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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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Flexural Resistance Statistics of Composite Plate Girders
Shin, Dong Ku ; Kim, Chun Yong ; Rho, Joon Sik ; Park, Young Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 139~146
The objective of the present study is to provide statistical resistance statistics for steel-concrete composite plate girder sections under positive and negative moments. Statistical properties on yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and fracture toughness of domestic structural steel products, gathered from an analysis of over 16,000 samples, were evaluated. Using the steel samples for the plate girder, the bias factor and the coefficient of variation of the ultimate flexural resistance for representative composite plate girder sections under positive and negative flexures were presented. In calculating the ultimate flexural resistance of the composite section, the moment curvature relationships were developed using the incremental load approach considering material nonlinearity for the steel girder. The predicted statistics can be used in the future for the efficient calibration of LRFD code.
Comparison of Aerodynamic Responses for Cable-Stayed Bridges during Construction with Temporary Stabilizing Measures
Cho, Jae Young ; Kim, Young Min ; Lee, Hak Eun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 147~160
In this paper, we described the aeroelastic full-bridge model tests that were conducted to investigate the effect of alternative temporary stabilizing measures for thecable-stayed bridge during construction to ensure aerodynamic stability in the event of a typhoon or similar disasters. The effect of alternative temporary stabilizing measures was investigated through various configurations on two cable-stayed bridges with a main span of 475 m and 230 m, respectively. To investigate the bridge's aerodynamic behaviour and dynamic wind force during construction, the deflections at the end of the cantilever, the accelerations atthe top of the pylon and the moments at the lower part of the pylon were measured. As the result, the system with two sets of vertical cables per cantilever seemed to be the overall most effective solution, but the system with single vertical cable may also work. The combined system using the caisson support and vertical cables and the system with two sets of inclined cables per cantilever on the same anchor block may also be a solution. The inclined cables from the caisson to the girder were effective for some early stages of erecting the deck.
The Modified Coefficient of the Orthotropic Flexural Rigidity for Stiffened Plates with Rectangular Ribs Considering the Dimensions of Ribs
Chu, Seok Beom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 161~170
In this study, to improve on the inaccurate results of the orthotropic plate analysis, we aim to propose a modified coefficient of the orthotropic flexural rigidity for stiffened plates with rectangular ribs considering the dimensions of ribs. The sensitivity of the flexural rigidity and the maximum displacement according to the dimensions of stiffened plates were analyzed and the parametric study on the modified coefficient of the orthotropic flexural rigidity of stiffened plates was performed. The results show that the ratio of modified coefficients can be expressed as a function for each rib height, space and thickness regardless of plate thickness and the modified flexural rigidity can be easily estimated from the ratio functions of modified coefficients. The application of the coefficient function to various types of stiffened plates with different boundary conditions, aspect ratios, rib arrangement and loading size shows that the proposed function improves the accuracy of the orthotropic plate analysis compared with the results of the reference. Therefore, the orthotropic plate analysis of stiffened plates with rectangular ribs can easily achieve more accurate results using the coefficient function proposed in this study.
Optimum Design of Greenhouse Structures Using Genetic Algorithms
Park, Choon Wook ; Yuh, Baeg Youh ; Lee, Hyun Woo ; Lee, Suk Gun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 171~179
The greenhouse discrete optimum design program was developed using discrete optimum algorithm based on the genetic algorithm. The basic search method for the optimum design is the genetic algorithm, which is known to be very efficient for discrete optimization. In this paper, the objective function was the weight of the greenhouse structures and the constraints were the limits state design method. The design variables were galvanized steel pipes for plastic housing KSD 3760. Objective criteria were presented for the design of economic greenhouse structure and evaluation of its stability. The standardizations of greenhouse structure were used, as well as the normalization of greenhouse-related materials. Design examples were given to show the applicability of the optimum design using the discrete optimum algorithm based on the genetic algorithm of this study.
Evaluation on the Mechanical Properties of Fire Resistant Steels at High Temperature Conditions with Manufacturing Processes
Kwon, In Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 181~190
A fire-resistant steel with enhanced load-bearing capacity has been developed to enable structural elements such as columns and beams withstand exposure to severe fire conditions. To precisely evaluate the fire-resistant performance of structural elements that compose fire-resistant steels, mechanical properties such as yield strength and elastic modulus are essential. To obtain the mechanical database of fire-resistant steels at high temperatures, tensile tests at high temperatures were conducted on steels of two kinds of thicknesses. The results showed that the thickness difference could not affect the mechanical properties at a high temperature.
