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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Design Improvements for Crossbeams and Stringers of Steel Box Girder Bridge
Gil, Heungbae ; Kang, Sang Gyu ; Cho, Jun Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~8
This research carried out to optimize crossbeams and stringers of steel box girder bridges, which are parts of floor system and support loading from the bridge deck. In the current design practice, the crossbeam is densely deployed with a spacing of 6 meters, and the stringer is placed between the crossbeams. The crossbeams and stringer are connected to the deck through slab anchors but the allowable stress of the compression flange is determined by the lateral-torsional buckling. To increase economic efficiency of the steel box girder bridges. the increased spacing of the crossbeam was studied. The study shows that the spacing can be increased up to 10 meters. However, higher strength steel plates are necessary. Shear studs rather than slab anchors are also recommended to prevent lateral-torsional buckling strength of the crossbeams and stringer.
An Experimental Study on the Stress Distribution in Steel Box Girder Bridge
Lee, Seong Haeng ; Kim, Kyoung Nam ; Son, Young Sang ; Park, Tae Gyun ; Jung, Kyoung Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 9~20
It is important to increase the economy and efficiency of the diaphragm of the steel box girder bridge design. In this study, an experimental test is performed in a 4-span steel box girder bridge, which was under constructed according to the dead load of slab concrete and vehicle load. The test result is analyzed to verify the stress distribution of the diaphragm and the middle span. Next, stresses on the vertical stiffener are analyzed according to height. Stresses on the diaphragm with equal height are arranged respectively. Also, the stress distribution of the diaphragm and the middle span. Next, stress on the vertical stiffeners are analyzed according to height. Stresses on the diaphragm with equal height are arranged respectively. Also, the vertical stiffeners in the diaphragm was studied, and using the analyzed results, the proper length of the ratio of vehicle load with curing concrete to vehicle load with asphalt is calculated in each part of the steel box girder bridge. The results provide data that serve as basis for an economical and efficient design for the steel box girder bridge diaphragm.
Reliability Assessment Based on an Improved Response Surface Method
Cho, Tae Jun ; Kim, Lee Hyeon ; Cho, Hyo Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 21~31
response surface method (RSM) is widely used to evaluate th e extremely smal probability of ocurence or toanalyze the reliability of very complicated structures. Althoug h Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique can evaluate any system, the procesing time of MCS dependson the reciprocal num ber of the probability of failure. The stochastic finite element method could solve thislimitation. However, it is limit ed to the specific program, in which the mean and coeficient o f random variables are programed by a perturbation or by a weigh ted integral method. Therefore, it is not aplicable when erequisite programing. In a few number of stage analyses, RSM can construct a regresion model from the response of the c omplicated structural system, thus, saving time and efort significantly. However, the acuracy of RSM depends on the dist ance of the axial points and on the linearity of the limit stat e functions. To improve the convergence in exact solution regardl es of the linearity limit of state functions, an improved adaptive response surface method is developed. The analyzed res ults have ben verified using linear and quadratic forms of response surface functions in two examples. As a result, the be st combination of the improved RSM techniques is determined and programed in a numerical code. The developed linear adapti ve weighted response surface method (LAW-RSM) shows the closest converged reliability indices, compared with quadratic form or non-adaptive or non-weighted RSMs.
Structural Performance Evaluation of Buckling-Restrained Braces Made of High-Strength Steels
Park, Man Woo ; Ju, Young Kyu ; Kim, Myeong Han ; Kim, Ji Young ; Kim, Sang Dae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 33~42
Buckling-Restrained Braces (BRB) has been developed to inhibit buckling and exhibit stable behavior underboth tensile and compresive cycles. In this study, an experime nt has been conducted by using the strength of its members and loading protocols as parameters to evaluate the structural performance of BRB (without in-filed concrete). Specimens are composed of an inner core and an outer tube with diferent steel strengths. When high-strength steels were used as iner cores, the ductility of BRB decreased, and the requirements (Cumulative Plastic Ductility) of the AISC Seismic Provisions were not satisfied. however, when high-strength steels were used as inner cores instead of conventional strength stel cores, the maximum capacity increased significantly and displayed similar performance in total energy dissipation.
