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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Seismic Design of Columns in Inverted V-braced Steel Frames Considering Brace Buckling
Cho, Chun-Hee ; Kim, Jung-Jae ; Lee, Cheol-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~12
According to the capacity design concept which forms the basis of the current steel seismic codes, the braces in concentrically braced frames (CBFs) should dissipate seismic energy through cyclic tension yielding and cyclic compression buckling while the beams and the columns should remain elastic. Brace buckling in inverted V-braced frames induces unbalanced vertical forces which, in turn, impose the additional beam moments and column axial forces. However, due to difficulty in predicting the location of buckling stories, the most conservative approach implied in the design code is to estimate the column axial forces by adding all the unbalanced vertical forces in the upper stories. One alternative approach, less conservative and recommended by the current code, is to estimate the column axial forces based on the amplified seismic load expected at the mechanism-level response. Both are either too conservative or lacking technical foundation. In this paper, three combination rules for a rational estimation of the column axial forces were proposed. The idea central to the three methods is to detect the stories of high buckling potential based on pushover analysis and dynamic behavior. The unbalanced vertical forces in the stories detected as high buckling potential are summed in a linear manner while those in other stories are combined by following the SRSS(square root of sum of squares) rule. The accuracy and design advantage of the three methods were validated by comparing extensive inelastic dynamic analysis results. The mode-shape based method(MSBM), which is both simple and accurate, is recommended as the method of choice for practicing engineers among the three.
Seismic Fragility Analysis of Track-on Steel-Plate-Girder Railway Bridges Considering the Span Variability and System Damage
Park, Joo-Nam ; Kim, Lee-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 13~20
Seismic risk assessment of railway bridges is an important issue for a transportation network, because loss of functionality of railway bridges could result in severe disruption of the railway line, as no redundant routing systems generally exist. Although many studies have been conducted by numerous researchers regarding fragility analyses of bridge structure, little or no studies have been done for fragility analyses of a class of bridge structures considering their geometric variability. This study performs a fragility analysis for Track-on Steel-Plate-Girder (TOSPG) railway bridges in Korea considering their span variability. Seismic fragility curves are developed for a series of bridges with different spans varying from 2 to 15. At last, the fragility curves for the whole TOSPG bridges in Korea are also developed using the total probability theorem. This study is expected to effectively contribute to the seismic risk assessment of railway lines, where a number of bridges are present.
A Study on Applicability of Wireless Impedance Sensor Nodes Technique for Tensile Force Monitoring of Structural Cables
Park, Jae-Hyung ; Hong, Dong-Soo ; Kim, Jeong-Tae ; Na, Won-Bae ; Cho, Hyun-Man ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 21~31
In this study, a technique that uses wireless impedance sensor nodes is proposed to monitor tensile force of structural cable. To achieve this goal, the following approaches were implemented. First, a wireless impedance sensor node was designed for automated and cost-efficient prestress-loss monitoring. Second, an impedance-based algorithm was embedded in the wireless impedance sensor node for autonomous structural health monitoring of structural cables. Third, a tensile force monitoring technique that uses an interface plate for structural cables was proposed to overcome the limitations of the wireless impedance sensor node such as its narrow-band measurable frequency ranges. Finally, the applicability of the wireless impedance sensor node and the technique that uses the interface washer were evaluated in a lab-scaled prestressed concrete (PSC) girder model with internal and external tendons for which several prestress-loss scenarios were experimentally monitored with the wireless impedance sensor nodes.
Geodesic Shape Finding Algorithm for the Pattern Generation of Tension Membrane Structures
Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Han, Sang-Eul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 33~42
Patterning with a geodesic line is essential for economical or efficient usage of membrane materialsin fabric tension membrane structural engineering and analysis. The numerical algorithm to determine the geodesic line for membrane structures is generally classified into two. The first algorithm finds a non-linear shape using a fictitious geodesic element with an initial pre-stress, and the other algorithm is the geodesic line cutting or searching algorithm for arbitrarily curved 3D surface shapes. These two algorithms are still being used only for the three-node plane stress membrane element, and not for the four-node element. The lack of a numerical algorithm for geodesic lines with four-node membrane elements is the main reason for the infrequent use of the four-node membrane element in membrane structural engineering and design. In this paper, a modified numerical algorithm is proposed for the generation of a geodesic line that can be applied to three- or four-node elements at the same time. The explicit non-linear static Dynamic Relaxation Method (DRM) was applied to the non-linear geodesic shape-finding analysis by introducing the fictitiously tensioned 'strings' along the desired seams with the three- or four-node membrane element. The proposed algorithm was used for the numerical example for the non-linear geodesic shape-finding and patterning analysis to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency, and thus, the potential, of the algorithm. The proposed geodesic shape-finding algorithm may improve the applicability of the four-node membrane element for membrane structural engineering and design analysis simultaneously in terms of the shape-finding analysis, the stress analysis, and the patterning analysis.
