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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - 00 2006
Volume 18, Issue 5 - 00 2006
Volume 18, Issue 4 - 00 2006
Volume 18, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Volume 18, Issue 2 - 00 2006
Volume 18, Issue 1 - 00 2006
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Design of Longitudinal prestress of precast decks in twin-girder continuous composite bridges
Yoon, Dong Yong ; An, Sung Hyun ; Lee, Sung Chul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 515~524
Cross-sectional distortions take place when steel box girders a re subjected to torsional moment, as a consequence of which distortional warping stresses are necessarily developed. Additional normal stresses due to the distortion are should be included at the design stage. The relative magnitude with respect to the maximum bending stress are kept less than the specific values, i.e., at 5~10%, by properly spaced intermediate diaphragms that could prevent the distortional deformation of the box girder. However, current design equations for the stiffness of intermediate diaphragms were derived based on BEF. In this study, the area required by the intermediate diaphragm members are investigated through three-dimensional finite element analyses. The results of the analyses indicate that the current equations give to conservative values for the intermediate diaphragm of box girder bridges. Finally, an improved equation for the area of the intermediate diaphragm is derived from a regression analysis from the finite element analysis results.
Suggestion on Strength Formula of Square Hollow Section Tubluar Column-to-BeamPinned Connections
Choi, Sung Mo ; Lee, Seong Hui ; Lee, Kwang Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 525~534
Column-to-beam pinned connections can cause local moment to the web of a steel tube due to the distance of eccentricity between the row of bolts and the column flange, which possibility deteriorates the load capacity of column. In this study, a square hollow section tubular used finite element analysis of a square hollow section tubular column was carried out, and the column width and thickness, existence and non-existence of internal reinforcement, and existence and non-existence of compressive force were taken as variables to examine the load capacity deterioration of a square column caused by moment. To guarantee the reliability of the finite element results, some specimens were fabricated and tested. The yield line method was applied to suggest the strength formulas of the square tubular column to the beam pinned connections. Based on the study results, the column strength the moment of the square hollow section tubular column to the beam pined connections improved with the increase in the w to strength limitations, a no-reinforcement type of square hollow section tubular column was proposed, and if the limitation values were not satisfied, the reinforcement of the internal column was made mandatory. Therefore, the horizontal -reinforcement type considered the strength increase, and the fabrication of the square hollow section tubular column was ar column that considered its load capacity with the moment for the no-reinforcement and the horizontal-reinforcement types.
Effect of Cross Beams on Live Load Distribution in Rolled H-beam Bridges
Yoon, Dong Yong ; Eun, Sung Woon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 535~542
In this study, the effects of cross beams on the lateral distribution of live loads in composite rolled H-beam girder bridges, were investigated through three-dimensional finite element analysis. The parameters considered in this study were the inertial moment ratio between the main girder and the cross beam, the presence of the cross beam, and the number of cross beams. The live load lateral distribution factors were investigated through finite element analysis and the customary grid method. The results show that there was no difference between the bridge models with and without a cross beam. The cross beam of the beam and frame types also showed almost the same live load lateral distribution factors. However, the finite element analysis showed that the concrete slab deck plays a major role in the lateral distribution of a live load, and consequently, the effect of the cross beam is not so insignificant that it can be neglected.
A Study on the Structural Performance of Hybrid Studs Subjected to Compression and Torsion
Jung, Yun Jin ; Kwon, Young Bong ; Kwak, Myong Keun ; Bae, Kyu Woong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 543~551
Cold-formed steel studs that are being used as load-bearing members of wall panels for steel houses have a problem with their insulation due to the heat bridging of their web. Some additional thermal insulating materials should be used. To solve this problem, the new-concept hybrid stud, which consists of a galvanized steel sheet (t = 1.0 m - 12.0 m) and a GFRP panel (t = 4.0-6.0 mm), has recently been developed. An investigation on the structural behavior and the strength capacity of this new hybrid stud has been conducted so that it can be used in load-bearing wall panels of residential buildings. This paper describes the axial compression-torsion test results of the hybrid studs under both axial compression and torsion using ATTM. The main factors of the test were the stud length, the magnitude of the initial compressive force, and the loading method of the monotonic or cyclic loading. The torsion was applied increasingly while the initial compression was kept constant to the failure of the hybrid section. The advanced analysis results obtained form the finite element procedure that considered the material properties of the high-strength galvanized steel and the GFRP were compared with the test results for verification.
