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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Poultry Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Nov 1980
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Apr 1980
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Recent Development for the Determination of Metabolizable Energy Values
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 7, issue 2, 1980, Pages 4~17
This is to review from the existing literatures the various methods of determination, problems involved in the determination of metabolizable energy(ME) values of poultry feedstuffs that is the most widely used energy term in poultry nutrition. An attempt will also be made to introduce the newly developed determination method of ME by Sibbald and his associates. It was found that conventional methods of ME measurements such as total collection method and indicator method require a great deal of labor and time. It should also be pointed out that these methods have some technical problems as well. Experimental evidences indicate that the ME content of feedstuffs may be affected by breed, age, substitution level of basal diet, kind of basal diet, methods of chemical analysis and chemical composition of experimental diet. Standard procedures and technical advantages of newly developed method of "True Metabolizable Energy" system are fully described.
Infectious Bursal Disease-A Review
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 7, issue 2, 1980, Pages 18~27
Infectious bursal disease, so called Gumboro disease, is found world-wide in areas of intensive poultry farming. The clinical signs of the disease are very indicative, but most infections occur unnoticed due to the age of infection of chicken as well as the degree of virulence of virus affected. Edematous and hemorrhagic lesions in BF at early course of infection and the complete atrophies of BF in later are the most characteristic. The infection is considered highly contagious by direct contact, by fecal material and by contaminated feed and water. The virus is also highly resistant in environment and belongs to Diploma virus with size of 55 to 60nm of Ribovirus group. IBDV grows in embryos, embryonic cells and BF of susceptible chickens. Immune-diffusion using agar gel is the method of a choice to determine IBDV infection in chickens. Maternal immunity is very effective in protecting chickens of critical age when IBDV infection severely damages the function of BF. Immunosuppressive effect of IBDV causes more production losses than direct effects of clinical disease of IBD. Inclusion body hepatitis, infectious anemia and gangrenous dermatitis syndrome are the disease associated with the immunosuppressive condition of chickens.
Study on Utilization of Heterosis in Layer Chicken
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 7, issue 2, 1980, Pages 28~36
This study was carried out to estimate combining abilitie or economic traits in layer chickens. The data used in this study were the record of 10 single crosses produced by half diallel cross of 5 lines of Single Comb White Leghorns, such as A, B, C, K and S lines. Total 720 progenies of the crosses were reared at the Poultry Breeding Farm, College of Agriculture, Seoul National University from Feb. 1979 to August, 1980. Combining abilities were estimated by Grilling's mathematical model for the traits; age the first egg, total egg number, egg weight and body weight. The results attained from the studies were summarized as follows; In estimate of combining ability, an age at first egg of BS cross was largely due to significiantly higher general combining ability (G. C. A.) effect of B and S strains than Cand K strains in G. C. A. effect, and to specific combining ability (S. C. A) effect of B and S-trains. AB and BS crosses showed the highest egg Production. AB cross performance was result from high G.C.A. effect of A ana B strains. BS cross performance was result from high G. C. A. effect of B and high S. C. A. effect of BS cross. Specific combining ability effect in egg. weight was not statiscally significiant, but S strain showed high G. C. A. effect. A and B strains in body weight showed significantly low C. C. A. effect. From the above results, BS cross in an age at first egg, AB and BS crosses in egg Production, S strain in egg weight and AB cross in body weight were superior to other strains or crosses.
Chemical and Functional Characteristics of Mechanically Deboned Chicken meat and its Utilization in Processed Meat
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 7, issue 2, 1980, Pages 37~46
Hand deboned and mechanically deboned chicken meat were produced from domestic broilers and spent layers. Meat yield, chemical composition, functional characteristics, stability during storage, and microbiological properties were investigated Chicken patties and frankfurters were also manufactured by varying the relative proportion of MDCM to HDCM as raw materials, ana their palatability, shelf-life and textural properties were evaluated. The obtained results were as follows: 1) 35% of carcass wt was recovered as HDCM and 45% as MDCM, total meat yield reaching 80% of carcass wt. 2) Moisture, protein, fat, ash and Ca content of MDCM were 65, 12, 20, 1.7 and 0.2-0.4%,respectively. MDCM was higher in fat, ash and Ca, but significantly lower in moisture and protein. Total pigment content of MDCM was 2.5 times higher than that of HDCD such high content being attributed to the increased inclusion of hemoglobin. 3) The emulsifying capacity (ES) of MOCM per g meat was only 70% that of HDCM. but when ES was expressed on unit g of protein basis MDCM showed even higher ES than HDCM primarily due to tile higher proportion of salt soluble protein fraction. 4) Since the TBA values of MDCM increased rapidly after 4 weeks of frozen storage at -20
, the maximum possible storage period of MDCM is estimated to be about 4 weeks. 5) Total microbial counts of MDCM was approximately 1.8
6/g/, showing no great difference from HDCM or red meat. 6) Chicken patty containing MDCM showed gradual increase in TBA value during frozen storage, but its storage up to 8 weeks presented no problems in flavor stability. 7) Color score an4 total palatability of chicken Patty were best for the product containing 30% MDCM. It was also concluded that MDCM can be included in the patties up to 50% of total meat with good results, but more than 70% was not recommended 8) The formulation of MDCM up to 50% in frankfurter gave quite satisfactory acceptability and textural properties comparable to frankfurter made of 100% MDCM, but the inclusion of more than 70% MDCM was not recommended 9) The TBA value of frankfurter containing MDCM did not increase to any great extent until 4 weeks of storage at 4
, indicating no unique problems in flavor instability compared to regular frankfurter. 10) It was concluded that processed meat products such as patties and frankfurters containing MDCM up to 30-50% of total meat ingredients gave satisfactory results in color, texture and palatability, comparable to regular products.
