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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 1, Issue 4 - 00 2002
Volume 14, Issue 6 - 00 2002
Volume 14, Issue 4 - 00 2002
Volume 14, Issue 3 - 00 2002
Volume 14, Issue 2 - 00 2002
Volume 14, Issue 1 - 00 2002
Volume 13, Issue 6 - 00 2002
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Evaluation of Fatigue Strength in Scallop at Field Bolted Joints of Longitudinal Rib and Deck Plate in Orthotropic Steel Decks
Choi, Dong Ho ; Choi, Hang Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 683~690
Static and fatigue tests were performed to evaluate fatigue strength in scallop at field bolted joints of longitudinal rib and deck plate in orthotropic steel decks. Numerical parametric studies using finite elemtn analysis were also conducted to show the influence of parameters such as length and radius of scallop, and thickness of deckplate on the stress concentration at the scallop. In the low stress level, fatigue tests yielded cracks at the scallop while in the high stress level, catastrophic failure of longitudinal rib occurred following the failure of handhole cover plate. Fatigue strength was compared with JSSC specification and the predicted S-N curves using Shigley and Juvinall methods, and a satisfactory result was obtatined.
A Study on the Disposition of Cross Beams in Composite Plate Girder Bridge
Park, Yong Myung ; Baek, Seung Yong ; Hwang, Min Oh ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 691~699
A study on the evaluationof the proper spacing and required bending rigidity of cross beams in composite multiple I-girder bridge without lateral and sway bracing system was performed. For the purpose, a two-lane 40m simple span and 40+50+40m continuous sample bridge with four girders was designed. For the sample bridges, structural analysis under the design loads including dead load before and after composite, live load, and seismic loads has been performed. The material and geometric nonlinear analysis under dead load before composite has also been performed to evaluate lateral buckling strength of the steel-girder-cross beam grillage. Based on the two phase anlayses, proper spacing and bending righidity of cross beams were proposed.
The Orthotropic Plate Analysis of Stiffened Plataes with Open Ribs
Chu, Seok Beom ; Kim, Chang Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 701~710
An analysis program using orthotropic plate elements was developed to simplify the analysis of plates stiffened with open ribs and the orthotropic behavior of stiffened plates and the application of this program were evaluated using the sensitivity analysis and the parametric study. The inertial moment ratio, i.e., the ratio of the inertial moment of the rib to that of the plate was defined and the orthotropic behavior of stiffened plates corresponding to the inertial moment ratio was proved by the sensitivity analysis. To evaluate the application of this program, the parametric study for various types of stiffened plates was performed and then the maximum displacement of this study was compared to that of ABAQUS using isoparametric plate elements. The Results of this study agreed well with that of ABAQUS at the particular inertial moment ratio, that is proposed to the limit ratio of the orthotropic plate analysis and the correlative function between the error ratio and the inertial moment ratio was obtained. Therefore, the orthotropic plate analysis of stiffened plates with open ribs could have safe results over the limit ratio and also have good results simply by using the correlative function of this study.
Analysis of Moving Vehicle Load Distribution of Curved Steel Box Girder Bridges considering Various Support Conditions
Kim, Sang Hyo ; Lee, Yong Seon ; Cho, Kwang Yil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 711~720
A 3-D numerical model, which could demonstrate the static and dynamic responses of a curved bridge more precisely with the moving vehicles, was developed The dynamic response induced by the centrifugal rolling motion of vehicle was identified according to the variations of the partial grade and the curvature of the slab. Dynamic characteristics of the curved bridge with the moving vehicle were analyzed under the condition of support types and two different support systems. Parametric studies were conducted to compare the efficiency of load distribution in the curved bridge. In general, while the vehicle was crossing the curved bridge, negative reaction occurred in the inside of the girder. The final result showed that the support system located outside the girder was more advantageous than other systems, and the characteristics of load distributions differed from the others in the various conditions of support systems.
