group was lower (p<0.05) than that in the CON group. Serum biochemical components, including AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), albumin and total protein, were not affected by the dietary treatments, whereas glucose and triglyceride levels increased (p<0.05) in the AS2 group compared with the CON group. The AS1 group exhibited decreased mRNA expression (p<0.05) of IFN-
in white blood cells and iNOS in the liver compared with the CON group. The other pro-inflammatory cytokines were unaffected by dietary AS supplementation, although there was a trend towards decreased expression of these genes, including those encoding Il-
, IL-6 and TNF-
. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.5% AS decreased the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines without affecting growth performance, suggesting that this supplement might be applicable as an immunoregulatory feed additive in broiler chicks.
Effects of Regulate in Feed Intakes on Performance and Meat Quality in Old Laying Hens
Kang, Hwan Ku ; Kim, Chan Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.205
This study aimed to investigate the effects of reducing feed intake on performance and meat quality in old laying hens. A total of 200 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (100 weeks old) were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments: control (100% daily feed intake), 90%, 60%, 50%, and 20% daily feed intake. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 birds per replication and two birds per cage. Ten-bird units were arranged according to a randomized block design. The feeding trial lasted for 4 weeks under a 16L:8D lighting regimen. The results indicated that the daily feed intake correlated with hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratios (P<0.05). The carcass yields and partial ratios were also correlated with daily feed intake (P<0.05). The levels of leukocytes (without basophils) were higher in the 50% and 20% daily feed intake groups than in the other groups. The concentrations of dry matter, crude ash, crude fat, and crude protein, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and fatty acids in the breast meat did not decrease as the daily feed intake decreased. In conclusion, reducing daily feed intake decreased laying performance and carcass yield but had no effect on breast meat quality.
Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation and High-Pressure Treatment with Citrus Peel Extract on the Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Qualities of Marinated Chicken Breast Meat
Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Alahakoon, Amali U. ; Jayasena, Dinesh D. ; Khan, Muhammad I. ; Nam, Ki Chang ; Jo, Cheorun ; Jung, Samooel ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.215
Chicken breast meat samples were injected with marinade solution (salt, sugar, phosphate, monosodium glutamate, and nucleic acid) with or without 2% citrus peel extract (CPE), and then a subset were irradiated with a 1 or 2 kGy electron beam (EB) and/or subjected to high-pressure (HP) at 300 or 400 MPa. The initial total aerobic bacterial (TAB) count of the control sample was 4.57 log CFU/g and reached 7.17 log CFU/g after 3 days of storage at
. The 2 kGy EB reduced the TAB count to 4.61 log CFU/g after 7 days. The 400 MPa HP treatment was also effective in reducing the TAB count, but the effect was slightly less than that noted with the 2 kGy EB. The CPE, in combination with the EB and HP, decreased the TAB count by 1.71 and 1.32 log CFU/g at the initial stage and further decreased the count during storage. The 2 kGy EB and the HP (300 and 400 MPa) increased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value, whereas the CPE did not show an antioxidative effect. The EB and HP caused no difference in the sensory qualities. In contrast, the CPE decreased all sensory qualities tested. Sensory panelists commented that the samples with CPE were not in the "rejection" category but were "unfamiliar" for chicken breast meat. In conclusion, the EB was more effective than HP in improving the microbial quality of marinated chicken breast meat. The use of CPE in the marinade solution may synergistically increase the shelf life; however, it is necessary to develop an appropriate formulation to ensure that the sensory qualities are maintained.
A Measure of Improvement of the Shell Egg Grading System
Kim, Dong Jin ; Lim, Sung Soo ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 223~230
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.223
Eggs are an important source of protein for the human diet. Consumers want fresher, more delicious and more sanitary eggs. In Korea, the Shell Egg Grading system (EGS) was employed in 2001. The portion of graded shell eggs has increased every year, but graded shell eggs account for only 6% of all eggs. The EGS should satisfy producers, distributors and consumers. However, the EGS does not have an official function because of many problems. Consumers cannot select various graded shell eggs in the market, and producers do not receive enough profit even though they produce top-quality graded shell eggs. There are few studies on the EGS, Therefore, this study was performed to improve the EGS. We surveyed the EGS, GP Centers and farmers. Large companies (farmers) are more satisfied than small companies with the EGS. There was a high tendency for the companies (farmers) that are not involved with the EGS to think that graded and ungraded shell eggs are similar, in contrast to the companies (farmers) connected to the EGS. We should have to change the grading system of grade shell eggs, establish of the cold chain system, change of the law for the school meals, minimize payment for the grading shell eggs for developing EGS. Based on this study, the egg industry can benefit through the improvement of the EGS.
