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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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A Numerical Analysis on the Diaphragm Structures for Improving Fatigue Performance in Orthotropic Steel Decks
Shin, Jae Choul ; An, Zu Og ; Yoon, Tae Yang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 559~573
Orthotropic steel decks are manufactured by welding thin plates therefore it is inevitable that there are abundant works of welding process. On connection of transverse rib web, crossing point of longitudinal rib, transverse rib and deck plate and cut-out parts of transverse rib are the significant position of stress concentration because of out of plane and oil-canning deformation caused by longitudinal rib distortion with shear force and distortion. At the current research, the crossing point where the orthotropic steel decks's effect of improving fatigue performance are high, not placing scallop and diaphragm which have same plane with transverse rib placed inside of longitudinal rib at the same time, the reduce effects of stress concentration at the cut-out section and the crossing are high. Especially the installation of the diaphragm causing great effects based on research results to stress concentration appearance reduce effects at the cut-out section, putting radius of curvature of the diaphragm's top and bottom as a target, as a result of carrying out the parametric analysis an optimal diaphragm form that has great effects in fatigue performance came to a conclusion. Also based on optimal diaphragm form, an advantage of the diaphragm optimal setting position for improvement of the fatigue performance came to a conclusion.
P-M Interaction Curve for Square CFTs with High-Strength Concrete
Choi, Young Hwan ; Kim, Kang Su ; Choi, Sung Mo ; Lee, Sangsup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 575~585
In this study, a new design equation was presented for square CFTs with high-strength concrete subjected to axial compression and bending. In a previous study, a design equation for square CFTs with normal strength concrete was proposed. A parametric study by fiber analysis was performed taking the width-to-thickness ratio (b/t) and the relative concrete strength to the yield strength of the steel tube (fck/Fy) as the main parameters of this study to determine the maximum moment and the axial load at the maximum moment. A new constitutive model for concrete was adopted for fiber analysis in order to take into account the effect of high-strength concrete. The results of the parametric study were embedded into the method which was presented in the previous study to formulate a new design equation that can be easily used for estimating the strength of square CFTs with high-strength concrete.
Comparison of Performance of Restrainers of Steel Cables and Shape Memory Alloy Bars for Multiple-Span-Simply-Supported Bridges
Choi, Eun Soo ; Kim, Lee Hyeon ; Park, Joo Nam ; Cho, Hyo Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 587~597
Steel restrainer cables for multiple frame bridges in California in the United States have been shown to be effective in preventing unseating at internal hinges during the past several earthquakes. Consequently, the steel-cable-restrainer is being tested for applications on multiple-span-simply-supported (MSSS) bridges in the mid-American region. In addition, shape memory alloy (SMA) bars in tension are being studied for the same application, multiple frame bridges, the developed seismic forces are transferred to piers through the restrainers. However, in MSSS bridges, the seismic forces are transferred to abutments by the restrainers. Therefore, the abutment' behavior should also be investigated. In this study, we assessed the seismic performance of the three types of restrainers, such as steel restrainer cables, SMA in tension, and SMA in bending for an MSSS bridge from moderate to strong ground motion, bending test of an SMA bar was conducted and its analytical model was determined for this study. Nonlinear time history analyses were conducted to assess the seismic responses of the as-built and the retrofitted bridges. All three types of restrainers reduced the hinge opening and the SMA in tension was the most effective of the three devices in preventing the unseating, all restrainers produced damage on the abutment from the pulling action of the MSSS bridge due to strong ground motions, was found that the retrofit of the abutment in the pulling action is required in the installation of restrainers in MSSS bridges.
Spatial Post-buckling Analysis of Thin-walled Space Frames based on the Corotational Formulation
Lee, Kyoung Chan ; Park, Jung Il ; Kim, Sung Bo ; Chang, Sung Pil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 599~610
In this paper, we described a co-rotational formulation for the geometrical nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional frames. We suggested a new concept called the Zero-Twist-Section Condition (ZTSC) to decide the element coordinate system consistently. According to the ZTSC procedure, it is possible to obtain an element coordinate system and natural deformations consistently when finite displacements and rotations are induced in an element. Based on the developed procedure, numerical examples are investigated to calculate natural rotations while finite displacements are imposed on an element. Also, the developed co-rotational procedure gives accurate results in the analysis of post-buckling problems with finite rotations.