Experimental Study on the Torque Coefficient and Clamping Force of High Strength Bolts Subjected to Environmental Parameters
Lee, Hyeon Ju ; Nah, Hwan Seon ; Kim, Kang Seok ; Kim, Jin Ho ; Kim, Jin Man ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 43~53
Because the torque control method, which is also caled the clamping method in domestic construction sites, is affected by a variation of the torque coefficient, quality control of the torque coefficient is essential. This study was focused to evaluate the effects of several environmental factors and errors when installing bolts while tightening high-strength bolts. Conditioning environmental parameters include wet, rusty and exposure-to-air-only conditions. In addition, because of errors in workability such as instalation of two washers, upset washers are selected. During the tests, torque, torque coefficient, tension and angle of nut rotation were obtained using a bolt testing machine. Test specimens of four types of bolts (High-Strength Hexagon bolt on KS B 1010, Torque Shear Bolt on KS B 2819, High-Strength Hexagon bolt coated with zinc, and ASTM 490 bolt) were recomended. Based on test results, the tightening characteristics subjected to environmental parameters were investigated and compared with the results in normal condition.
Steel Jacketing Method without Grouting for RC Columns
Choi, Eun Soo ; Cho, Sung Chul ; Chung, Young Soo ; Cho, Baik Soon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 55~65
This study introduced a new method to retrofit RC columns with lap splice that do not have enough ductility during an earthquake. The new method used mechanical external pressure and split steel plates around the RC columns. The introduced method does not require grouting the gap between jacket and concrete surface. In this study, 45 concrete cylinders were manufactured with varyingstrengths and part of them was retrofitted with split steel jackets under a lateral confining stress. The effect of the new method was verified by comparing the results from the compressive tests of retrofitted and unretrofitted cylinders. The steel jacket that was built following the new method showed good results of increasing the compressive strength and ductility of concrete cylinders. The thicker steel jackets showed larger compressive strength, however, the ductility at failure depends on their welding quality.
Analysis of the Load Carrying Behavior of Shear Connection at the Interface of Encased Composite Beams
Shin, Hyun Seop ; Heo, Byung Wook ; Bae, Kyu Woong ; Kim, Keung Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 67~79
In this study, a bending test with three encased composite beams were carried out and analyzed using FEM in order to find how chemical adhesion, interface interlock, friction and composite action by shear studs contribute to stiffness, strength and composite action in the interface of encased compo site beams. The test and results of the FEM analysis showed that the difference in the ultimate moment capacity of the composite beams with and without studs is under 10%. The reason is that the effect of chemical adhesion, interface interlock, and friction in the interface on the composite action is so high that the encased beams have a moment capacity above some defined magnitude. Also, the increment of moment capacity up to plastic moment is not large and the increase of linearly proportioned.
Exact Tangent Stiffness Matrix and Buckling Analysis Program of Plane Frames with Semi-Rigid Connections
Min, Byoung Cheol ; Kyung, Yong Soo ; Kim, Moon Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 81~92
Generally the connection of members is defined as hinge or rigid. But, real joints on structure have to be considered semi-rigid connections because this permits relative rotation for members on joints. The purpose of this study is to derive a generalized tangential stiffness matrix of frames with semi-rigid connections and to develop a buckling analysis program. For the exact stiffness matrix, an accurate displacement field is introduced using an equilibrium equation for beam-columns under the bending and axial forces. Also, stability functions that consider sway deformation and force-displacement relations with rotational spring on ends were defined. In order to illustrate the accuracy of this study and the characteristics of semi-rigid for system buckling load, samples of angle-, portal- and 3-story frames with semi-rigid connections are presented, where the proposed approach is found to be in excellent agreement with other research results. Meanwhile, the application of codes such as Eurocode 3 and LRFD led to significant inaccuracies.