Effects of Lycopene on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism, Glucose Transport and Pro-Inflammatory Related Genes in Chickens
Jang, In Surk ; Moon, Yang Soo ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.231
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lycopene on hepatic metabolic- and immune-related gene expression in laying hens. A total of 48 25-week-old White Leghorn hens were randomly allocated into four groups consisting of four replicates of three birds: control (basal diet), T1 (basal diet + 10 mg/kg of tomato powder-containing lycopene), T2 (basal diet + 10 mg/kg of micelles of tomato powder-containing lycopene), and T3 (basal diet + 10 mg/kg of purified lycopene). Chickens were fed ad libitum for 5 weeks, and then total RNA was extracted from the livers for quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
) expression was decreased in the liver of chickens after lycopene supplementation (P<0.05). Micellar lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of PPAR
target genes including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acids synthase (FASN) in the T2 group (P<0.05). Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and C/EBP-
were also downregulated in hens fed with micellar lycopene (P<0.05). Glucose transporter 8 (GLUT-8) was upregulated in the T2 and T3 groups (P<0.05). However, the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) was not changed by lycopene supplementation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor
) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were downregulated by lycopene supplementation (P<0.05). These data suggest that the type of lycopene supplementation is critical and that micelles of tomato powder-containing lycopene may play an important role in the modulation of lipid metabolism and immunity in chickens.
Non-Viral Transgenesis via Direct In Ovo Lipofection in Quail
Park, Tae Sub ; Han, Jae Yong ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 239~245
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.239
Transgenic animals have been widely used for developmental biology studies, as disease models, and even in industry such as transgenic bioreactor animals. For transgenic birds, quail has the great advantages of small body size, short generation time, and frequent egg production. To date, retroviral or lentiviral transduction has been used to generate transgenic quail for various purposes. However, the efficiency of transgenic offspring production with these methods is relatively low and viral vector usage has safety issues. Unfortunately, non-viral transgenesis has not been established in quail due to a deficiency of stem cell and germ cell culture systems. In this study, we established a direct in ovo lipofection method that could be used to create transgenic quail without germline-competent cells or viruses. To optimize the injection stage during embryo development, the liposome complex (containing piggyBacCMV-GFP and transposase plasmids) was introduced into an embryonic blood vessel at 50 hr, 55 hr or 60 hr. GFP expression was detected in various tissues (heart, kidney, liver and stomach) on day 12 of incubation under a fluorescence microscope. Additionally, GFP-positive cells were detected in the recipient embryonic gonads. In conclusion, the direct in ovo lipofection method with the piggyBac transposon could be an efficient and useful tool for generating transgenic quail.