Behavior Analysis of RMPM Applied Steel Frame Structures
Ahn, Jin Hee ; Kim, Jun Hwan ; Kim, Tae Yeon ; Kim, Sang Hyo ; Lee, Sang Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 611~620
The beam-column connection is the critical design section of general steel frame structures owing to the behavioral characteristics of the structural system. As most members of a frame structure are composed of rolled section beams, the cross-section of the beam members is governed by the negative bending moment near beam-column connections. Such a design concept leaves a redundant load-carrying capacity at the positive bending regions of the beam members leading to design inefficiency. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to redistribute the beam end moments and reduce the stresses at the beam-column connections for a more efficient design of steel frame structures. In this study, reaction-moment prestressing method (RMPM) was proposed for the innovative design and construction of steel frame structures. The RMPM is a prestressing method utilizing the elastic bending deformation of a beam member induced by temporary prestressing for the distribution of a relatively large bending moment to other sections for the efficient use of the beam section. By the application of the RMPM, the negative bending moment at the beam-column connections can be significantly reduced, ultimately leading to possible use of smaller beam sections. Through a series of model tests and numerical analyses of steel frame structures, the moment distributing effect and feasibility of the RMPM was verified.
Estimation of Orthotropic Flexural Rigidities Considering the Deformed Shape for a Plate Stiffened with Rectangular Ribs
Chu, Seok Beom ; Im, Kwan Hyuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 621~632
The purpose of this study was the estimation and formulation of orthotropic flexural rigidities considering the deformed shape for a plate stiffened with rectangular ribs. Analytical results of methods modifying the flexural rigidity of the x-direction, the y-direction or both directions were compared at the center, the x-directional quarter point and the y-directional quarter point of stiffened plates loaded at the center. The composite method modifying the flexural rigidity of both directions improves the accuracy compared with the other methods. Moreover, the ratio of modified coefficients for each directional rigidity can be expressed as a function corresponding to each dimension of stiffened plates. The application of modified coefficient functions to various types of stiffened plates with different boundary conditions, aspect ratios and rib arrangement shows that the increment of the error ratio is small compared with examples of this study and the application of proposed functions shows more accurate results than previous methods modifying the flexural rigidity. Therefore, by using the modified coefficient functions proposed in this study, the orthotropic plate analysis of plates stiffened with rectangular ribs can easily achieve more accurate displacement results.
A Comparative Study of LRFD Methods Using Linear Elastic and Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis
Jang, Eun Seok ; Park, Jung Woong ; Kim, Seung Eock ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 633~642
Although the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method is an advanced design approach, it does not accurately capture the interaction between individual members and structural system. A nonlinear inelastic analysis for the entire structure is required to solve this problem. According to many design codes of advanced countries, a nonlinear inelastic analysis can be applied to predict the structural behavior and strength reasonably. In this study, an LRFD design method using practical nonlinear inelastic analysis was proposed. Design examples using the proposed method waspresented, and the economical efficiency and adequacy of the proposed method was investigated by comparing the design results with that of the AISC-LRFD. It has been consequently demonstrated that the proposed method can reduce the construction cost through savings in steel.
A Study on Flexural Ductility of Longitudinally Stiffened Plate Girders
Yoon, Dong Yong ; Kim, Kyung Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 643~653
The ultimate bending strength and flexural ductility performance of longitudinally stiffened plate girders fabricated with mild steel were investigated utilizing nonlinear incremental finite element analysis. AASHTO LRFD (2002) design specifications were reviewed for possible application of longitudinally stiffened plate girders as compact sections. In order to investigate compact section requirements for plate girders with longitudinal stiffeners in webs, a number of full-scale plate girders were modeled and analyzed up to the collapse under pure bending condition. It was found that the slenderness of sub panel of the webs, the stiffness of longitudinal stiffeners, and the slenderness of compression flanges are key parameters governing the flexural ductility of the plate girders. It was also found from finite element analysis that longitudinally stiffened plate girder sections can satisfy compact section requirements both in full plastic moment capacity and flexural ductility requirement. New design equations have been proposed for longitudinally stiffened plate girders to be treated as compact sections.
Seismic Performance of Beam-to-Column Joints with Wedge Connectors
Park, Jong Won ; Kang, Seoung Min ; Hwang, In Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 655~661
A new steel connection method using wedges known as Self-Locking Connector has been developed. In this study, experimental investigation was conducted to verify the seismic performance of steel beam-to-column joints with Self-Locking Connectors. Cyclic-loading tests were performed on two beam-to-column joints with Self-Locking Connectors. The two beam-to-column joint specimens were of the cantilever-type and had the same details. Test results showed that beam-to-column joints with Self-Locking Connectors were able to developa total rotation capacity of 0.06 radian, which is greater than the 0.04 radian required for Special Moment Frames. Moreover, their energy absorption capacity was much greater than that of conventional joints.