Dynamic Load Factor for Floor Vibration due to Lively Concerts
Hong, Kap Pyo ; Yoon, Kwang Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 721~728
Modern structrues are being built using high-strength and light-weight construction materials resulting in decreased structural mass and damping properties. Rhythmic activities such as jumping, dancing and clapping during lively concerts can produce excessive vibration of steel structures. In this study, dynamic load factors that occur during lively concerts were presented through vibration test and real-time monitoring of an existing concert hall. The vibration test included modal analysis and jumping test according to the forcing frequencies and the number of participants. Dynamic load foactors were acquired directly from peak acceleration responses of each harmonics. Comparing NBCC 1995, the 3rd harmonic must be included in the design of concert halls. Dynamic load factors must be increased as a result of the vibration test.
Effect of Simplified Methods in Seismic Analysis of Bridges
Choi, Eunsoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 729~734
The effect of several simplified methods of seismic analysis is estimated. The pounding/contacting of superstructures were considered in the multispan simply supported bridge and the multispan continuous bridge. Although nonlinear time history analysis is generally used for seismic analysis of bridges, many codes including AASHTO propose several simplified analysis methods. AASHTO, however, does not mention pounding. Therefore, the simplified methods may produce results that are different from those of nonlinear time history analysis. This study developed nonlinear analytical models of the two types of bridges mentioned. The models were then modified to the simplified linear models for simplified analysis. The results of the simplified methods were compared with those of nonlinear time history analysis. It was found that including of the pounding/contacting element in the simplified methods generated responses similar to those of the nonlinear time history analysis.
State of the Art of the Cyclic Plasticity Models of Structural Steel
Lee, Eun Taik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 735~746
The task of plastic theory is twofold: first, to set up relationships between stress and strain that adequately describe the observed plastic deformation of metals, and second, to develop techniques for using these relationships in studying of the mechanics of metal forming processes, and the anlaysis and design of structures. One of the major problems in the theory of plasticity is to describe the behavior of work-hardening materials in the plastic range for complex loading histories. This can be achieved by formulating constitutive laws either in the integral or differential forms. To adequately predict the response of steel members during cyclic loading, the hardening rule must account for the features of cyclic stress-strain behavior. Neithe of the basic isotropic and kinematic hardening rules is suitable for describing cyclic streess-strain behavior, although a kinematic hardening rule describes the nearly linear portions of the stabilized hystersis loops. There is also a limited expansion of the yield surface as predicted by the isotropic hardening rule. Strong ground motions or wind gusts affect the complex and nonproportional loading histories in the inelastic behavior of structues rather than the proportional loading. Nonproportional loading is defined as externally applied forces on the structure, with variable ratios during the entire loading history. This also includes the rate of time-dependency of the loads. For nonproportional loading histories, unloading may take place along a chord instead of the radius of the load surface. In such cases, the shape of the stress-strain curve has to be determined experimentally for all non-radial loading conditions. The plasticity models including two surface models ae surveyed based on a yield surface and a bound surface that represent a state of maximum stress. This paper is concerned with the improvement of a plasticity models of the two-surface type for structural steel. This is follwed by an overview of plasticity models on structural steel. Finally the need for further research is identified.
Experimental Study on the Buckling Behavior of Cold-formed Steel Warren Truss
Park, Wan Soon ; Kim, Gap Deuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 747~754
Cold-formed steel truss system was reviewed in order to improve the various problems associated with the steel floor joist system, such as the structural deficiency caused by web punching and others. Two types of floor truss system using cold-formed steel were reviewed during this research project, including the square end type(SE type) and underslung type(EE type). The strctural behavior was analyzed using the AISI design criteria and various bending tests. Test results show that the SE type floor truss proved to be more efficient than the EE type when it is subjected to concentrated load, and that the unbraced length of the floor truss about the weak axis has much importance on the buckling strength of the floor truss. Test results indicate that their values surpass the calculated values predicated through the AISI design criteria.