A Study on the Structural Performance of Hybrid Studs Subjected to Compression and Torsion
Jung, Yun-Jin ; Kwak, Myong-Keun ; Bae, Kyu-Woong ; Kwon, Young-Bong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 545~551
Elastic Seismic Design of Steel Highrise Buildings in Regions of Moderate Seismicity
Lee, Cheol Ho ; Kim, Seon Woong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 553~562
Lateral loading due to wind or earthquake is a major factor that affects the design of high-rise buildings. This paper highlights the problems associated with the seismic design of high-rise buildings in regions of strong wind and moderate seismicity. Seismic response analysis and performance evaluation were conducted for wind-designed concentrically braced steel high-rise buildings in order to check the feasibility of designing them per elastic seismic design criterion (or strength and stiffness solution) in such regions. Review of wind design and pushover analysis results indicated that wind-designed high-rise buildings possess significantly increased elastic seismic capacity due to the overstrength resulting from the wind serviceability criterion. The strength demand-to-capacity study showed that, due to the wind design overstrength, high-rise buildings with a slenderness ratio of larger than four or five can elastically withstand even the maximum considered earthquake (MCE) with the seismic performance level of immediate occupancy under the limited conditions of this study. A step-by-step seismic design procedure per the elastic criterion that is directly usable for practicing design engineers is also recommended.
The Effect of the Loading Size on Displacements of Stiffened Plates with Open Ribs
Chu, Seok Beom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 563~574
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of the loading size on displacements of stiffened plates with open ribs using the orthotropic rigidity ratio as the parameter. To analyze the displacement behavior of stiffened plates according to the loading size, a concentrated load and three types of uniform distributed loads were applied on the rib at the center of some plates. The results of the analysis of various stiffened plates show that the central displacement ratio of the distributed load to the concentrated load increased according to the decrease in the loading size, and that the ratio can be expressed as a function of the rigidity ratio for each rib space. The maximum displacement of the stiffened plate subjected to the distributed load did not appear at the center of the plate due to the local behavior, and the increasing ratio of the maximum displacement to the central displacement can be expressed as a function of the rigidity ratio for each rib space. Orthotropic plate analysis can achieve more accurate results using the proposed functions, and the application of the functions to examples of a different aspect ratio and support condition shows good accuracy. Therefore, using the functions proposed in this study, the central and maximum displacements can easily be achieved in the orthotropic plate analysis of stiffened plates subjected to the distributed load.
Buckling Analysis of Thin-Walled Laminated Composite I-Beams Including Shear Deformation
Back, Sung Yong ; Lee, Seung Sik ; Park, Yong Myung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 575~584
In this paper, a shear-flexible finite element model is developed for the buckling analysis of axially loaded, thin-walled composite I-beams. Based on an orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system, the displacement fields are defined using the first-order shear-deformable beam theory. The derived element takes into account flexural shear deformation and torsional warping deformation. Three different types of beam elements, namely, the two-noded, three-noded, and four-noded beam elements, were developed to solve the governing equations. An inverse iteration with shift eigenvalue solution was used to solve the resulting linearized buckling problem. A parametric study was conducted to show the importance of shear flexibility and fiber orientation on the buckling behavior of thin-walled composite beams. A good agreement was obtained among the proposed shear-flexible model, other results available in literature, and the finite element solution.
Evaluation of Response Modification Factors for Steel Moment Frame Buildings Subjected to Seismic Loads
Lee, Kihak ; Woo, Sungwoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 585~596
This study focuses on the seismic behavior of 3-, 9-, and 20-story steel moment resisting frame (MRF) structures designed in accordance with the 2000 International Building Code using different Response Modification factors (R factors), i.e., 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. For a detailed case study, 30 different structures were evaluated for 20 ground motions representing the hazard level, which is equal to a 2% probability in 50 years (2% in 50 years). The results showed that the current R factors provide conservative designs for the 3- and 9-story buildings for the Collapse Prevention performance objective. the 20-story buildings, which were designed without using the minimum requirement of spectral acceleration CS prescribed in IBC 2000, did not satisfy the seismic performance for Collapse Prevention performance.
A Study on the Design Criteria Relating to the Local Buckling of Pultruded FRP Structural Compression Members
Joo, Hyung Joong ; Lee, Seung Sik ; Yoon, Soon Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 597~606
Since FRP materials have various advantages over steel, many research activities to use them for the civil engineering applications are now in progress. The present paper deals with the local buckling behavior of FRP pultruded members as a first step toward the development of design criteria. In the design of compression members, it is very important to know not only if local buckling occurs or not but also which plate component governs local buckling, but it is not easy to perform this work in a rigorous manner. In the present paper, a simple and accurate equation which can compute the coefficients of buckling of orthotropic plates and local buckling of pultruded compression members is suggested by performing rigorous analysis, energy analysis, and parametric study. The local buckling strength and the plate component governing the local buckling behavior of thin-walled pultruded compression members can be easily determined by using the proposed equation.
An Experimental Study on the Flexural Behavior of Composite Steel Deck Slab with Bored Openings
Eom, Chul Hwan ; Kim, Hee Cheul ; Park, Jin Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 607~614
The composite metal deck plate system has been widely used of late for office structures. However, composite floor decks are bored imprudently for installation in building equipment. In this study, experimental investigations of bored composite steel deck slabs were performed to evaluate the flexural capacity of each specimen. The variables set were the shapes and positions of the openings in the composite slabs. The results were analyzed in the form of load-displacement graphs and with respect to the ductility and energy dissipation capacity ofeach specimen to evaluate its structural capacity.