A Study on the Economy of Weak-Axis Beam-to-Column Connections
Park, Jong Won ; Kang, Seoung Min ; Oh, Yong Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 663~670
Column-tree beam-to-column joints are widely used in moment-resisting frames in Korea. In this study, we proposed four different arrangements for weak-axis moment-resisting beam-to-column connections, which are more economical than the conventional connection, while developing similar structural performance. We investigated the proposed connections whose connection details were different from the conventional one. The experiment was also conducted on a total of five beam-to-column joint specimensto verify the structural performance of the proposed connections. All four connections proposed in this study were found to be more economical that the conventional connection. Three out of four specimens with proposed details were able to developa structural performance similar to that of the specimen with the conventional detail.
Effects of Lateral Bracing on the Load Distribution and Torsional Behaviors in Continuous Two-Girder Bridges
Hwang, Min Oh ; Yoon, Tae Yang ; Park, Yong Myung ; Joe, Woom Do Ji ; Hwang, Soon Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 671~680
In this study, we performed a loading test to evaluate the effect of load distribution on continuous two-span plate-girder bridges with or without bottom lateral bracing using one-fifth-scale bridge specimens. From the test results, when specimens with lateral bracing were loaded eccentrically, the load distribution capacity of the concrete deck and cross beam improved and greater loading was distributed to the other side of the girder subjected to loading. The load distribution rate of the specimens with and without lateral bracing system was evaluated from the analytical model that was verified by the test results. From the result of the quantitative evaluation, when specimen without lateral bracing was loaded eccentrically, mostly 21% of loading according to the concrete deck was distributed to the other side of the girder subjected to loading. However, when specimen with lateral bracing was loaded eccentrically, the load distribution rate increased by 1.7 times as all cross beams, bracing and concrete deck participated in load distribution. The reason is that the torsional rigidity increased as the model with lateral bracing behaved like a pseudo-closed box section.
Temporary Stresses by Applying Construction Methods for Continuous Steel-Concrete Double Composite Box Girder Bridges
Choi, Hang Yong ; Suh, Suk Koo ; Oh, Myung Seok ; Oh, Sae Hwan ; Kim, Hee Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 681~693
Construction techniques for continuous steel bridges were applied to steel-concrete double composite box girder bridges. Concrete depth and length at the bottom of the steel box in the negative moment region were determined by plastic moment region and negative moment region of the double composite section, respectively. Construction methods, such as crane lifting method, free cantilever method, and incremental launching method were used for the analysis of the construction stage. Two cases of the construction phase were considered and analyzed for the stress resultant of double composite girders. The behavior of the nose-deck elastic system was examined by three-dimensionless parameters, such as the nose length, the unit weight of the launching nose, and the flexural stiffness of the nose. The adoption of the launching nose has become an effective solution in the incremental launching of steel-concrete double composite box girder bridges.
Determination of Optimum Heating Regions for Thermal Prestressing Method Using Artificial Neural Network
Kim, Jun Hwan ; Ahn, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Kang Mi ; Kim, Sang Hyo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 695~702
The Thermal Prestressing Method for continuous composite girder bridges is a new design and construction method developed to induce initial composite stresses in the concrete slab at negative bending regions. Due to the induced initial stresses, prevention of tensile cracks at the concrete slab, reduction of steel girder section, and reduction of reinforcing bars are possible. Thus, the construction efficiency can be improved and the construction can be made more economical. The method for determining the optimum heating region of the thermal prestressing method has not been established although such method is essential for improving the efficiency of the design process. The trial-and-error method used in previous studies is far from efficient, and a more rational method for computing optimal heating region is required. In this study, an efficient method for determining the optimum heating region in using the thermal prestressing method was developed based on the neural network algorithm, which is widely adopted to pattern recognition, optimization, diagnosis, and estimation problems in various fields. Back-propagation algorithm, commonly used as a learning algorithm in neural network problems, was used for the training of the neural network. Through case studies of two-span and three-span continuous composite girder bridges using the developed procedure, the optimal heating regions were obtained.
