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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 15, Issue 3 - 00 2003
Volume 15, Issue 2 - 00 2003
Volume 15, Issue 1 - 00 2003
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A Parametric Study on Intermediate Diaphragms of Steel-Box-Girder Bridges
Park, Nam Hoi ; Lim, Da Soo ; Cho, Sun Kyu ; Kang, Young Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 231~239
Many box girder bridges have been constructed during the past several decades due to their large bending and torsional rigidities as well as aesthetic considerations. However, box girders have shortcoming in that the cross section distorts under an eccentric loading and warps out of the section plane. Therefore, in order to reduce distortional stresses such as distortional warping and transverse bending normal stresses, diaphragms were generally installed in the box girders. Shapes of the diaphragms in steel-box-girder bridges constructed up to date were solid-plate, frame, and truss types. The objectives of this study using parametric study were to evaluate the appropriate stiffness ratio of intermediate diaphragms and then to propose the effective spacing and numbers of intermediate diaphragms based on the evaluated stiffness ratio. Target bridges for this study were straight continuous span bridges with a single-cell steel box section. The parameters for the parametric study were the shape of box section, the span numbers, the equivalent span length, the stiffness of intermediate diaphragms, and the spacing of intermediate diaphragms. From the results of the parametric study, the effective spacing and numbers as well as the stiffness ratio of the intermediate diaphragms will be presented.
Characteristics of Residual Stress in welds Composed of Similar or Dissimilar Steels
Chang, kyong Ho ; Lee, Chin Hyung ; Lee, Sang Hyong ; Lee, Eun Taik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 241~250
This study, investigated the characteristics of residual stress in weldis composed of similar or dissimilar steels, are investigated byusing 3three-dimensional thermal elasto-plastic FEM analysis. The results showed that for the groove welding of the similar steels, increasedthetensile strength of the steels (POSTEN60
Effects of Axial Force on Deformation Capacity of Steel Encased Reinforced Concrete Beam-Columns
Chung, Jin-An ; Yang, Il-Seung ; Choi, Sung-Mo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 251~259
In this paper, an analytical approach hwas been conductsed to clarify the relationships between the axial force and the deformation capacity of steel- encased reinforced- concrete beam-columns. The analytical model was defined as a cantilever. Several parameters influencing the inelastic performance of the beam-columns were selected, as follows: including encased steel area ratios, and sectional shapes of the encased steel, material strengths, and shear-span- to-depth ratios. The Analytical results of the analysis showed that the axial force had to have a maximum limit to ensure the stable behavior of a steel- encased reinforced- concrete beam-column when it was subjected to both axial and repeated lateral loading under a constant rotation angle amplitude. The maximum axial force of the beam-column to be resisted under cyclic lateral loading was defined as the stable-limit axial force to ensure the required rotation angle amplitude. The Analytical results of the analysis indicate that the stable-limit axial load ratio increases as the steel strength increases or as the compressive strength of the concrete decreases. The stable-limit axial load ratio decreases as the encased steel ' s sectional area increases in the case of a 1-shaped sections and it is almost not influenced by the steel sectional area in the case of a cross-shaped section.
Cyclic Behavior of Moment Link Beams
Kim, Tai-Young ; Kim, Sang-Seup ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Cheong, Hoe-Yong ; Kim, Kyu-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 261~269
The length of the links in an eccentrically braced frame will dictate the behavior of the frame. Link length controls the yielding mechanism and the ultimate failure mode. For short links, the links' shear forces reach the plastic shear capacity before the end moments reach the plastic moment capacity, and the links yields in the shear, forming a shear hinges. These links are termed "shear links." For long links, the end moments reach the plastic moment capacity before the links' shear forces reach the plastic shear capacity, forming moment hinges. These links are termed moment links." In long links, flexural yielding dominates the response, and very high bending strains are required at the link ends to produce large link deformations. In a shear links, the shear force is constant along the length of the links, and the inelastic shear strain are is uniformly distributed over the length of the links. This permits the development of large inelastic link deformations without the development of excessively high local strains. However, The use of eccentrically braced steel frames for the purpose of architectural cionsiderations such as openings and doors, areis dictating the use of longer links, though. Little data areis available on the behavior of long links under cyclic loading conditions. In This paper documents the results of an experimental program is that was conducted to assess the response of moment links in eccentrically braced frames. Sixteen specimens awere tested using a cyclic load.
Inelastic and Local Buckling Behavior of H-Beams with Web Opening under Cyclic Loadings
Lee, Eun Taek ; Kim, Cheol Hwan ; Oh, Woo Hun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 271~279
Many researches have been conducted to describe the elastic and inelastic behavior of H-shaped beams with web openings, and were generally concentrated on the uniaxial loading conditions. With previous research results, the formulae for the design of beams with web openings, considering local buckling, have been proposed by Darwin. Although the formulae are so simple and useful to apply to real situations, it needs more research on cyclic loading conditions. In this experimental study, a total of seven H-shaped beams with circular web openings under cyclic loading conditions were investigated. The dimension criteria were based on the formulae proposed by Darwin. The suitability of the existing design formulae, the effects of plastic hinges on beams with web openings, and the local bucking around the web openings to the beam strength under cyclic loading were also investigated through by the observations of the behavior of these beams with various dimensional openings.
