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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
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A Study on the Stress Evaluation Equations for Steel Circular Column-to- Box Beam Connections
Park, Yong Myung ; Chang, Won Je ; Hwang, Won Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 505~517
This paper presented equations on the stress evaluation of steel frame pier connections that were composed of a box beam and a circular column. The existing equations, which transformed the circular column into an equivalent box column had some problems; they underestimated a shear lag stress as the joint angle decreased, and overestimated a shear stress as the joint angel increased. Therefore, FE analyses were performed with various parameters, such as joint angle(
), span length-width ratio(L/B), and circular column-to-box beam stiffness ratio(
), and new equations on stress evaluation were proposed based on FE analyses. Furthermore, material and geometric nonlinear analyses were performed to estimate ultimate strength and to confirm the validity of the proposed equations.
Residual Stress in Welds of High Strength Steel( POSTEN60, POSTEN80)
Chang, Kyong Ho ; Lee, Chin Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 519~528
Most of ferrous b.c.c weld materials may experience martensitic transformation during rapid cooling after welding. And it is well known that volume expansion due to phase transformation could influence in the case of welding of high tensile strength steels on the relaxation of welding residual stress. To apply this effect practically, it is a prerequisite to establish a numerical model which is able to estimate the effect of phase transformation on residual stress relaxation quantitatively. In this study, we investigated the effect of phase transformation on the relaxation of welding residual stress through experiment. And three-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic FEM analysis is conducted to reproduce the effect of phase transformation on the relaxation of welding residual stress. Also we carried out the analysis of welding residual stress in welds of similar or dissimilar steels considering the effect of residual stress relaxation due to phase transformation.
Torsional Behaviour of Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tube Column Considering Confinement Effect
Yun, Bok Hee ; Lee, Eun Taik ; Park, Ji Young ; Jang, Kyong Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 529~541
Concrete filled steel tube structures were recently used in constructing high-rise buildings due to their effectiveness. Studies on concrete filled steel tubes have been focused on the experiments of uni-axial compression and bending and eccentric compression. There were also a few studies that investigated CFT member behavior under combined compression and torsion. The behavior of a circular CFT column under combined torsion and compression was theoretically investigated, considering the confinement of steel tubes on the concrete, the softening of the concrete, and the spiral effect, which were the dominant factors that influenced compression and torsion strength. The biaxial stress effects due to diagonal cracking were also taken into account. By applying those factors to compatibility and equilibrium conditions, the basic equation was derived, and the equation could be used to incorporate the torsional behavior of the entire loading history of the CFT member.
Seismic Capacity Evaluation of Existing Structures Incorporating Damage Assessment
Song, Jong Keol ; Yi, Jin Hak ; Lee, Dong Guen ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 543~553
This paper covered two related subjects: the use of the inverse modal perturbation technique to assess structural damage in existing structures; and the use of a seismic capacity evaluation to assess damaged structures, with the aid of the identified structural damage. The substructural identification and the Tikhonov regularization algorithm were incorporated for efficient damage assessment of complex and large frame structures. The seismic capacity of a damaged structure was evaluated by comparing the structure's seismic responses and seismic damage indices. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been investigated through the numerical simulation study for a twenty-story frame structure with undamaged and damaged cases, and also different earthquake excitations.
Influence of Load on Welding Stress Distribution of Structural Steel
Lee, Sang Hyong ; Chang, Kyong Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 555~564
Steel materials, which are normally used in bridge structures, are prone to corrosion and have thin plate structures. Steel bridges that have been damaged through increased vehicle load and corrosion are frequently expected to be strengthened. Repair or strengthening methods generally include cutting, bolting, and welding. The basic characteristics of stress and deformation behavior generated by cutting and welding in the course of the repair work, however, are not yet understood. It is difficult to say whether the safety of the structure after welding conforms with existing safety evaluation methods.Therefore, to gain confidence in the material and to guarantee the safety of the structure after welding, the stress generated by heat, through welding and cutting, was generalized. The effect of additional loads with respect to stress generated by heat was also investigated.