An Evaluation for the Fire Resistance of Concrete-Filled Steel Square Tube Columns under Constant Axial Loads
Park, Su Hee ; Ryoo, Jae Yong ; Chung, Kyung Soo ; Choi, Sung Mo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 703~714
The aim of this research is to evaluate the fire resistance of concrete-filled steel square tube columns (square CFT columns) under constant axial loads by numerical analysis. The authors examined the experimental results on the fire resistance of concrete-filled steel square tube columns without fire protection. As the materials of CFT columns, steel of SPSR 400 grade and concrete of 27.5MPa and 37.8MPa strengths were used. The significant parameters were determined, such as load ratio, cross-sectional dimensions, and concrete strength. Detailed analytical simulations of fire resistance and axial deformation showed good agreement with the experimental observations. Therefore, this numerical analysis exhibited a reasonable estimation of fire resistance of the square CFT column. Results of the numerical parametric studies showed that the fire resistance of the CFT columns increased with the decrease of the concrete strength and the increase of the cross-sectional dimensions about the constant axial load ratio (
Seismic Design of Mid-to-Low Rise Steel Moment Frames Based on Available Connection Rotation Capacity
Ahn, Jae Kwon ; Lee, Cheol Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 715~723
A displacement-based seismic design procedure was proposed for mid-to-low-rise steel moment frames. The proposed method was totally different from the current R-factor approach in that it directly uses available connection rotation capacity as a primary design variable. To this end, the relationship between available connection rotation capacity and seismic response modification (R factor) was established first; this relationship has been a missing link in current ductility-based design practice. A step-by-step displacement-based iterative design procedure was then proposed and verified using inelastic dynamic analysis.
Finite Element Post-buckling Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Column
Oh, Myoung Ho ; Kim, Myeong Han ; Kim, Sang Dae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 725~735
The local buckling strength and post-local buckling strength of thin steel plates in the steel-concrete composite column were evaluated by nonlinear finite element analyses. The proposed width-to-thickness limit ratio was based on elastic buckling analyses, in which the increased local buckling capacity of the plate due to the in-filled concrete was considered by the boundary conditions of the thin plate. Considering the initial imperfections and residual stresses, we determined the initial local buckling strength and post-local buckling strength of the thin plates with various width-to-thickness ratios. The formula to evaluate the compressive capacity of the steel-concrete composite column based on the effective width of the plate was proposed. For verification, values determined by the formula were compared with the experimental results.
Flexural Design of Double Composite Box Girder over Interior Pier by LRFD Method
Cho, Eun Young ; Shin, Dong Ku ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 737~749
Flexural design of double composite box girder over the interior pier for three-span continuous bridge was performed by the LRFD method. The maximum span length of the continuous bridge ranged from 80m to 120m and the relative ratio of the span length was assumed to be 1:1.25:1. The girder section was designed for the strength limit state and service limit state with additional design check for constructibility. Before the bottom concrete and compression flange showed a complete composite action, the buckling of lower compression flange was checked. The flexural stiffness and flexural resistance characteristics for the section and for the constituent members such as tension flange, compression flange, and web were analyzed for different thicknesses of the bottom concrete on top of the compression flange. The effect of the distribution ratio of steel between the top and bottom flanges was investigated by analyzing ductility behavior and stress distribution through the girder's depth for several different relative area ratios of steel between the top and bottom flanges. It was found that a total amount of 15% of steel can be saved by applying the double composite system compared with that of the conventional composite system.
Seismic Performance Evaluation of Post-Northridge WUF-B Connections Frame
Han, Sang Whan ; Moon, Ki Hoon ; Jung, Ji Eun ; Lee, Ki Hak ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 751~760
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the frame which is assumed to be used with Welded Unreinforced Flange-Bolted web (WUF-B) connections and detailed in compliance with FEMA 350 recommended seismic design criteria. In FEMA 350, these types of connections are only valid for Ordinary Moment-Resisting Steel Frames (OMRSFs). For this purpose, based on test results, we proposed an analytical model for the Post-Northridge WUF-B connections with different panel zone strength ratios. Using the connection model, SAC Phase II three and nine-story frames were modeled and analyzed. From a nonlinear static pushover analysis, ductility, maximum strength, and the maximum interstory drift ratio were investigated for buildings with Post-Northridge details. Moreover, the maximum interstory drift ratio of each performance level (IO and CP) was also investigated through Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA). Analytical results were compared with those of buildings with either Pre-Northridge connection or ductile connections with no fracture. The analytical results showed that buildings with Post-Northridge WUF-B connections provide superior strength and interstory drift ratio capacity than buildings with Pre-Northridge WUF-B connections.