An Analytical Study on the Shape Development of U-shaped Steel Damper for Seismic Isolation System
Quan, Chun-Ri ; Oh, Sang-Hoon ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 43~53
Seismic isolation is one of the most widely implemented and accepted seismic protection systems to limit or avoid damages from unforeseeable earthquakes. As an energy absorption device, however, the supplemental lead itself tends to pollute the environment. Consequently, it is predicted that the use of lead would be controlled. Considering the pollution caused by lead, several researchers are interested in the viability of using steel in place of lead. In this study, first, based on the results of a non-linear finite element analysis, the excellent deformation capacity of a very tough steel damper was demonstrated by comparing it with that of the SS400 damper and determining the effects of main parameters (the aspect ratio, thickness, and width) on the deformation capacity. Second, an optimum shape and design equation for a U-shaped damper with an opening based on stress distribution was suggested.
Suggestion and Verification of Assessment model on Construction Cost of Steel Box Girder Bridge in Project Performance Phases
Jeon, Eun-Kyoung ; Kyung, Kab-Soo ; Park, Jin-Eun ; Kang, Sin-Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 55~65
To effectively secure and execute the national budget, it is very important to estimate the reasonable construction cost of each process in the construction of public facilities and works. The construction cost is generally estimated at the time when the design of the targeted structures has been completed. Without detailed sectional drawings and with only simple information on bridge structures in the planning stage or in the early design stage. it would be very difficult to predict the approximate construction cost. In this study, a more efficient and appropriate approximate construction cost estimation model in the planning stage and in the early design stage is presented and verified as reliable by analyzing the construction cost data of 61 existing steel box girder bridges from previous studies. The results of this study show that when the construction cost that was predicted using the construction cost estimation model in the design stage was compared with the cost from the conventional standards, the suggested model in this study produced results with a very high confidence level.
Collapse Prevention Method of Long-span Plastic Greenhouse for Heavy Snow
Kim, Bo-Kyung ; Lee, Swoo-Heon ; Kim, Jin-Wook ; Shin, Kyung-Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 67~74
The cases of collapse of greenhouses in rural areas have been increasing due to the unexpected heavy snow load. Studies on how to prevent the collapse of greenhouses are rare, however, and the damages are repeated annually. This studysuggests two reinforcing methods: the use of ahigh-strength tapered module, and the addition of a pre-tension tie. The high-strength tapered section is installed where the bending moment is maximum. The design of a plastic greenhouse is controlled by its strength rather than its deflection. The shape of a greenhouse resembles that of an arch system, but its actual structural behavior is the frame behavior, because it is non-continually composed of a curved element (a beam) and vertical elements (columns). This system is too weak and slender to resist a vertical load, because an external load is resisted by the moment rather than by axial force. In this study, a new method, the installation of a temporary tie at the junction of the arch and the column only during snow accumulation, is proposed. The tie changes the action of the greenhouse frame to an arch action. The arch action is more effective when the pre-tension force is applied in the tie, which results in a very strong temporary structural system during snowfall. As a result of using this high-strength tapered section, the combined strength ratio of what? decreased from 10% to 30%. In the case of the additional reinforcement with a tie, it was reduced by half.
Experimental Evaluation of Seismic Performance Factors for Tall Diagrid Structure
Bae, Jae-Hoon ; Ju, Young-Kyu ; Kim, Young-Ju ; Kim, Sang-Dae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 75~85
A new freeform structure representing "Diagrid, Cantilevered, Tilted." which has been considered not only its distinctive appearance but also the structural advantages becomes one of the trends in tall building design. Especially in the Diagrid system, loads can be distributed through bracing frame so that it can be save the materials since it has more effective in the structure behavior. But the seismic performance index such as response modification factor is not clearly defined yet. Even though the diagrid is supposed to show higher seismic performance, it is underestimated due to the lack of reliable data. In this paper the response modification factor for the diagrid system is experimentally explored.
Evaluation of the Second Order Analysis of Asymmetric Unbraced Frame by using Load Amplification Factor
Kim, Hee-Dong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 87~97
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the second-order analysis for asymmetric unbraced frame using the load amplification factor suggested by design codes. For this purpose, the first-order analysis with the B1 and B2 factors suggested by KBC 2005 and the direct analysis with the load amplification factors suggested by KBC 2009 were performed for five story - two bay and five story - four bay asymmetric unbraced steel frames. The results of the analyses were compared with the results of the second-order inelastic analysis to evaluate the validity of the suggested methods. The main parameters of the analysis were the shape of the frame, the axial load ratio of the column, the methods of analysis and the location of column. The research results show that the asymmetric shape of the frame deteriorates the validity of the factor B2 and the suggested methods. The range of error is increased in case of irregular or inclined column.
A Study on the Automation of the Connection modeling for Steel Structures based on BIM
Eom, Jin-Up ; Shin, Tae-Song ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 22, issue 1, 2010, Pages 99~108
This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to develop a module for auto connection modeling that can be applied to the structural details design and modeling phase. It was established that the steel connection library database from the structural analysis resulted from the consideration of the input parameters of the 3D modeling program and the guidelines for Korean standard steel connections. The module for the auto connection modeling in steel structures was developed by linking it with the established library database through the use of the OpenAPI software to prove that the developed module carried out the modeling of the six story (steel structure) office building. The productivity and efficiency of the module introduction was verified by comparing the conventional process and the proposed process.