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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
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A Study on the Static and Fatigue Behavior of Steel-Confined Prestressed Concrete Girder
Kim, Jung Ho ; Park, Kyung Hoon ; Hwang, Yoon Koog ; Lee, Sang Yoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 725~736
A new type of girder, called steel-confined prestressed concrete girder (SCP girder), has been developed, which maximizes the structural advantages of concrete, steel, and PS tendon, and improves on the shortcomings of steel plate girder, PSC I-girder, and preflex girder bridge for use in the construction of middle- or long-span bridges. To verify the propriety of design, structural safety, and applicability of this girder, a static load test was carried out (Kim et al.., 2002). Since the main damage typically sustained by steel bridges results from the fatigue caused by the repetition of traffic loads, fatigue safety must therefore be guaranteed in applying the SCP girder in the construction of real bridges. In this study, a fatigue test was carried out to investigate fatigue behavior and provide basic data for fatigue design. Based on the fatigue test, the fatigue safety of the girder was estimated. For the fatigue test, 10-m specimens were designed for a standard-design truckload (DB-24). A static load test was also performed before the fatigue test to analyze the structural behavior of the specimens. After the fatigue test, outer steel plates were removed to observe the condition of the concrete in the girder.
An Experimental Study on the Structural Characteristics of Tension Joints with High-Strength Bolted Split-Tee Connection
Choi, Sung Mo ; Lee, Seong Hui ; Kim, Jin Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 737~745
In general, most of the beam-to-column connections for steel structures are regarded as either rigid connections or pin connections. Recently, the concept of a semi-rigid connection was introduced for a correct analysis of steel structures. Several experimental and theoretical researches have been performed regarding the structural behaviors of frames and buildings with semi-rigid connections. The results are not well known, and structural frame/building has not been designed to introduce the concept of semi-rigid connections between a beam and column until this time. To resolve this, this research depends on design specifications prepared by other advanced countries for the design of buildings with semi-rigid connections. Such a specification, however, should incorporate domestic characteristics of steel material properties and load conditions. This paper deals with structural capacities and deformable behaviors for a split-T tensile connection with F10T high-strength bolts to investigate the structural characteristics of semi-rigid frames. The experimental parameters include the thickness of T-flanges, painted or not, preloaded or not, and load pushover pattern. A total of 20 specimens were fabricated and tested with a 300-ton UTM. The structural capacities and behavior for split-T tensile connections were evaluated on each research parameter.
Flexural Behavior of Encased Composite Beams with Partial Shear Interaction
Heo, Byung Wook ; Bae, Kyu Woong ; Moon, Tae Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 747~757
With steel and concrete composite beams, the incomplete interaction between the steel and the concrete slab leads to an appreciable increase in beam deflections. Moreover, encased composite beams using a deep deck plate or hollow-core PC slabs are critical to deflection due to their inherent geometry. In this paper, by using the calculation tools that were developed for a previous study on the deflection of encased composite beams considering the slip effects and load-slip curve, the shear bond stress and additional deflection induced due to interface slip of the encased composite beam are presented. It was found that the slip effects significantly contribute to the encased composite beam deflections and result in stiffness reduction of up to 30% compared to that of full shear interaction beams. The predicted results were compared with the measurement of 18 specimens tested in this study, and comparisons show a high degree of accuracy, within 6%.
Evaluation of In-plane Buckling and Ultimate Strength for Braced Arch Ribs
Park, Yong Myung ; Heo, Taek Young ; Lee, Pil Goo ; Noh, Kyeung Bae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 759~768
The parametric analysis of vertically braced steel pipe arch ribs was performed to evaluate their in-plane buckling strengths and ultimate load-carrying capacities. The elastic and plastic behavior of braced arch ribs, unlike those of the usual single arch ribs, are affected by such factors as the flexural rigidity of the brace member, brace and pipe ribs spacing, loading situation, and arch curvature. To analyze these effects, several parameters were included, such as the rise-to-span ratio, the second moment of the inertia ratio of the rib to the brace member, the space ratio of the brace, the space ratio of the upper and lower ribs, the initial crookedness, the slenderness ratios of the braced arch ribs, and the loading conditions were considered with live-load-to-dead-load ratios. Based on the results of the parametric analyses, a proper profile of the braced arch rib was proposed. A large-scale structural experiment was also performed to evaluate the ultimate strength of the braced arch rib. The test results were determined to reasonably coincide with the analytical ones.