Seismic Performance of Bridges with the Modeling of Expansion Rocker Bearings
Choi, Eunsoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 755~763
Multispan simply supported bridges and multispan continuous bridges take a large portion of bridges in Central and Southeastern United Sates. The superstructure of the bridges are supported by steel rocker bearings. In general, the rocker bearings are modeled with ideal rollers or Coulomb fricition in seismic analysis. However, the rocker bearings have rocking action on pintles after rolling some distance. This rocking action may have considerable effect on the seismic performance of bridges. This study compares the effect of expansion rocker bearings models on a multispan simply supported and a multispan continuous bridge. Since the ideal roller model produces larger responses than the rocking model, its use is undesirable. However, the fricition and hardening model does not have much difference from the responses of the rocking model. In addition, the use of the tow models is convenient in seismic analyses of bridges. Although the rocking model can obtain more exact responses, its behavior is complicated and it may induce the conversion problem in time history analysis because it includes the abrupt changing of stiffiness. The friction and hardening model of expansion rocker bearings is therefore recommended in sesismic analysis.
Experimental Evaluation on the Vibration Control Effect of Tuned Liquid Damper with Embossment
Ju, Young Kyu ; Kim, Dae Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 765~772
Many researchers have studied several vibration control devices such as TMD, TLD, and VED to reduce the acceleration level for tall buildings. Advantages of TLD (tuned liquid damper) include easy installation, low cost, and less maintenance. However, the dynamic characteristics of TLD must be verified by experiment and analysis due to the difficulties in evaluating the characteristics of water sloshing. In this study, free vibration and dynamic excitation experiments of structure with TLD were conducted to verify vibration control force of the proposed TLD for high-rise building. The parameters were mass ratio of water to structure, number of damping nets, and aspect ratio. From the test results, the responses of structure with water tank were observed to be smaller than those of structure alone. Furthermore, better damping effect could be achieved with larger mass ratio, more damping nets, and larger aspect ratio. However, in the case of water tank with no damping net, little damping effect was obtained.
An Experimental Study on Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Welded High-Strength Steels
Hong, Sung Wook ; Kyung, Kab Soo ; Nam, Wang Hyun ; Jung, Young Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 773~782
In this study, a series of fatigue tests are performed in order to estimate quantitatively the characteristics of fatigue crack growth rate according to the base metal, heat affected zone(HAZ) and weld metal, and the welding method and grade of strength of object steels, and the influence on fatigue crack growth rate according to the direction of welded line for high strength steels of SM570, POSTEN60, and POSTEN80 steels. From the fatigue test results, the retardations of fatigue crack growth rate are remarkable in case that the direction of notch is parallel to welded line than in case that the direction of notch is perpendicular to welded line because of compresive residual stress in weld metal & HAZ. And the characteristics of fatigue crack growth rate according to welding method are that the dispersion of fatigue crack growth rate in case of FCAW method is smaller than that of SAW method. Also, it knows that the fatigue crack growth rate converges in high stress intensity factor range. Meanwhile, fatigue safety is guaranteed sufficiently in the object steels because the fatigue crack growth rate in the range of fatigue crack propagation has a similar tendency to the test results & existing results.
Multi-Objective Optimization of Steel Frames For Standardized Steel Profiles Under Seismic Loads
Cho, Hyo Nam ; Min, Dae Hong ; Jeong, Bong Gyo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 783~791
An improved formulation for multi-objective optimization was proposed. This formulation was applied to steel seismic loads. The multi-objective optimization problem was formulated with minimum structural weight, maximum strstability. The global criterion method was employed to find a rational solution closest to the ideal solution for the optimization problem using standard steel profile, To efficiently solve the optimization problem, the decomposition meth both system-level and element-level was used. In addition, various techniques including efficient reanalysis technique intermediate variables and sensitivity analysis using an automatic differentiation(AD) were incorporated. Moreover the reamong section properties fitted to the section profile used in order to link the system level and the element level. From numerical investigation, it could be stated that the proposed method will lead to the more rational design compared with one.