Closing Step Analysis in Cable-Stayed Bridges to Produce Initial Equilibrium Condition
Park, Yong Myung ; Yun, Jae Sun ; Cho, Hyun Jun ; Park, Chung Gon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 191~199
This paper presents a closing method for a cable-stayed bridge erected by the free cantilever method to produce the initial equilibrium configuration at the final construction stage. To realize the initial equilibrium condition in cable-stayed bridge by the cantilever method, compatibility conditions for vertical displacements, rotational angles, and axial displacements at the closing section of both side girders should be satisfied. In this paper, it was shown that it can be accomplished by using some applicable loads during construction such as the pull-up force of the derrick crane, some cable tension forces, and jacking force at the pylon. The proposed method was applied to a construction stage analysis of a sample bridge to demonstrate its validity, and it was acknowledged that the tower was considerably affected by the compatibility condition for axial displacement in the closing step.
Prediction Models for the Stiffness and the Strength of a Double Angle Connection Subjected to Tension
Yang, Jae Guen ; Lee, Gil Young ; Cheon, Ji Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 201~210
Double-angle connections should be designed with enough stiffness and strength to properly resist various applied loads. Therefore, structural engineers should be able to predict some influential variables and take their effects into account in design. This study was performed to establish the effects of the number of bolts and bolt gage distance on the stiffness and strength of a double-angle connection under tension. Six experimental tests were conducted to describe the effects of these variables by comparing load-displacement relationship curves. In addition, two prediction models were proposed to estimate the initial stiffness and the maximum allowable tensile load based on the results of experimental tests. In the development of these prediction models, the effect of prying action was considered.
Reliability Analysis of Fatigue Truck Model Using Measured Truck Traffic Statistics
Shin, Dong Ku ; Kwon, Tae Hyung ; Park, Young Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 211~221
A structural reliability analysis of fatigue truck model for fatigue failure of highway steel bridges was performed by applying the Miner's fatigue damage rule expressed as a function of various random variables affecting fatigue damage. Among the variables, the statistical parameters for equivalent moment, impact factor, and loadometer were obtained by analyzing recently measured domestic traffic data, whereas the parameters on fatigue strength, girder distribution factor, and headway factor of the measured data available in the literature were used. The effects of various fatigue truck models, fatigue life, ADTT, fatigue detail category, loadometer, and gross vehicle weight of fatigue truck on the reliability index of fatigue damage were analyzed. It is expected that the analytical results presented herein can be used as a basic background material in the calibration of both fatigue design truck and fatigue load factor of LRFD specification.
Reliability analysis of LNG unloading arm considering variability of wind load
Kim, Dong Hyawn ; Lim, Jong Kwon ; Koh, Jae Pil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 223~231
Considering wind speed uncertainty, reliability analysis of the LNG unloading arm at Tongyoung Production Site was performed. Extreme distribution of wind speed was estimated from the data collected at the weather center and wind load was calculated using wind velocities and coefficients of wind pressure. The unloading arm was modeled with plate and solid elements. Contact elements were used to describe the interface between base of structure andground. Response surface for maximum effective stress was found for reliability analysis and then reliability functions was defined and used to determine exceeding probability of allowable and yield stresses. In addition, sensitivity analysis was also performed to estimate the effect of possible material deterioration in the future.
Load Distribution Factors for Two-Span Continuous I-Girder Bridges
Back, Sung Yong ; Shin, Gi Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 2, 2007, Pages 233~245
Previous finite element studies have shown that AASHTO Standard load distribution factor (LDF) equations appear to be conservative for longer spans and larger girder spacing, but too permissible for short spans and girder spacing. AASHTO LRFD specification defines the distribution factor equation for girder spacing, span length, slab thickness, and longitudinal stiffness. However, this equation requires an iterative procedure to correctly determine the LDF value due to an initially unknown longitudinal stiffness parameter. This study presents a simplified LDF equation for interior and exterior girders of two-span continuous I-girder bridges that does not require an iterative design procedure. The finite element method was used to investigate the effect of girder spacing, span length, slab thickness, slab width, and spacing and size of bracing. The computer program, GTSTRUDL, was used to idealize the bridge superstructures as the eccentric beam model, the concrete slab by quadrilateral shell elements, steel girders by space frame members, and the composite action between these elements by rigid links. The distribution factors obtained from these analyses were compared with those from the AASHTO Standard and LRFD methods. It was observed through the parametric studies that girder spacing, span length, and slab thickness were the dominant parameters compared with others. The LRFD distribution factor for the interior girder was found to be conservative in most cases, whereas the factor for the exterior girder to be unconservative in longer spans. Furthermore, a regression analysis was performed to develop simplified LDF formulas. The formulas developed in this study produced LDF values that are always conservative to those from the finite element method and are generally smaller than the LDF values obtained from the AASHTO LRFD specification. The proposed simplified equation will assist bridge engineers in predicting the actual LDF in two-span continuous I-girder bridges.