Risk Analysis of Suspension Bridge by a Linear Adaptive Weighted Response Surface Method
Cho, Tae Jun ; Kim, Lee Hyeon ; Cho, Hyo Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 93~104
study deals with the reliability assesment for the 5-year phases of a suspension bridge construction in Korea. The main objectives of this study are; (1) the evaluation of the reliability of a suspension bridge by considering an ultimate limit state for the fracture of main cable wires, (2) the determination of the critical phases among 28 construction stages for the deck erection, and (3) the evaluation of the reliability of the limit state for the erection control during construction stages. The research and the design of the suspension bridge have been focused on the state of construction mainly based on empirical data. Based on the recent survey of the distribution of accidents in Korean railways, over 80% of the accidents related to the uncertainties in human error, planning, design, materials and loads during construction have ben reported before the completion of construction. While many researches have evaluated the safety of bridges, the uncertainties in the construction phases have not been well treated in a guidelines or a specifications. An improved adaptive response surface method is used for the risk assessment in the construction phases of the target suspension bridge.
Analytical Study on the Characteristic of Fatigue Behavior in Connection Parts of Orthotropic Steel Decks with Retrofitted Structural Details in Longitudinal Rib
Sun, Chang Won ; Park, Kyung Jin ; Kyung, Kab Soo ; Kim, Kyo Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 105~119
In steel deck bridges suffering directly on wheel load according to the number of serviced years, the occurrence of fatigue cracks increases in structural details, which includes the cross section parts of the longitudinal rib and transversal rib, and so on. Through the control method for these fatigue cracks the increased thickness of the steel deck plate or the application of retrofit detail to the inside of the longitudinal rib was observed to be effective. This study suggests structural details for the retrofitted and non-retrofitted longitudinal rib. The target details in this study are the connection parts of the lo ngitudinal and transversal rib, and the slit parts of transverse rib where fatigue cracks were frequently reported in previous studies. In the analyses, detailed structural analyses were performed as parameters, which include the shape, change of size and attached position. From the results the stress reduction in the target details was observed to be larger in the retroffited details. Also, the improvement of fatigue strength is more effective in the retrofitted details with the vertical rib than the bulkhead plate.
New Key-Segment Closing Method Using Thermal Effect for Partially Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridges
Won, Jeong Hun ; Yoon, Ji Hyun ; Cho, Kwang Il ; Kim, Sang Hyo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 121~129
study proposes a new key-segment closing method using thermal effect as a substitute to the process of set-back and reset-back for the FCM construction of a partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge. The proposed method is to artificially heat up the inside of girders located in the main span before closing the key-segment in a cantilever state. Then, the heat is removed after finishing the closure in a continuous bridge state. Using the changes in boundary conditions and structural systems, the proposed method can generate new member forces that reflect the advantage of the partially earth-anchored cable system. From the construction sequence analysis, it is found that the proposed method increases the efficiency of a partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge by reducing the compressive axial forces on the girders.
Safety Evaluation Method of Transmission Tower Subjected to Special Load Case According to Broken Wires
Jin, Seok Won ; Kim, Jong Min ; Park, Jong Sup ; Kang, Young Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 131~149
A transmission tower was designed according to general and special load cases based on KEPCO Design Specifications. The special load case such as unbalanced load a cording to some broken wires has not been considered significantly. Therefore, this paper presents investigations on the stability and safety of main post members subjected to unbalanced load and design wind load. In this study, all cases totally considered. From the finite element analyses using LUSAS program, the stresses on the tower subjected to unbalanced load and design wind load were very high in comparison to the allowable stresses of the steel post member that was used. Some of the post member had higher stresses than the yield stress of the steel member. This paper also shows an example to improve the capacity of the post members using increased cross-section members. Based on the analyses results, when investigating the safety of the transmission tower, one must consider thenew design philosophy including ultimate strength of the member and reliability of the special loading cases.