Strategy to Improve the Productivity of Broilers: Focusing on Pre-Starter Diet
Nam, Doo Seok ; Lee, Jinyoung ; Kong, Changsu ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 247~256
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.247
There are approximately 1,500 broiler farms in Korea, each raising 55,000 birds. Ninety-five percent of the farms are contracted with Integration Company. According to the Korean broiler performance index, broilers in Korea are marketed at 32 days with 1.52 kg of body weight. In contrast, the market age and body weight of broilers are 47 days/2.8 kg in the United States and 42 days/2.5 kg in Europe. Because of the younger market age of the Korean broiler, the pre-starter feed is important. Chicks exhibit poor absorption of dietary nutrients up to 7 days after hatching due to an immature digestive system and low enzyme secretion rate and activity. At the beginning of hatching, chicks obtain their nutrients from the egg yolk sac. It is highly recommended that chicks, after consuming the nutrients in the egg yolk sac, are given supplemented pre-starter feed to increase early growth rates and improve the performance of broiler production. Pre-starter nutrient requirements are not expressed in NRC, so Korean feeding standards for poultry and commercial breeding companies determine the nutrient requirements of pre-starter broiler chickens. Three approaches are followed to formulate specially designed pre-starter feeds for broiler chicks: (i) selective use of raw materials, (ii) proper standards of nutrient supply, and (iii) application of feed additives such as exogenous enzymes. In the selection of raw materials, those with high digestibility can be used. The absorption rate of carbohydrates in grains can be increased through feed processing at high temperature and high pressure. Soy proteins and fish meal can also be added as protein sources. As an energy source, vegetable oils are preferred over animal fats because of the former's high digestibility. It is suggested that the levels of proteins and amino acids are higher in pre-starter feed than in starter feed. With regard to energy, the sources of energy are more important than the levels of energy in feed. Feed additives such as exogenous enzymes can be used to improve nutrient digestibility. In addition, organic acids and plant extracts can be used as alternatives to animal growth promoters to stimulate immunity and prevent diseases. The growth performance of broilers is affected by various factors, such as management and disease control, in addition to the nutritional strategy; however, nutritional strategies play an important role in improving the productivity of broilers. Therefore, nutritional strategies, along with management and disease control, are required for improving the productivity of broilers in Korea.
Effects of Repeated High Ambient Temperature on Performance in Broilers Heat-Conditioned at an Early Age
Hwangbo, Jong ; Yang, Young-Rok ; Yoon, HyungSook ; Kim, Jimin ; Park, Byungsung ; Choi, Hee Chul ; Choi, Yang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 257~265
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.257
Heat conditioning at an early age has been known to help chickens cope with heat stress later in life. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heat conditioning at 5 days of age in broilers repeatedly exposed to high ambient temperature later in life. A total of 256 day-old Arbor Acre boiler chicks were housed in two identical rooms with a 23-h light/1-h dark cycle and provided with feed and water ad libitum. At 5 days of age, the birds in one room were exposed to
for 24 hours, while those in the other room served as controls. On day 21, half of the birds in each room were moved into the other room so that each room contained both control and heat-conditioned birds. After a 7-day adaptation period, the birds in one room were exposed to high ambient temperature (
) for 3 days, whereas those in the other room were kept at normal temperature. The same 3-day exposure to high ambient temperature was repeated two weeks later. Hence, there were four treatment groups (CON+CON: control+control; CON+HS: control+high ambient temperature; HC+CON: heat conditioning+control; and HC+HS: heat conditioning+high ambient temperature). Repeated heat stress resulted in decreased feed intake, water intake, body weight gain, and spleen weight (p<0.05) and increased rectal temperature (p<0.05), mortality, and plasma corticosterone concentrations. The relative weight of the spleen was increased in the heat-conditioned group (p<0.05). Plasma biochemicals were also influenced by high temperature. Thus, no beneficial effects of heat conditioning at an early age were detected in broilers repeatedly exposed to high ambient temperature later in life.
Effects of Dietary Peat Moss on Performance in Broilers
Kim, Jimin ; Kang, Seokmin ; Yang, Young-Rok ; Yoon, Jeong-Yong ; Jo, Kwonho ; Choi, Yang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 267~274
DOI : 10.5536/KJPS.2015.42.3.267
Peat moss has been found to be useful as a plant growth substance, fertilizer, and soil solution. It is not known, however, whether dietary peat moss affects performance in broilers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary peat moss as a feed ingredient in broilers. Experimental diets were prepared by mixing basal feed with PM at 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. In experiment 1, 150 14-day-old Ross broiler chicks were housed for 2 weeks in 15 pens that were randomly assigned into five groups (0.0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.6% PM). Dietary peat moss at 0.2% and 0.4% significantly increased the water intake, body weight, weight gain and feed efficiency compared with the control (0.0% PM, P<0.05) but did not affect feed intake. Higher levels of PM (0.8 and 1.6%) significantly decreased feed intake, body weight and weight gain. In experiment 2, 198 7-day-old Ross chicks were housed for 3 weeks in nine pens that were randomly assigned into three groups (0.0%, 0.2% and 0.4% PM). When the broilers were fed with dietary peat moss for 3 weeks, the peat moss effects disappeared. The results of the current study show that low amounts of dietary peat moss may exert beneficial effects on performance in broilers.