Block Shear Rupture and Shear Lag of Single angle in Tension Joint -Single angle with three or four bolt connection-
Lee, Hyang Ha ; Shim, Hyun Ju ; Lee, Eun Taik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 565~574
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the block shear and the fracture in the net section, according to AISC Specifications, by analysing the shear lag effect in the block shear rupture of the single angle with three or four bolt connection. Specimen with three or four bolt connections showed that failure generally went from block shear with some net section failures to classic net section failures. From the test results, showed that the connection length, the thickness of angle, and reduction factor, which affect the block shear rupture, were investigated. According to the test results, it is suggested that the calculation of the net section rupture capacity by using the reduction factor of U, that was suggested by Kulak, is needed.
Flexural Capacity of the Encased(Slim Floor) Composite Beams with Web Openings -Deep Deck Plate and Asymmetric Steel Beam to be Welded Cover Plate-
Kwak, Myong Keun ; Heo, Byung Wook ; Bae, Kyu Woong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 575~586
This paper presents an experimental study on the flexural capacity of an encased(slim-floor) composite beam, which is a wider plate under bottom flange of H-beam with web openings. Five simple full-scale bending tests were conducted on the encased(slim-floor) composite beams at varying steel beam heights (250mm and 300mm), positions of web openings, and loading conditions. The test results revealed that the web-open encased composite beam had sufficient composite action, without any additional shear connection devices, because of the inherent shear-bond effects between the steel beam and the concrete, and a stable structural performance without web-opening reinforcements.
Flexural Capacity of Encased Composite Beam with Hollow Core PC Slabs
Heo, Byung Wook ; Bae, Kyu Woong ; Moon, Tae Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 587~598
In this study, an experiment was conducted on the Slim Floor system, using a hollow core PC slab, which could reduce the over-all depth of a composite beam. The Slim Floor system is a method used in steel frame multi-story building construction, in which the structural depth of each floor is minimized after incorporating the steel floor beams within the depth of the concrete floor slab. This experimental study focused on the flexural behavior of the partially connected Slim Floor system with asymmetric steel beams encased in hollow core PC slabs. Ten full-scale specimens were constructed and tested in this study, with different steel beam heights, hollow core PC slabs, slab widths, and PC slab bearings. Observations made in line with the experiments indicated that the degree of shear connection without additional shear connection was 0.48-0.98 times more than that of the full shear connection, due to inherent mechanical and chemical bond stress.
A Study on the Behavior of stress path subject to the gap size of metal touch connection
Hong, Kappyo ; Kim, Seok Koo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 599~607
As buildings become more high-rise and lightweight in recent years, steel has been utilized more frequently. Based on the American AISC standard, all axial loads could be carried through a bearing load in a column splice, but according to Korean codes, the bearing load has constrained the stress that could be carried by only 25% of all axial loads. Thus, new column splice methods that use metal touch have been examined. In this study, the stress path mechanism, as an intermediation parameter in the gap's magnitude, must be determined. Similarly, the behavioral aspect of the metal touch connection must be sought after comparing and analyzing the results of the test.
Behavior of Hybrid Stud under Compressive Load
Lee, Sang Sup ; Bae, Kyu Woong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 609~619
An investigation was conducted on the activities around Europe in order to solve the problem of the thermal bridging of steel studs, which had caused a significant disadvantage. This study included the following: diminishing the contact area between the studs and the sheathing, lengthening the heat transfer route, replacing the steel web with a less conductive material, and placing foam insulation in locations where the thermal shorts are most critical. Although energy efficiency is usually the focus of such foreign cases because their stud application is mostly limited to low-rise residential buildings, both structural and thermal performance are taken into consideration in this study because these target middle-story buildings. A hybrid stud composed of steel and polymer was also developed. This hybrid stud, which is 150 SL in size, is made of a galvanized steel sheet (SGC58) and a glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) withepoxy bonding. A total of 32 specimens were manufactured. Its parameters comprise two types of connection detail,s: the thickness of steel (1.0mm and 1.2mm) and of the GFRP (4mm-4ply and 6mm-6ply), and the ratio of the length to the depth (L/D = 3, 6, 9, 12). Steel stud specimens with the same conditions were compared to the hybrid stud. The test revealed that in the case of the steel specimen with a thickness of 1.0mm, the maximum load of hybrid studs increased an average of 1.62 times comparedto that of the steel stud. In the case of the steel specimen with a thickness of 1.2mm, on the other hand, the average increase was 1.46times. All specimens showed full composite action until the collapse.