DEVELOPMENT OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS MODEL HIGH SPEED TRAIN-BRIDGE INTERACTION
Dinh, Van Nguyen ; Kim, Ki Du ; Shim, Jae Soo ; Choi, Eun Soo ; Songsak, Suthasupradit ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 151~163
A formulation of three-dimensional model of articulated train-b ridge dynamic interaction has been made for the Korean eXpress Train (KTX). Semi-periodic profiles of rail irregularities consisting of elevation, alignment, cross and gauge irregularities have also been proposed using FRA maximum tolerable rail deviations. The effects of rail joints and sleeper step were also included. The resulting system matrices of train and bridge are very spare, and thus, are stored in one-dimensional arrays, yielding a time-efficient solution. A numerical algorithm for computing bridge-train response including an iterative scheme is also formulated. A program simulating train-bridge interaction and solving this problem using the new algorithm is implemented as new modules for the f inite element analysis software named XFINAS. Computed results using the new program are then checked by that of the validated 2-D bridge-train interaction model. This new 3D analysis provides more detailed train responses such as swaying, bouncing, rolling, pitching and yawing accelerations, which are useful inevaluating passenger riding comfort. Train operation safety and derailment could also be directly investigated by relative wheel displacements computed from this program.
Flexural Performance Evaluation of Semi-slim floor Composite Beams for Reduction of Story Height
Lee, E.T. ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Jang, Bo Ra ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 165~173
In order to promote the practicality of high-rise steel buildings, the development of structural system which have the better fire resistance, the changeable plan, and the quality control of construction with general composite beams is needed. In this research, new semi-slim floor which the defect of general slim floor was complemented was evaluated to investigate the concrete integration with slim-flor beam and the flexural performance. 5 simply supported semi-slim floor beam tests were performed with parameters; structural form of slab support beam, slab thickness, with or without web opening, and shear connection. Experimental results showed that all specimen s had good ductile behavior.
Elastic Buckling of Monosymmetric I-beams considering Load Height Effects
Ryu, Hyo Jin ; Park, Gyung Hyeon ; Kim, Jung Hun ; Lim, Nam Hyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 175~181
Finite element buckling analyses of the monosymmetric I-beams subjected to t ransverse loading applied at different heights with respect to the mid-height of the cross section were conducted. Transverse loads consisting of a mid-span point load and a uniformly distributed load were considered in the investigation. The method suggested in the SRC Guide was compared with the finite element method (FEM) results. This paper presents a more accurate moment gradient correction factor for monosymetric I-beams considering the load height effect. The applicability of this new design method is limited to monosymmetric I-beams in which the degree of monosymetry,
, is from 0.1 to 0.9.
Reliability Analysis of Single and Continuous Span Composite Plate and Box Girder Designed by LRFD Method under Flexure
Shin, Dong Ku ; Roh, Joon Sik ; Cho, Eun Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 183~193
The reliability analysis of simply-supported and continuous composite plate girder and box girder bridges under flexure was performed to provide a basic data for the development of LRFD c ode. The bridges were designed based on LRFD specification with newly proposed design live load which was developed by analyzing traffic statistics from highways and local roads. A performance function for flexural failure was expressed as a function of the flexural resistance of composite section and the design moments due to permanent load and live load. For the flexural resistance, the statistical parameters obtained by analyzing over 16,000 domestic structural steel samples were used. Several different values of bias factors for the live load moment from 1.0 to 1.2 were used. Due to the lack of available domestic measured data on the moment by permanent loads, the same statistical properties used in the calibration of ASHTO-LRFD were ap plied. The reliability indices for the composite girder bridges with various span lengths, different live load factors, and bias fact or for the live load were obtained by applying the Rackwitz-Fiessler technique.
The Specified Minimum Yield Stress of SM570TMC in Composite Columns
Lee, Myung Jae ; Oh, Young Suk ; Lee, Eun Teak ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 195~203
This paper aims to evaluate the yield stress of SM570TMC concrete-filed H-shape steel columns subjected to axial force. These columns were evaluated and compared using quasi-static tests. The displacements and the axial loads column specimens were measured during the tests, and test results showed that the yield stress of concrete-filed H-shape steel columns subjected to axial load could be predicted using the previously proposed yield stress of steel columns.
The Specified Minimum Yield Stress of SM570TMC in CFT Composite Columns
Lee, Myung Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 20, issue 1, 2008, Pages 205~213
The objective of this study is to evaluate the yield stress of SM570TMC CFT column subject to axial force. These columns were evaluated and compared by statistical tests, during which the displacements and axial loads of column specimens were measured. Test results showed that the yield stress of CFT columns under axial load could be predicted using the previously proposed the yield stress of steel columns.