A study on the Thickness of Egg Shell Membrane and Egg Shell in Quail Eggs
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 7, issue 2, 1980, Pages 47~53
This study was carried out to investigate the variations in the thickness of egg shell and egg shell membrane of Quail eggs from July 25, 1978 to September 7, 1978. No. of eggs used in this experiment was 520 okay and all the eggs were purchased from a farm located in Jinju city. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Egg shells of quail were classified as white egg shell with large spots, egg shell with large spots, violet egg shell with small spots and beige egg shell with small spots by the exterior shell colour and their average egg weights were 8.993g, 8.866g, 8.403g and 8.109g, respectively. 2. Average egg shell thickness of white egg shell with large spots, egg. shell with large spots, violet egg shell with small spots and beige on shell with small spots were 0.171mm, 0.169mm, 0.160mm, and 0.156mm, respectively. 3. Average eggs shell membrane of white egg shell with large spots, egg shell with large spots, violet egg shell with small spots and beige egg shell with small spots were 0.0449mm, 0.0431mm, 0.0398mm, and 0.0397mm, respectively. 4. Negative correlation coefficient was found between egg shell thickness ana egg shell membrane thickness, but it was not significant. 5. Comparing quail egg with fowl egg, the thickness of quail egg shell was much thinner than that of fowl egg, but egg shell membrane thickness was similar between the two.
Investigation of Poultry Farm for Productivity and Health in Korea
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 7, issue 2, 1980, Pages 54~76
A survey was conducted to determine the status of health and productivity of poultry farms in Korea. Area included Was Kyunggido where exist nearly 50% of national poultry population. From this area, 41 layer and 34 broiler farms covering 21 Countries were selected randomly for the survey. When farms were divided in the operation size, 95.1% of layer and 82.3% of broiler farms were classified as business or industrial level while the rest were managed in a small scale as part time job. Generally layer farms had been established much earlier than broiler farms. Geographically 10.7% of layer farms were sited near the housing area such as field foreast and rice field. No farms were located near the seashore. The distance from one farm from the other was very close, being 80% of the farms within the distance of 1km and as many as 28% of the farms within loom. This concentrated poultry farming in a certain area created serious problems for the sanitation and preventive measures, especially in case of outbreak of infectious diseases. Average farm size was 5,016
3.3㎡ for layers and 1,037
3.3㎡ for broilers. 89.5% of layer ana 70.6% of broiler farms owned the land for farming while the rest were on lease. In 60% of layer farms welters were employed for farming while in the rest their own labour was used. Majority of farms were equipped poorly for taking necessary practice of hygiene and sanitation. The amount of disinfectant used by farms was considerably low. As many as 97.6% of lave. farms were practised with Newcastle(ND) and fowl pox(F
pox) vaccine, whereas only 43.6% and 5.1% of broiler farms were practised with ND and F
pox vaccine, respectively. In 17-32.7% of farms ND vaccine was used less than twice until 60 days of age and in only 14.6% of farms adult birds were vaccinated every 4months. Monthly expense for preventive measures was over 200,000W in 32% of farms. Only 4.9-2.7% of vaccine users were soaking advice from veterinarians before practising vaccination, 85% of the users trusted the efficacy of the vaccines. Selection of medicine was generally determined by the farm owner rather than by veterinarans on whom 33.3% of farms were dependant. When diseases outbroke, 49.3% of farms called for veterinary hospital and the rest were handled by their own veterinarians, salesmen or professionals. Approximately 70% of farms were satisfied with the diagnosis made by the veterinarians. Frequency of disease outbreaks varied according to the age and type of birds. The livabilities of layers during the period of brooding, rearing ana adultwere 90.5, 98.9 and 75.2%, respectively while the livalibility of broilers until marketing was 92.2%. In layers, average culling age, was 533.3 day and hen housed eggs were 232.7. Average feed conversion rates of layers and broilers were 3.30 and 2.48, respectively. Those figures were considerably higher than anticipated but still far lower than those in developed countries.
Recent Advances in Avian Biochemistry: The Fatty Liver and Kidney Syndrome
;Donald W. Bannister;
Korean Journal of Poultry Science, volume 7, issue 2, 1980, Pages 77~87