Buckling Analysis of Simple Supported Plate Stiffened with Laminated Composite Panel
Park, Dae Yong ; Chang, Suk Yoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 621~628
This paper introduces a new theory, that in a stiffened plate, a steel stiffener could be substituted a composite material in order to prevent from buckling. Changing a steel stiffener into a composite material would not only preclude welding, but could also prevent damage to the material due to fatigue and corrosion.A composite material is assumed to adhere to a steel plate, and is never separated from the plate until the steel plate reaches buckling.Such plate has variable shapes, with different lengths and widths, and also shows an anisotropic material property. LUSAS, a commercial finite element analysis package, was used in the buckling analysis.This paper investigated buckling behavior in anisotropic composite plates with variable parameters.
Point Bracing System for a Steel Frame with Double Angle Connections Under Horizontal and Vertical Loads
Yang, Jae Guen ; Kim, Ho Keun ; Kim, Ki Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 629~639
A steel frame is one of the most commonly used structural systems due to its resistance to various types of applied loads. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of several parameters, such as connection flexibility, the boundary condition of each support, and beam-to-column stiffness ratio, on the characteristic behavior of a frame. Based on the results of these studies, several design methods have been proposed. This research focused on the number of bolts on the rotational stiffness of a double-angle connection, and its effect on the story drift of a frame. To achieve these purposes, a simplified analytical model was proposed. Several experimental tests were also conducted to obtain the rotational connection stiffness of each double-angle connection.
Development of Beam-to-Column Connection Details with Horizontal Stiffeners in Weak Axis of H-shape Column
Lee, Do Hyung ; Ham, Jeong Tae ; Kim, Sung Bae ; Kim, Young Ho ; Kim, Sang Seup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 641~652
The strong beam-to-column axis connections in steel structures have been studied for a long time to develop the strength and resistance of the connections. There have been very few studies, however, related to weak axis connections. Domestically, the bracket-type connection is commonly used in weak axis connections to elevate the efficiency of the constructions when the steel structures are constructed. The bracket-type connection detail has been applied moderately to weak axis connections. Therefore, the bracket-type connection in weak axis connections might be brittle and over-designed. The results of this study showed that the welding on the web of the column and the beam was unnecessary. In addition, this study confirmed that the new weak axis connection proposed in this study was superior to the previous connection in terms of strength and ductility.
The Effect of Longitudinal Stiffeners on Load Carrying Capacity in Steel Pipe-Section Piers
Chang, Kyong Ho ; Jang, Gab Chul ; Lee, Chan Ho ; Lee, Eun Taik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 653~660
To increase the efficiency of the urban areas, pipe section steel piers, which have relatively small sections, must be constructed. Since smaller sections mean decreased load capacity, longitudinal stiffeners were applied to the pipe section steel piers to increase their load capacity. Increased load capacity through longitudinal stiffeners, however, could not yet be confirmed. Therefore, the effect of longitudinal stiffeners on the load capacity of pipe section steel piers still needs to be studied. In this paper, the effect of the number of longitudinal stiffeners on the load capacity of steel piers was determined by carrying out elastic plastic FE analysis on material and geometric non-linearity. In addition, comparative analyses of the parameters of the width, the thickness of longitudinal stiffeners, and the slenderness ratio of steel piers were carried out to determine the effects of longitudinal stiffeners.
A Study on the Behavior of Metal Touch Connection subject to Connection Types
Hong, Kap Pyo ; Kim, Seok Koo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 661~669
In the steel structure of high-rise buildings, a connection analysisand a column design have been made after welding and bolting suitable gaps. Each country, however, has different codes, and such differences are very big. American steel has been designed according to a code that all axial loads can be carried from the upper parts to the lower parts as determined by the designer, but Korean and Japanese steel have been designed by 1/4 of the standard of all axial loads. In this paper, a metal touch experiment was done as an intermediation parameter with a connecting location and a connecting method for economic and constructive efficiency. Every specimen is tested by a low-to-high displacement control to grasp ultimate strength, displacement, the connection's lateral deflection, and stress. The results of the test were compared and analyzed.