An Experimental study on the behavior of gap N-joints in Cold-formed Square Hollow Sections with connection plate for a tension member
Park, Keum Sung ; Bae, Kyu Woong ; Moon, Tae Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 769~780
This paper's objective is to evaluate the experimental behavior of gap N-joints made of cold-formed, square, hollow steel sections, with a connection plate as a tension member. The principal parameters for testing included the ratio of chord width to thickness, the ratio of brace width to chord width, eccentric ratio, the shape of the compression member, the branch angle, and the stiffening plate of the chord flange. The strength and failure mode were examined through the test for the gap N-joint, consisting of several parameters. Based on the results of the test, the gap N-joints were determined according to the capacity preceding the displacement of the tension, regardless of the width ratio, and the split failure mode-connected surface for a chord in joints. The strength of the gap N-joints increased proportionally as the
(B/T) ratio decreased, and as the width ratio(
) of branch to chord increased. Particularly,
(B/T) decreased as the capacity of gap N-joint increased. The results of the test were summarized for the capacity, initial stiffness, ductility, and change of the failure mode of each gap N-joint.
Framed Steel Plate Wall subject to Cyclic Lateral Load
Park, Hong Gun ; Kwack, Jae Hyuk ; Jeon, Sang Woo ; Kim, Won Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 781~792
Experiments were performed to study the cyclic behavior of framed steel walls with thin web plates. Five specimens of single-bay and three-story steel plate walls were tested for cyclic lateral load. The parameters for the test specimens included the plate thickness and the column strength. Based on the test results, the strength, deformability, and energy dissipation capacity of the framed steel walls were studied. The test results showed that the behavioral characteristics of the framed steel walls with thin web plates were different in many aspects from those of the conventional braced frame, and the steel wall with a stiffened web plate exhibited cantilever action, high strength, and low ductility. With the framed steel plate walls, local plate buckling and tension-field action developed in the thin web plates, and plastic deformation was uniformly distributed along the wall's height. As a result, the framed steel plate walls exhibited combined flexural and shear deformation, but they also showed high strength and energy dissipation capacity. Moreover, such walls have high deformability, which was equivalent to that of the conventional moment frame. Frame members such as columns and beams, however, must be designed to resist the tension-field action of the thin web plates. If the column does not have sufficient strength, and if its sections are not compact enough, the overall strength of the framed steel wall might be significantly decreased by the development of the soft-story mechanism. The framed steel walls with thin web plates have advantages, such as high deformability and high strength. Therefore, they can be used as ductile elements in earthquake-resistant systems.
Evaluation of Ductility and Strength Factors for Special Steel Moment Resisting Frames
Kang, Cheol Kyu ; Choi, Byong Jeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 793~805
The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the ductility and strength factors that are key components of the response modification factor for special steel moment-resistant frames. The ductility factors for special steel moment-resistant frames were calculated by multiplying the ductility factor for SDOF systems and the MDOF modification factors. Ductility factors were computed for elastic and perfectly plastic SDOF systems undergoing different levels of inelastic deformation and periods when subjected to a large number of recorded earthquake ground motions. Based on the results of the regression analysis, simplified expressions were proposed to compute the ductility factors. Based on previous studies, the MDOF modification factors were also proposed to account for the MDOF systems. Strength factors for special steel moment resisting frames were estimated from the results of the nonlinear static analysis. A total of 36 sample steel frames were designed to investigate the ductility and strength factors considering design parameters such as number of stories (4, 8, and 16 stories), seismic zone factors (Z = 0.075, 0.2, and 0.4), framing system (Perimeter Frames, PF and Distributed Frames, DF), and failure mechanism (Strong-Column Weak Beam, SCWB, and Weak-Column Strong-Beam, WCSB). The effects of these design parameters on the ductility and strength factors for special steel moment-resisting frames were investigated.