Behavior of Horizontally Curved I-Girder Bridges under Seismic Loading
Yoon, Ki Yong ; Sung, Ik Hyun ; Choi, Jin Yu ; Kang, Young Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 793~802
This study presented a finite element formulation for the dynamic analysis of horizontally curved I-girder bridges. The stiffness and mass matrices of the curved and the straight beam elements are formulated. Each node of both elements has seven degrees of freedom, including the warping degree of freedom. The curved beam element is derived from Kang and Yoo's theory of thin-walled curved beams. The computer program EQCVB has been developed to perform dynamic analyses of various horizontally curved I-girder bridges. The Gupta method is used to solve the eigenvalue problem efficiently, while the Wilson-
method is used for the seismic analysis. The efficiency of EQCVB is demonstrated by comparing solution time with ABAQUS. Using EQCVB, the study is applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of horizontally curved I-girder bridges under seismic loading.
A Study on the Curvature Characteristic of the Incomplete Composite Girder Considering the Deflection Effect
Yong, Hwan Sun ; Kim, Yun Hwan ; Park, Yong Chan ; Song, Su Yeop ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 803~811
Current composite steel and concrete bridges are designed using full-interaction theory assuming there is no relative slip, between the steel and concrete components along their interface, because of the complexities of partial-interaction analysis techniques. However, in the assessment of existing composite bridges this simplification may not be warranted as it is often necesary to extract the correct capacity and endurance from the structure. This may only be achieved using partial-interaction theory which tuly reflects the behaviour of the structure. In this paper, Parametric analyses have been carried out in order to confirm the partial-interaction curvatures with deflection effect using the finite element method. Therefore, the model is considered for simply supported steel and concrete composite bridges with a uniform distribution of connectors subjected to a single concentrated load. For the case studies, this study applicate a parameters such as the number and space of stud shear connector and elastic modulus of concrete slabs. From this study, it is known that partial-interaction effect was in the increase to the increasing the deflection of composite bridges, and stiffness and strength of slab concrete considering the occurrence of crack effect seriously to the partial-interaction behavior.
Strength of Square Shaped CFT Stub Column Considering the Confining Effect of Concrete
Hwang, Won Sup ; Kim, Dong Jo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 813~822
The squash strength and design strength are smaller than the experimental strength of square shaped concrete-filled steel tubular columns in a short concentrically loaded column. This study presents an evaluation procedure accounting for the confining effect of concrete. For the purpose of evaluating a confining effect of concrete, the 3D finite element method was used. The influence of parameters, width-thickness ratios, strength of the concrete and the yield strength of the steel, were examined. The suggested evaluation procedure that assembled three parameters was compared with previous experimental results. Also, the tendency of the confining effect of concrete was examined in the three types of load application.
An Experimental Study on the Structural Capacities of Steel-Concrete Column
Kim, Seong Jae ; Park, Soon Jeon ; Jeong, Sug Chang ; Kim, Sang Dae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 823~834
Maximum-strength concrete-filled steel square tubular columns were tested under concentric and biaxial eccentric load. Buckling length-section depth ratio
, magnitude of eccentricity e, and angle of eccentric load
were selected as experimental parameters. Strength and behavior were also examined. Test results showed that the maximum strength of columns under biaxial eccentric load could be predicted using the previously proposed strength formula of columns undr uniaxia eccentric load. Likewise, the behavior and maximum strength of columns could be predicted using the analysis.
Non-linear Analysis of Full Scaled CFT Column to H-Beam Connections with T-Stiffeners
Lee, Seung Woo ; Kim, Young Joo ; Shin, Kyung Jae ; Oh, Young Suk ; Moon, Tae Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 14, issue 6, 2002, Pages 835~843
The goal of this paper is to understand the stress-transfer mechanism of concrete-filled tubular column to H-beam connection with external T stiffener through the elasto-plastic finite element method and to offer basic data for the design of T stiffener. For the accuracy, analysis results are compared with experimental results. It makes use of several stress and strain indices to understand the stress-transfer mechanism of connection. An alternative plan that decreases the stress concentration of beam flange to horizontal stiffener connection is proposed through the elasto-plastic finite element method.