An Experimental Study on the Behavior of Connections of Thin-Walled Cold-Formed Steel Section Frames
Kwon, Young Bong ; Cho, Jong Su ; Song, Jun Yeup ; Kim, Gap Deuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 281~290
A series of connection tests of portal frames which were composed of cold-formed steel studs and rafters was carried out to study the moment-rotation relation, the rotational rigidity, and the yield and the ultimate moment of the connections. The main factors of the tests were the thickness, the shape of the connecting members which were made of mild steel, and the torsional restraints of the test specimens. The test results were compared with those obtained through the non-linear analysis, for verification. The secant stiffness estimated from the experimental moment-rotation curve was proposed for the rotational rigidity of semi-rigid connections, and its validity was verified in the structural frame analysis.
Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plate Subjected to In-plane Force on Inhomogeneous Pasternak Foundation
Lee, Yong Soo ; Kim, Il Jung ; Oh, Soog Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 291~298
Recently, as the size of buildings structure becomes large increases, their mat area of building structure is supported or by an inhomogeneous foundation. This paper presents a vibration analysis on thick plates subjected to in-plane force is presented in this paper. The rectangular plate is isotropic, homogeneous, and composed of a linearly elastic material. A vibration analysis of the rectangular thick plate iwas done by useing ofarectangular finite element with 8 nodes and 9 nodes. In this study, the foundation was idealized as a Pasternak foundation model. A Pasternak foundation haves a shear layer on Winkler's model, which idealizes the foundation as a vertical spring. In order tTo analysze the vibration of a plate supported on by an inhomogeneous Pasternak foundation, the value of the Winkler foundation parameter of the central and border zones of the plate awere chosen as WFP1 and WFP2. (fFigure 4.). The Winkler foundation parameter of WFP1 and WFP2 is varied from 0 to 10,
and the shear foundation parameters is were 0, 5, and 10. The ratio of the in-plane force to the critical load iwas applied as 0.4 to 0.8
Ultimate Strength Analysis of Space Steel Frames Considering Spread of Plasticity
Kim, Sung Bo ; Han, Jae Young ; Park, Soon Cheol ; Kim, Moon Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 299~311
This paper presents a finite element procedure to estimate the ultimate strength of space frames considering spread of plasticity. The improved displacement field is introduced based on the inclusion of second-order terms of finite rotations. All the non-linear terms due to bending moment, torsional moment, and axial force are precisely considered. The concept of plastic hinges is introduced and the incremental load/displacement method is applied for elasto-plastic analyses. The initial yield surface is defined based on the residual stress, and the full plastification surface is considered under the combined action of axial forces, bending and torsional moments. The elasto-plastic stiffness matrices are derived using the flow rule and the normality condition of the limit function. Finite element solutions for the ultimate strength of space frames are compared with available solutions and experimental results.
Post-Buckling of Shear Deformable Uniform Columns Under a Combined Load
Yoo, Yeong Chan ; Shin, Young Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 313~320
The governing equation of the post-buckling of shear-deformable uniform columns under a combined load consisting of a uniformly distributed axial load and a concentrated load at a free end was derived and the post-buckling analysis was investigated by using differential transformation. The loads were obtained for various end-slopes. The results obtained by the present method agree well with published results. In this paper, the differential transformation method was illustrated through its application to the non-linear differential equation of the post-buckling. It is expected that applications of the method to more challenging problems will are expected follow in future to ensue.
Longitudinal Behavior of Prestressed Steel-Box-Girder Bridge
Park, Nam Hoi ; Kang, Young Jong ; Lee, Man Seop ; Go, Seok Bong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 321~329
To effectively use the cross section of concrete decks, analytical and experimental studies on prestressed steel-box-girder bridges were performed in this study. The method of applying prestress was determined in the analytical study and the longitudinal behavior of the prestressed steel-box-girder bridge was considered in the experimental study. The object model for these studies was a two-span continuous bridge. The method of applying prestress determined herein was divided into two parts: one is that apply prestress to the concrete deck at its intermediate support, and the other is that apply prestress to the lower flange of the steel-box-girder bridge at its end support. The prototype bridge for the experiment was simulated based on the rule of similitude and was fabricated according to construction steps to apply prestress effectively. From the results of the experimental study, it has demonstrated that the prestressed steel-box-girder bridge provides better performance than the general steel-box-girder bridge in view of the increase of the design live load, the reduction of the tensile stress of the concrete deck at intermediate support, and the reduction of the displacement.
A Study on Structural Characteristics of SM490A TMC Thick Steel Plates
Kim, Jong Rak ; Park, Yang Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 15, issue 3, 2003, Pages 331~339
The study discussed in this paper investigated the material characteristics for the Thermo-Mechanical Control Process(TMCP) plates, which are controlled by several factors such as rolling, cold-stripping, cooling rate, and fixed carbon quantity. The suitability of thick TMCP steel plates as structural steel was also estimated through several experiments and with the us of a statistical method to analyze mill certificate sheets provided by the manufacturer. The results of this study are as follows: the TMCP steel plates showed stable values of the composition parameter (
) and the carbon equivalents (
) with satisfied yield strength, ultimate strength, and low-yield ratio.