Buckling Analysis of Pultruded Members under Axial Compression
Lee, Seung Sik ; Back, Sung Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 615~624
In the present paper, an extended composite beam theory that has no restriction on the lay-up and can account for Poisson effect which is significant for composite materials is proposed. Buckling equations for composite thin-walled members which are subjected to axial compression are derived based on the composite beam theory. In order to check the validity of the derived buckling equations, the results of experiments on the flexural-torsional buckling of vinylester/E-glass and polyester/E-glass pultruded T-section members and the flexural buckling of vinylester/E-glass pultruded H-section members are used as numerical examples. The comparison of the analytical results to the experimental and FE analysis results reveals that the proposed buckling equations predict the buckling loads of pultruded members conservatively by about 7%.
Residual Stress Evaluation Caused by Press Forming and Welding of 600MPa Class Circular Steel Tube Using Hole-Drilling Strain Gage Method
Im, Sung Woo ; Lee, E.T. ; Shim, Hyun Ju ; Kim, Jong Won ; Chang, In Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 625~631
Residual stresses in structural materials are stresses that exist in the objective without the application of any service or other external loads. Manufacturing processes are the most common causes of residual stress. To examine the effect and the distribution of residual stress due to press forming and welding in the production of a 600MPa-class steel tube, a residual stress evaluation test was performed. The measurement used the Hole-Drilling Strain Gauge Method and evaluated the distribution of residual stress, which measured a total of 59 places near the welding line.
Design of longitudinal prestress of precast decks in twin-girder continuous composite bridges
Shim, Chang Su ; Kim, Hyun Ho ; Ha, Tae Yul ; Jeon, Seung Min ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 633~642
Serviceability design is required to control the cracking at the joint of precast decks with longitudinal prestress in continuous composite bridges. Details of twin-girder bridges are especially complex not only due to their main reinforcements and transverse prestresses for the design of long-span concrete slabs, but also due to the shear pockets for obtaining the composite action. This paper suggests the design guidelines for the magnitude of the effective prestress and for the selection of filling materials and their requirements that would allow for the use of precast decks for twin-girder continuous composite bridges. The necessary initial prestress was also evaluated through long-term behavior analysis. From the analysis, existing design examples were revised and their effectiveness was estimated. When a filling material with a bonding strength higher than the requirement is used in the region of a high negative moment, a uniform configuration of the longitudinal prestressing steels along thewhole span length of continuous composite bridges can be achieved, which would result in the simplification of the details and the reduction of the construction costs.
Experimental Study on the Fire Resistance of the iTECH Composite Beam
Lee, Sueng Jae ; Kang, Seong Deok ; Choi, Seng Kwan ; Kim, Myeong-Han ; Kim, Sang Dae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 643~654
Thispaper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the fire performances ofsimply supported iTECH composite beams using an ISO834 standard fire. There are very few independent studies on the fire resistance of composite steel and concrete structures of various designs. The iTECH composite beam system has been used in construction, but nothing is known about its influence in a fire. To evaluate the fire resistance performanceof the iTECH beam, a test was conducted for 4.7m-span-length iTECH beams under given conditions in a laboratory. The fire resistance performance of unprotected coatings of the iTECH beam has been examined, and a longer period of fire resistance was achieved by increasing the beam coating's section size and decreasing its load ratio. Coatings for the fire protection of iTECH beams reduce the rate of temperature rise of the beam in case of fire, and the required thickness of spray-on fire protection coatings can be determined by means of tests.
Analytical Study on the Fire Resistance of iTECH Composite Beam
Lim, Yoon Hee ; Kang, Seong Deok ; Oh, Myoung Ho ; Kim, Myeong Han ; Kim, Sang Dae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 655~664
The purpose of thisanalytical study of an iTECH composite beam subjected to fire conditions is to determine the beam's fire resistance performance using its load ratio and fire protection as parameters. A composite structural system is expected to have a safer and more economical fire safety design than a mere collection of isolated members.heat transfer analysis was performed on the basis of the finite element program ANSYS 10.0 using an ISO834 standard fire, following the main guidelines proposed by EC1 Part 2.2 and EC4 Part 1.2. To validate the analytical simulation of the iTECH composite beam, comparison of the experimental tests was proposed.
A Study on the Welding Properties of SM570TMC Steel Plate
Im, Sung Woo ; Chang, In Hwa ; Chung, Woo Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 18, issue 5, 2006, Pages 665~675
With building structures becoming higher and longer-spanned, the need for high-strength and reliable steel is increasing. For this reason, the SM570TMC steel plate was developed. Despite its excellent mechanical properties, however, its welding properties, which are well-known to be superior to those of other equivalent steel plates, have not been verified yet. In this study, welding specimens fabricated via SA and FCA welding, with two domestic welding materials and one Japanese welding material in site welding conditions, were evaluated.