Effective Stiffness of Composite Beams Considering Shear Slip Effects
Heo, Byung Wook ; Bae, Kyu Woong ; Moon, Tae Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 671~682
This study investigated the effects of a shear slip on the deflection of steel-concretecomposite beams with partial shear interaction. Under the guidance of various current design codes, this deflection was related to the strength of shear connectors in the composite beams. In this paper, a shear connector stiffness based on exact solutions, regardless of loading conditions, was developed. The equivalent rigidity of composite beams that considered three different loading types was first derived, based on equilibrium and curvature compatibility, from which a general formula accounting for slips was developed. To validate this approach, the predicted maximum deflection under the proposed method was compared against currently used equations to calculate beam effective stiffness (AISC)Nie's equations, which have recently been proposed. For typical beams that were used in practice, shear slips might result in stiffness reduction of up to 18% for short-span beams. For full composite sections, the effective section modulus with the AISC specifications was larger than that of the present study, which meant that the specifications were not conservative. For partial composite sections, the AISC predictions were more conservative than those in the present study.
Advanced analysis and optimal design of space steel frames accounting for nonlinear behavior of connections
Choi, Se Hyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 683~694
Advanced analysis and optimal design of semi-rigid space steel frames were presented. The advanced analysis can predict the combined nonlinear effects of connection, geometry, and material on the behavior and strength of semi-rigid frames. The Kishi-Chen power model was used to describe the nonlinear behavior of semi-rigid connections. Geometric nonlinearity was determined using stability functions. Material nonlinearity was determined using the Column Research Council (CRC) tangent modulus and the parabolic function. The direct search method proposed by Choi and Kim was used as optimization technique. One by one, the member with the largest unit value evaluated using the LRFD interaction equation were placed adjacent to a larger member selected from the database. The objective function was assumed to be the weight of steel frame, while the constraint functions were load-carrying capacities, deflections, inter-story drifts, and the ductility requirements. The member sizes determined using the proposed method were compared to those derived from the conventional LRFD method.
Analytical Study on Relationship Between Moment Transfer Efficiency of a Beam Web and Strain Concentration at Steel Moment Connections
Kim, Young Ju ; Oh, Sang Hoon ; Moon, Tae Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 695~703
In this paper, the results of monotonic loading analysis with four steel models and one composite model were shown. The effect that moment transfer efficiency of a web and strain concentration at a steel beam-to-column connections was investigated. Analysis results showed that the moment transfer efficiency of the analytical model with box-column was poor when comparing to model with H-column due to out-of-plane deformation of the box-column flange. The presence of scallop, thin plate of box column and floor slabs was also a reason of the decrease of moment transfer efficiency, which would result in a potential fracture of the steel beam-to-column connections. Analytical results were compared with experimental results based on previous test. As a result, the deformation capacity of connections with a box-column or a floor slab decreased due to the poor moment transfer efficiency and the strain concentration of beam flange in the vicinity of the steel beam-to-column connections based on the experimental data.
Mechanical Behavior of Steel Pipe Pin-Cups Embedded in Concrete
Jo, Jae Byung ; Im, Seok Bean ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 705~712
To investigate the mechanical behavior of pin cups created from steel pipes embedded in concrete, test blocks were made and load tests were conducted. The pin was inserted in the pin cup at various depths and was loaded in a lateral direction at a constant displacement speed. A formula, which took into consideration the deformation and failure shapes of the pin cups, observed during and after the tests, was used to estimate its mechanical behavior. The test values were determined to be relevant to the formula and were distributed within a reasonably narrow range. The mean and the 95% survival probability value of maximum resistance were determined by factoring the formula at 1.01 and 0.92, respectively.
A Study on Fatigue Crack at Coped Stringers of the Plate Girder Subway-Bridge
Jo, Jae Byung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 5, 2004, Pages 713~724
A fatigue crack found at the coped stringer of the old dismantled Dangsan Subway Bridge was numerically simulated. A model of a single span of the plate girder bridge with its beam elements was created and analyzed in order to obtain the nominal stress history caused by trains. A detailed FEM analysis of the coped stringer was conducted using a shell element model. A fracture mechanical model was used to estimate crack propagation. The stress intensity factors were calculated using the J-Integral method. The simulation with some reasonable assumptions showed that the calculated crack lengths were comparable to those found on the site.