Long-term Behavior of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders due to Concrete Shrinkage
Bae, Doo Byong ; Youn, Seok Goo ; Ham, Sang Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 807~818
Experimental tests and theoretical methods of the analysis of the concrete shrinkage behaviors of steel-concrete composite girders are described herein. Steel-concrete composite test specimens were fabricated in the laboratory, and long-term behaviors such as deflections, curvatures, and strains were measured for one year. Test results were compared to the analytical results obtained by using the age-adjusted effective modulus method (AEMM). In addition, composite girders have been analyzed to investigate the effects of several parameters on the concrete shrinkage behaviors. From the long-term test results, it could be used to validate AEMM for the evaluation of the shrinkage behavior of composite girders. Because the shrinkage of the reinforced concrete slab in composite girders may lead to large tensile stresses in the concrete section, the transverse cracking of the slab could occur both in the positive and negative regions. Therefore, if the cracking of concrete would be ignored,it might lead to an overestimation of the stresses of the steel section of composite girders. Based on this research, it is proposed that the effect of transverse concrete cracking on the shrinkage behavior of steel-concrete composite bridges be considered.
A Study on the Techniques of Configuration Optimization
Choi, Byoung Han ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 819~832
This study describes an efficient and facile method for configuration optimum design of structures. One of the ways to achieve numerical shape representation and the selection of design variables is using the design element concept. Using this technique, the number of design variables could be drastically reduced. Isoparametric mapping was utilized to automatically generate the finite element mesh during the optimization process, and this made it possible to easily calculate the derivatives of the coordinates of generated finite element nodes w.r.t. the design variables. For the structural analysis, finite element analysis was adopted in the optimization procedure, and two different techniques(the deterministic method, a modified method of feasible direction; and the stochastic method, a genetic algorithms) were applied to obtain the minimum volumes and section areas for an efficient configuration optimization procedure. Futhermore, spline interpolation was introduced to present a realistic optimum configuration that meet the manufacturing requirements. According to the results of several numerical examples(steel structures), the two techniques suggested in this study simplified the process of configuration optimum design of structures, and yielded improved objective function values with a robust convergence rate. This study's applicability and capability have therefore been demonstrated.
Non-Prismatic Beam Element for Beams with RBS Connection
Kim, Kee Dong ; Ko, Man Gi ; Hwang, Byoung Kuk ; Pae, Chang Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 833~846
This study presents a non-prismatic beam element for modeling the elastic behavior of steel beams, which have the post-Northridge connections in steel moment frames. The elastic stiffness matrix, including the shear effects for non-prismatic members with reduced beam section (RBS) connection, is in closed form. A simplified approach is also suggested, which uses a prismatic beam element to model beams with the RBS connection. This method can estimate quiteexactly the maximum story drift ratios of frames with the RBS connection. The effects of reduced beam section connection on the elastic stiffness of steel moment frames were investigated. The selection of a proper model to account for deformations at the joint might have a more important role in estimating the maximum story drift ratios of frames with better accuracy than the RBS cutouts.
Thickness Effects on the Fatigue Strength of Butt Welded Specimens using SM520C-TMC Steel
Kim, Kyoung Nam ; Jung, In Su ; Hwang, Nak Yeon ; Jung, Kyoung Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 16, issue 6, 2004, Pages 847~855
The criterion or specification on fatigue design has been generally based on fatigue strength curve derived by tests on specimens with varying thickness (10-30mm). Making the plate thicker, however, also decreases fatigue strength. It has been noted from the test results and the results of the analysis by fracture mechanics that the effect of thickness cannot be bypassed. From the several fatigue strength curves of specimen tests, modification of fatigue strength on plate thickness has been proposed. In this study, fatigue tests on SM520C-TMC were carried out, and the effects of thickness were evaluated. Finally, in consideration of the thickness, the modification of fatigue strength was derived. Comparing the results of this paper with those of previous studies, an outline of the behavior obtained is similar to previous ones, but the rate of decrease is smaller.